SUBMISSION PRODUCTIONS PRESENTS:
‫لباب‬‫ا‬
‫يل‬‫و‬‫أل‬‫لباب‬‫أل‬‫ا‬
The Gateway for the Intellectuals
Knowledge and Ignora...
THE GATEWAY
2
KNOWLEDGE (^ILM), IGNORANCE (JAHL), SPECULATION (DHANN), AND
DELUSION (WAHM)...................................
THE GATEWAY
3
KNOWLEDGE (^ILM), IGNORANCE (JAHL), SPECULATION (DHANN), AND DELUSION (WAHM)
This is a subject found in the ...
THE GATEWAY
4
blasphemy. Belief is not confirmed until one accepts the existing knowledge
and does not seek the absent kno...
THE GATEWAY
5
{( ‫ا‬ْ‫ل‬‫ح‬‫ق‬‫ا‬َ‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ح‬َ‫ل‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ي‬‫ا‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫م‬‫ا‬ ِ‫ف‬‫ا‬ِ‫إت‬َ‫او‬َ‫م‬ َ‫إلس‬‫ا‬ ِ‫ض‬ْ‫ر‬َ ْ‫إْل‬َ‫و‬...
THE GATEWAY
6
impossible. Among them are those who said the knowledge of that is
contemplated, and that is correct, howeve...
THE GATEWAY
7
under normal circumstances. Abnormal circumstances include being in the
extreme heat of the desert, or he wh...
THE GATEWAY
8
the realization of which is created by Allah upon using this ability, take
place.
-SMELL-
It is the power em...
THE GATEWAY
9
However, there is some information that cannot possibly be false, which is
the news revealed by Allah and co...
THE GATEWAY
10
However, if the original source was not as many as we have described, rather,
the big number of conveyers t...
THE GATEWAY
11
This is in reference to the one who witnessed the Prophet ‫ﷺ‬ and his
miracles, even if he were one individ...
THE GATEWAY
12
“Therein is corroboration that accountability is centered around the
transmitted and intellectual proof, an...
THE GATEWAY
13
It has been given several definitions by the scholars, all of which are close
in meaning:
1. Some said that...
THE GATEWAY
14
It is known that the Religion of Allah does not come with what is mentally
impossible. Everything that came...
THE GATEWAY
15
{( ‫إ‬‫و‬‫ح‬‫ل‬‫ا‬َ‫ق‬َ‫و‬‫ا‬ْ‫و‬َ‫ل‬‫ا‬َ‫ن‬‫ح‬‫ك‬‫ا‬‫ح‬‫ع‬َ‫م‬ ْ‫س‬َ‫ن‬‫ا‬ْ‫و‬َ‫أ‬‫ا‬‫ح‬‫ل‬ِ‫ق‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬‫ا‬...
THE GATEWAY
16
-DEDUCTION-
An-Nasafiyy said:
‫وما‬َّ‫ثبت‬َّ‫منه‬َّ‫بالستدلل‬‫فهو‬َّ‫تسابي‬‫اك‬
“...and whatever is confirm...
THE GATEWAY
17
theory, and the first one would become outdated. The matters of our Religion
are not like that.
*** ‫و‬‫سبح...
THE GATEWAY
18
also prove that the world is created by nullifying the claim of beginningless
events, as explained in detai...
THE GATEWAY
19
B. SPECULATION
Speculation is the more probable of the two speculated issues. The unlikely
one is just a fa...
THE GATEWAY
20
This means that the inspiration of a waliyy, which is what is thrown into the
heart of the waliyy and overc...
THE GATEWAY
21
as proof. The creed is not based on delusion or imagination, rather it is
by what the sound mind, which is ...
THE GATEWAY
22
the attributes of Allah, they did not learn the proper rules for using
their minds]. The danger of the Muˆt...
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The Gateway for the Intellectuals

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The Gateway for the Intellectuals

  1. 1. SUBMISSION PRODUCTIONS PRESENTS: ‫لباب‬‫ا‬ ‫يل‬‫و‬‫أل‬‫لباب‬‫أل‬‫ا‬ The Gateway for the Intellectuals Knowledge and Ignorance, the Channels for Acquiring Knowledge, and How to Determine That Something Is False or Possibly False.
  2. 2. THE GATEWAY 2 KNOWLEDGE (^ILM), IGNORANCE (JAHL), SPECULATION (DHANN), AND DELUSION (WAHM).........................................................................................3 A. KNOWLEDGE AND IGNORANCE..................................................................................................3 1. THE CATEGORIES OF KNOWLEDGE.....................................................................................3 1.1 THE GHAYB (UNSEEN) ..................................................................................................4 1.2 NECESSARY KNOWLEDGE ................................................................................................5 1.3 ACQUIRED KNOWLEDGE ..................................................................................................5 2. THE CHANNELS FOR ACHIEVING KNOWLEDGE.........................................................................6 2.1 THE SENSES .........................................................................................................................6 -HEARING-...................................................................................... 7 -SIGHT-........................................................................................... 7 -SMELL-.......................................................................................... 8 -TASTE- .......................................................................................... 8 -SENSATION- .................................................................................. 8 2.2 TRUTHFUL INFORMATION ..................................................................................................8 -TAWATUR- ...............................................................................................................................9 -THE NEWS CONVEYED BY A PROPHET-..................................................................................10 DIGRESSION: THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MIND AND THE TEXTS........11 2.3 THE MIND..........................................................................................................................12 -INTUITION-.............................................................................................................................15 -DEDUCTION- ..........................................................................................................................16 BENEFIT: HOW TO MENTALLY PROVE THE VALIDITY OF THE RELIGIOUS MATTERS WHOSE REALITIES CANNOT BE PROVEN MENTALLY .........................17 B. SPECULATION............................................................................................................................19 C. INSPIRATION..........................................................................................................................19 D. DOUBT.......................................................................................................................................20 E. DELUSION AND IMAGINATION .............................................................................................20
  3. 3. THE GATEWAY 3 KNOWLEDGE (^ILM), IGNORANCE (JAHL), SPECULATION (DHANN), AND DELUSION (WAHM) This is a subject found in the books of the Creed, as well as the books of Hadith Terminology (Mustalah) and the Foundations of Fiqh (Usulu-l-Fiqh). A. KNOWLEDGE AND IGNORANCE Knowledge is to realize that which its case is that it would be known, whether existent or not, as it is in reality. That is such as realizing, i.e. conceiving the human being to be a living creature that utters, or realizing that the world, which is everything other than Allah, is an occurrence. Ignorance is to conceive something differently from how it is in reality, like to conceive the human as a creature that neighs, or the realization of the philosophers that the world is eternal. Some have described this as “compounded ignorance”, and they made “mere ignorance” to be the sheer lack of knowledge of something, such as our lack of knowledge of what is under the seven earths, or what is in the depth of the seas. Ignorance is the absence of knowledge; either the sought thing/ subject was never realized from the beginning, and that is the simple ignorance, or because it was realized differently from how it is in reality, which is the composed ignorance. It is called composed, because there are two types of ignorance involved: ignorance of the conceived issue, and ignorance of being ignorant. 1. THE CATEGORIES OF KNOWLEDGE At-Tahawiyy said: َّ‫ن‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ل‬َّ‫العلم‬َّ‫علمان‬:َّ‫علم‬‫في‬َّ‫الخلق‬،‫موجود‬َّ‫وعلم‬‫في‬َّ‫الخلق‬،‫مفقود‬َّ‫فإنكار‬َّ‫العلم‬َّ‫الموجود‬،‫فر‬‫ك‬ َّ‫وادعاء‬َّ‫العلم‬َّ‫المفقود‬‫فر‬‫ك‬.‫ول‬َّ‫يثبت‬َّ‫اإليمان‬‫إل‬َّ‫بول‬‫بق‬َّ‫العلم‬،‫الموجود‬َّ‫وترك‬َّ‫طلب‬َّ‫العلم‬َّ‫المفقود‬. …Because there are two types of knowledge: knowledge that is present in the creation, and knowledge that is absent from the creation. Denying the existing knowledge is blasphemy, and claiming the absent knowledge is
  4. 4. THE GATEWAY 4 blasphemy. Belief is not confirmed until one accepts the existing knowledge and does not seek the absent knowledge.” The knowledge of the Creed and the knowledge of the Religious Rules are beneficial, as well as the knowledge needed for livelihood, and acquiring that information is praiseworthy. This is the knowledge that exists in the creations, and denying it is blasphemy, such as the Sophists’ denial of the existence of the world. Their creed is that everything is mere imagination. Furthermore, for the slaves, there are some forbidden types of knowledge. Among them are philosophy, magic and astrology. Muslim narrated that Zayd Ibn Arqam, may Allah accept his deeds, said, “I do not say to you (all) except what the Messenger of Allah used to say: ََّّ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬َّ‫ل‬‫ال‬‫ي‬ِّ‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬َُّ‫ُوذ‬‫ع‬َ‫أ‬ََّ‫ك‬ِ‫ب‬َّ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬َّ‫م‬‫ل‬ِ‫ع‬ََّ‫ل‬،ُ‫ع‬َ‫ف‬‫ن‬َ‫ي‬َّ‫َاء‬‫ع‬ُ‫د‬َ‫و‬ََّ‫ل‬،ُ‫ع‬َ‫م‬‫س‬ُ‫ي‬َّ‫س‬‫ف‬َ‫ن‬َ‫و‬ََّ‫ل‬،ُ‫ع‬َ‫ب‬‫َش‬‫ت‬َّ‫ب‬‫ل‬َ‫ق‬َ‫و‬ََّ‫ل‬َُّ‫ع‬َ‫ش‬‫خ‬َ‫ي‬ “O Allah, certainly I seek refuge with You from knowledge that does not benefit, a supplication unheard (i.e. unaccepted), an insatiable self, and a heart that does not fear (God)”. 1.1 THE GHAYB (UNSEEN) There is also knowledge specific for Allah, and claiming to have that Knowledge is blasphemy. Examples are like claiming to know everything, or claiming for someone else that he knows everything, or like claiming to know when Judgment Day will occur. Even trying to know when Judgment Day occurs is blasphemy. Some of the creations are granted some knowledge of the unseen, while none of them have eternal knowledge. Allah said: {( ‫ا‬َ‫ل‬َ‫و‬‫ا‬َ‫ون‬‫ح‬‫يط‬ِ‫ح‬‫ُي‬‫ا‬‫ء‬ ْ َ‫َِش‬‫ب‬‫ا‬ْ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬‫ا‬ِ‫ه‬ِ‫م‬ْ‫ل‬ِ‫ع‬‫ا‬َ‫ل‬ ِ ‫إ‬‫ا‬َ‫م‬ِ‫ب‬‫ا‬َ‫اء‬ َ‫ش‬ )}1 <They do not encompass any of what is known to Him except that which He willed>. Allah’s Knowledge is Eternal, thus the meaning of them encompassing some of His Knowledge is knowing some of what He knows; i.e. what is known to Him, and certainly they do not know but very little. As for the saying of Allah: 1 Al-Baqarah, 255
  5. 5. THE GATEWAY 5 {( ‫ا‬ْ‫ل‬‫ح‬‫ق‬‫ا‬َ‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ح‬َ‫ل‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ي‬‫ا‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫م‬‫ا‬ ِ‫ف‬‫ا‬ِ‫إت‬َ‫او‬َ‫م‬ َ‫إلس‬‫ا‬ ِ‫ض‬ْ‫ر‬َ ْ‫إْل‬َ‫و‬‫ا‬َ‫ب‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫غ‬ْ‫ل‬‫إ‬‫ا‬َ‫ل‬ ِ ‫إ‬‫ا‬‫ح‬َ‫إّلل‬ )}2 <O Muhammad, say, “No one in the heavens and the earth knows the ghayb (entirely), except Allah”>, it means “No one knows all of the unseen but Allah”. 1.2 NECESSARY KNOWLEDGE The Daruriyy (necessity) is that which cannot be done without. It is also that which is understood without thinking, such as “one” being half of “two”. In the religious terminology, it is that which is known to both laymen and scholars alike; that which is known to both the common and the elite (common [religious] knowledge). What is unknown to many of the common Muslims is not called daruriyy, such as the prohibition of shaking the hand of a marriageable woman even without desire. This is religious terminology. Necessary knowledge, according to its original meaning, is that which is not dependent upon contemplation and inference. It takes place by the mere directing of the self towards the issue. The human being is compelled by its realization, and cannot push it away from himself. This is the knowledge acquired through the use of sound senses, information narrated by tawatur, and natural disposition (badihah). 1.3 ACQUIRED KNOWLEDGE As for acquired knowledge is that which is dependent upon contemplation and inference, such as knowing that the world is an event. That is dependent on contemplation about the world, and witnessing its changes. The mind goes from its state of changing and arrives at the judgment of it being an event. This is also called inferred knowledge (ˆilm istidlaliyy). In reference to every event’s need of that which made it occur, among them are those who said that it is a necessary matter; it has no need for evidence. Even Imam Al-Fakhr said in his book Al-Ma^alim that such knowledge is embedded in the nature of the children, for if you were to smack a child’s face in a way that he did not see you, and then you said this smack took place without anyone whosoever doing it, the child will not believe you. In fact, it is embedded in the nature of the animals, for the donkey, if it were to detect the sound of wood, it would become alert, because it is embedded in his nature that the occurrence of the sound of wood without wood is 2 An-Naml, 65 ‫النمل‬:٥٦
  6. 6. THE GATEWAY 6 impossible. Among them are those who said the knowledge of that is contemplated, and that is correct, however, one arrives at that conclusion by an uncomplicated contemplation, and since it is so obvious that there is a creator, some thought that knowledge of the Creator is by necessity. *** ‫و‬‫سبحان‬‫هللا‬‫و‬‫بحمده‬ *** 2. THE CHANNELS FOR ACHIEVING KNOWLEDGE An-Nasafiyy said: َّ‫سباب‬ ‫أ‬ ‫وا‬َّ‫العلم‬َّ‫للخلق‬َّ‫ثالثة‬:َّ‫الحواس‬،‫السليمة‬َّ‫والخبر‬،‫الصادق‬َّ‫والعقل‬ “There are three channels through which the creations would have knowledge: the sound senses, truthful information, and the mind.” This means that there are three ways through which one can achieve definite knowledge (ˆilm qatˆiyy or yaqiniyy), whether necessary or acquired. Allah said in the Qur’an3 : {( ‫ا‬‫ح‬َ‫إّلل‬َ‫و‬‫ا‬‫ح‬‫ك‬َ‫ج‬َ‫ْر‬‫خ‬َ‫أ‬‫ن‬ِ‫م‬‫ا‬ِ‫ون‬‫ح‬‫ط‬‫ح‬‫ب‬‫ا‬ْ ‫ح‬‫ك‬ِ‫ت‬‫َا‬‫ه‬َ‫م‬ُ‫أ‬‫ا‬َ‫ل‬‫ا‬َ‫ون‬‫ح‬‫م‬َ‫ل‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ت‬‫ا‬ً‫ئ‬ْ‫ي‬ َ‫ش‬‫ا‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬َ‫ج‬َ‫و‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ح‬‫ك‬َ‫ل‬‫ا‬َ‫ع‬ْ‫م‬ َ‫س‬ْ‫ل‬‫إ‬‫ا‬َ‫ار‬ َ‫ص‬ْ‫ب‬َ‫ْل‬‫إ‬َ‫و‬‫ا‬َ‫ة‬َ‫د‬ِ‫ئ‬ْ‫ف‬َ‫ْل‬‫إ‬َ‫و‬‫ا‬ْ ‫ح‬‫ك‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬َ‫ل‬‫ا‬َ‫ون‬‫ح‬‫ر‬‫ح‬‫ك‬ ْ‫ش‬َ‫ت‬ )} <Allah took you out of the bellies of your mothers while you do not know anything, and He made hearing, sight and hearts for you so that you would be thankful>. This means that Allah created the newborn baby as one without knowledge, and created for him the tools by which he would acquire knowledge: senses and a heart. The heart is the location of the mind according to the strong saying. Knowledge that comes into existence is the knowledge of the creations, and it is of two types: necessary (daruriyy) and acquired (iktisabiyy), as stated. As for the eternal knowledge, that is the Knowledge of Allah the Glorified and Exalted. It is not described as being necessary or acquired. 2.1 THE SENSES Necessary knowledge includes the knowledge that takes place by any of the five senses; in reference to the apparent sensory ability, so to exclude “extrasensory perception”. This means that what is realized by way of those senses is definite and certain knowledge, if they were sound, and one was 3 An-Nahl, 78
  7. 7. THE GATEWAY 7 under normal circumstances. Abnormal circumstances include being in the extreme heat of the desert, or he who sees the fish in the water as if it is closer than it truly is. An-Nasafiyy said: ‫وبكل‬َّ‫حاسة‬‫منها‬‫وقف‬‫ي‬‫على‬‫ما‬‫ت‬‫ع‬‫ض‬‫و‬‫هي‬‫له‬:،‫كالسمع‬،‫والذوق‬َّ‫والشم‬ “...and for every sense is what is specific for its function, such as hearing (for sounds), taste (for flavors), and smell (for odors).” This means that the realization that takes place by each of these is related to that for which the sense was created. This means that Allah created each sense for realizing something specific. The norm is that whatever is realized by any one of those senses is not realized by another sense; however, it is not mentally impossible that one sense would detect something other than for what it was created. This is because each of these is a means for realizing those things, and they do not have an actual effect in reality. So, it is mentally possible that one sense could detect that for which another sense was created. This is because none of those senses actually creates anything. The fact is that the realization takes place by the creating of Allah. -HEARING- It is the power embedded in the nerves in the bottom of the ear canal, through which sounds are realized by way of airwaves adapted to the manner of the sound4 . Those airwaves reach the ear canal and upon that, Allah creates the realization of the sound in the self. -SIGHT- It is the power deposited in the hollow nerves that meet at the brain and separate ending at the eyes, through which colors, shapes, and other things, 4 This means that the sound itself does not actually travel, because it is a property of bodies, and the properties do not disconnect from their entities; they do not exist by themselves and are not entities with motion or stability.
  8. 8. THE GATEWAY 8 the realization of which is created by Allah upon using this ability, take place. -SMELL- It is the power embedded in the two protrusions at the front of the brain that resemble the nipples of the breast, through which scents are realized by way of air adapted to the manner of the odor. The air reaches the nostrils and Allah creates the realization of the smell after that. -TASTE- It is the power spread throughout the nerves on the tongue, through which flavors of those things that have flavors are realized. Upon being mixed with salivary fluid in the mouth and contacting the nerves, Allah creates the realization. -SENSATION- It is a power spread throughout all of the body, through which heat, coldness, moisture, dryness and the like are realized. Upon connection and touching, Allah creates the realization. These five senses are obvious, and their existence is confirmed. As for the extrasensory perception confirmed by the philosophers, it is not confirmed for Ahlu-s-Sunnah, because their references do not comply with the Islamic fundamentals. *** ‫و‬‫سبحان‬‫هللا‬‫و‬‫بحمده‬ *** 2.2 TRUTHFUL INFORMATION Truthful information is a means for definite knowledge. The Arabic term we are translating as “information” is “khabar”. Statements in themselves can be possibly true or false. If it were said, “Zayd stood”, it is possible that the standing that has been informed about took place in reality, and it is possible that it did not comply with reality. The mind accepts both possibilities. For this reason, the scholars said that statements in themselves are possibly true or false.
  9. 9. THE GATEWAY 9 However, there is some information that cannot possibly be false, which is the news revealed by Allah and conveyed by the Messenger ‫;ﷺ‬ i.e., the religious information that the Prophet ‫ﷺ‬ was ordered to convey. It must be necessarily true, as well as what is conveyed by tawatur. Truth is for it to be in compliance with reality, and falsehood is the lack of its compliance with reality. Its truthfulness or falsehood could be certain based on some outside issue. The first is like the information from Allah the Exalted, and the information from His Messenger ‫.ﷺ‬ The second is like if you said, “Two opposites exist at the same time and the same place”, because that is mentally impossible. An-Nasafiyy said: َّ‫والخبر‬َّ‫الصادق‬‫على‬‫نوعين‬ “Truthful information is of two types”: -TAWATUR- The first is the witnessed information relayed by uninterrupted transmission (tawatur), which is the confirmed news conveyed by a people in such a way that for them to conspire to a lie is normally inconceivable. This (type) dictates “necessary knowledge”, such as the knowledge of the kings of old, and faraway lands. This means that what is transmitted by tawatur cannot possibly be false. It must necessarily comply with reality. So, if the conveyed information had this aforementioned description, from its source, to the next generation, until the last, it dictates definite knowledge, and there is no need for thinking and deduction. We find within ourselves the sure knowledge of the existence of Makkah and Baghdad, based on the information transmitted to us through the great number of people whom their gathering to conspire is not conceived. We are certain about these matters even before we witness them. This knowledge takes place for the one who looks into the issue and seeks evidence, and for the one who does not do that, such as the children who have not yet been guided to the way of acquired knowledge, or how to compose premises and conclusions. Necessary knowledge, such as the knowledge that takes place through any of the five senses, also includes the knowledge that takes place through what is narrated by tawatur. Examples are like the knowledge of the existence of the Prophet ‫,ﷺ‬ and the occurrence of miracles by his hand, and the inability of the creation to discredit his miracles”.
  10. 10. THE GATEWAY 10 However, if the original source was not as many as we have described, rather, the big number of conveyers took place later, it would not necessitate definite knowledge. Examples are like what was conveyed by the Christians about Jesus being killed, or what was conveyed by the Jews that Musa said that His revealed Law would never be abrogated, and that there is no law after his. The scholars of Al-Usul said that trustworthiness is not a condition for tawatur. Ar-Raziyy said that knowledge takes place by the tawatur of the blasphemers. It is, however, necessary to be based on what was witnessed, either an eye witnessing or an ear witnessing. Whatever is based on mental deduction is not tawatur. -THE NEWS CONVEYED BY A PROPHET- An-Nasafiyy said: )‫والثاني‬(َّ‫خبر‬َّ‫الرسول‬َّ‫د‬‫المؤي‬،‫بالمعجزة‬‫وهو‬َّ‫وجب‬‫ي‬َّ‫العلم‬َّ‫الستدللي‬ “The second (type) is the information (conveyed by) the Messenger (of Allah) who is supported by the miracle5 , and this type necessitates “inferred knowledge”.” What is meant here, is the prophet who is a messenger and the prophet who is not. The meaning is that the information conveyed by the impeccable one necessitates definite knowledge, except that it is inferred knowledge, meaning that one seeks the evidence. An-Nasafiyy said: َّ‫والعلم‬َّ‫الثابت‬َّ‫به‬‫ضاهي‬‫ي‬َّ‫العلم‬َّ‫الثابت‬َّ‫بالضرورة‬‫في‬َّ‫التيقن‬َّ‫والثبات‬ “Whatever is confirmed (from the messenger) resembles “necessary knowledge” because of its certainty and reliability.” This means that the knowledge acquired through the impeccable one resembles the knowledge confirmed by necessity, like what is acquired through the senses or through the route of tawatur. 5 What is meant by “the miracle” is the type of the thing, and not one specific miracle, and so the definite article “the” expresses the type, like to say, “The horse is a magnificent creature”. Hence, the meaning is that the messengers were supported by miracles, and not one specific miracle.
  11. 11. THE GATEWAY 11 This is in reference to the one who witnessed the Prophet ‫ﷺ‬ and his miracles, even if he were one individual, like Abu Bakr and ˆUmar and others. As for he who did not witness the Prophet ‫,ﷺ‬ and did not hear from him, definitive knowledge does not take place for him unless it reached him through tawatur, like the Qur’an. It reached us through the route of tawatur that the Prophet said that the Qur’an was revealed unto him from Allah. Hence, we say that the information from the Prophet ‫ﷺ‬ conveyed to a person is speculative in reference to that person. Had it been intuitive, then all of the people would be equally receptive to it, which is not the reality, for some witnesses have not accepted it, like Abu Lahab. DIGRESSION: THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MIND AND THE TEXTS [Whatever is acquired through hearing is called naql (conveyance; transmition) or sam^, or sam^iyy, or sama^ (what is heard).] It cannot be mixed with what applies to the intellect (ˆaql). Shaykh ˆAbdu-r-Razzaq read to us that the Shaykh said: ‫السمع‬‫ما‬‫يبلغه‬‫نبياء‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ال‬,‫و‬‫العقل‬‫اك‬‫ر‬‫إد‬‫النفس‬‫بواسطة‬‫العقل‬ “The transmitted evidence refers to what is conveyed by the Prophets. The Mental evidence is what is the self realizes by way of the intellect.” The evidence that the religious proof would either be by what is transmitted or by what is mentally confirmed is the verse: {( ‫وإ‬‫ح‬‫ل‬‫ا‬َ‫ق‬َ‫و‬‫ا‬ْ‫و‬َ‫ل‬‫ا‬َ‫ن‬‫ح‬‫ك‬‫ا‬‫ح‬‫ع‬َ‫م‬ ْ‫س‬َ‫ن‬‫ا‬ْ‫و‬َ‫أ‬‫ا‬‫ح‬‫ل‬ِ‫ق‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬‫ا‬َ‫م‬‫ا‬َ‫ن‬‫ح‬‫ك‬‫ا‬ ِ‫ف‬‫ِا‬‫َاب‬ ْ‫ْص‬َ‫أ‬‫ري‬ِ‫ع‬ َ‫إلس‬ )}6 <The blasphemers will say (after being put in Hellfire), “Had we listened (to the warning of the Messengers as seekers of the truth) and had we used our minds (by contemplation and reflection), we would not have been among the inhabitants of Hell>. An-Nasafiyy, the interpreter, said about this verse: ‫وفيه‬‫دليل‬‫على‬‫ن‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬‫مدار‬‫التكليف‬‫على‬‫دلة‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬‫السمع‬‫والعقل‬‫نهما‬ ‫أ‬ ‫وا‬‫حجتان‬‫ملزمتان‬ 6 ‫الملك‬:٠١ Al-Mulk, 10
  12. 12. THE GATEWAY 12 “Therein is corroboration that accountability is centered around the transmitted and intellectual proof, and that each of those (types) is imposing evidence.”7 Believing in the Angels, Prophets and Revealed Books is also something that has to be heard, although these matters are creedal and pertain to the basics of belief. These subjects cannot be reached by the mind alone. However, once one knows that there were Prophets, the mind judges that these prophets need certain qualities to fulfill their mission, such as impeccability from blasphemy, major sins and the like. *** ‫و‬‫سبحان‬‫هللا‬‫و‬‫بحمده‬ *** 2.3 THE MIND The “mind” or “intellect” is called in Arabic “ˆaql”, “hijr”, such as the saying of Allah: {( ‫ا‬ْ‫َل‬‫ه‬‫ا‬ ِ‫ف‬‫ا‬َ ِ‫ل‬َ‫ذ‬‫ا‬‫م‬ َ‫س‬َ‫ق‬‫ي‬ِ ِ‫ِل‬‫ا‬‫ر‬ْ‫ج‬ِ‫ح‬ )}8 <Is there within those aforementioned matters a swear that convinces the intelligent one?>, and “nuhyah”, all of which have the linguistic meaning of prevention. It was called as such because it prevents the sane person from committing atrocities and doing what he should not do. It was also called “lubb”, such as in the verse: {( ‫ا‬َ‫م‬َ‫و‬‫ا‬‫ح‬‫ر‬َ‫ك‬َ‫ذ‬َ‫ي‬‫ا‬َ‫ل‬ ِ ‫إ‬‫و‬‫ح‬‫ل‬‫و‬ُ‫أ‬‫اب‬َ‫ب‬ْ‫ل‬َ ْ‫إْل‬ )}9 <No one will be admonished by it except for those who have sound minds>. Angels, humans and jinn have minds. Also, the people of Paradise have minds, and we mean by them: Al-Hur Al-^In and Al-Ghulman Al-Mukhalladun, as Shaykh Samir told us. The animals, despite the intelligence that the blasphemers ascribe to some of them, like the ape and the dolphin, do not have minds. This means that they do not have the ability to think and deduce. However, they have instinct and will, as well as souls. 7 Tafsiru-n-Nasafiyy, vol.4 pg. 402 8 Al-Fajr, 5 9 Al ^Imran, 7
  13. 13. THE GATEWAY 13 It has been given several definitions by the scholars, all of which are close in meaning: 1. Some said that it is the faculty given to some of the creatures by which they distinguish the good from the bad. 2. Some said: َّ‫ر‬‫نو‬‫يضيء‬‫به‬‫طريق‬َّ ‫أ‬ ‫يبتدا‬‫به‬‫بحيث‬‫ينتهي‬‫إلي‬‫ه‬‫درك‬‫الحواس‬ “It is a light that illuminates a path that starts from where the realization of the senses end”. There are differing opinions about its location. Some said that it is in the brain. Among them are the philosophers, doctors, Imam Ahmad- according to a narration from him-, Abu-l-Muˆin An-Nasafiyy, and Sadru-l-Islam, who ascribes this position to Ahlu-s-Sunnah in general. He said, It is a subtle body that illuminates, and its place is the head according to Ahlu-s-Sunnah in general. Its affect falls on the heart, so that the heart realizes things by the light of the mind, just as the eye realizes things by the light of the sun or the lantern. If the light gets weak, the realization gets weak, and if the light goes out, the realization goes away. Their proof is that a man would be hit on his head and then lose his mind, and had the mind not been there, it would not have gone away because of that, just as if he were hit on his hand or foot, he would not lose his mind by that. Other scholars, like Judge Abu Zayd, As-Sarakhsiyy and Imam Ahmad- according to another narration-, said it is in the heart (qalb); that cone shaped organ placed in the left side of the chest. Their evidence is the verse of the Qur’an: {( ‫ا‬َْ‫ل‬َ‫ف‬َ‫أ‬‫وإ‬‫ح‬‫ري‬ ِ‫َس‬‫ي‬‫ا‬ ِ‫ف‬‫ا‬ ِ‫ض‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫ْل‬‫إ‬‫ا‬َ‫ون‬‫ح‬‫ك‬َ‫ت‬َ‫ف‬‫ا‬ْ‫م‬‫ح‬‫ه‬َ‫ل‬‫ا‬‫وب‬‫ح‬‫ل‬‫ح‬‫ق‬‫ا‬َ‫ون‬‫ح‬‫ل‬ِ‫ق‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ي‬‫ا‬َ ِ‫ِب‬‫ا‬ْ‫و‬َ‫أ‬‫ا‬‫إن‬َ‫ذ‬‫أ‬‫ا‬َ‫ون‬‫ح‬‫ع‬َ‫م‬ ْ‫َس‬‫ي‬‫ا‬َ ِ‫ِب‬ )}10 <Did they not travel through the land so that they would have hearts by which they have minds, or ears by which they would hear?>. The brain has a relation with the mind. For this reason, a person may take a blow to the head and lose his mind. 10 ‫ا‬‫لحج‬:٦٥ Al-Hajj, 46
  14. 14. THE GATEWAY 14 It is known that the Religion of Allah does not come with what is mentally impossible. Everything that came in the Religion is mentally acceptable. Allah praised those who use their minds and dispraised those who do not. There are many verses mentioned throughout the Qur’an in which Allah orders us to use our intellects and He praises the people who do that. Allah encouraged His slaves to look into His kingdom11 to know about His greatness and majesty. He said: {( ‫ا‬ْ‫م‬َ‫ل‬َ‫و‬َ‫أ‬‫وإ‬‫ح‬‫ر‬ ‫ح‬‫ظ‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ي‬‫ا‬ ِ‫ف‬‫ا‬ِ‫وت‬‫ح‬‫ك‬َ‫ل‬َ‫م‬‫ا‬ِ‫إت‬َ‫او‬َ‫م‬ َ‫إلس‬‫ا‬ ِ‫ض‬ْ‫ر‬َ ْ‫إْل‬َ‫و‬ )} <Did they not look into the kingdom of the heavens and Earth…>. The “looking” in this verse refers to thinking (fikr), contemplating and considering (i^tibar). Allah also said12 : ﴿‫ا‬َ‫ن‬ ِ ‫إ‬‫ا‬ ِ‫ف‬‫ا‬ِ‫ق‬ْ‫ل‬َ‫خ‬‫ا‬ِ‫إت‬َ‫او‬َ‫م‬ َ‫إلس‬‫ا‬ ِ‫ض‬ْ‫ر‬َ ْ‫إْل‬َ‫و‬‫ا‬ِ‫ف‬ َ‫َل‬ِ‫ت‬ْ‫خ‬‫إ‬َ‫و‬‫ا‬ِ‫ل‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬‫ل‬‫إ‬‫ا‬ِ‫ار‬َ َ‫َّن‬‫ل‬‫إ‬َ‫و‬‫ا‬‫ت‬ َ‫َي‬َ َ‫ْل‬‫ا‬ِ‫ول‬ُ ِ‫ْل‬‫ِا‬‫اب‬َ‫ب‬ْ‫ل‬َ ْ‫إْل‬* ‫ا‬َ‫ين‬ِ َ‫إِل‬‫ا‬َ‫ون‬‫ح‬‫ر‬‫ح‬‫ك‬ْ‫ذ‬َ‫ي‬‫ا‬ََ‫إّلل‬‫ا‬ً‫م‬‫ا‬َ‫ي‬ِ‫ق‬‫ًإ‬‫د‬‫و‬‫ح‬‫ع‬‫ح‬‫ق‬َ‫و‬‫ا‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬َ‫و‬‫ا‬ْ‫م‬ِِ‫وِب‬‫ح‬‫ن‬‫ح‬‫ج‬‫ا‬َ‫ون‬‫ح‬‫ر‬َ‫ك‬َ‫ف‬َ‫ت‬َ‫ي‬َ‫و‬‫ا‬ ِ‫ف‬‫ا‬ِ‫ق‬ْ‫ل‬َ‫خ‬‫ا‬ِ‫إت‬َ‫او‬َ‫م‬ َ‫إلس‬‫ا‬ ِ‫ض‬ْ‫ر‬َ ْ‫إْل‬َ‫و‬ ‫ا‬َ‫ن‬َ‫ب‬َ‫ر‬‫ا‬َ‫م‬‫َا‬‫ت‬ْ‫ق‬َ‫ل‬َ‫خ‬‫إ‬َ‫ذ‬َ‫ه‬‫ا‬ً‫َل‬ِ‫ط‬ َ‫َب‬‫ا‬َ‫َك‬‫ن‬‫ا‬َ‫ح‬ْ‫ب‬ ‫ح‬‫س‬‫ا‬َ‫ن‬ِ‫ق‬َ‫ف‬‫ا‬َ‫إب‬َ‫ذ‬َ‫ع‬‫ا‬ِ‫ار‬َ‫ن‬‫إل‬﴾ <Surely, within the creation of the skies and the Earth, and in the difference between the night and the day, there are certainly signs for the those who have sound minds * Those who remember Allah while standing, sitting, or on their sides, and they think about the creation of the heavens and the Earth; “O our Lord (they say), You have not created this without wisdom. You are glorified (beyond the ascriptions of the creatures), so save us from the torture of Hell”>. The mind has its value and the intellectual proofs have to be considered. On the other hand, Allah dispraised the non-Muslims in the Qur’an for not using their minds. He said: 11 [The Malakut of Allah is His kingdom; His ownership and possession]. 12 ‫عمران‬ ‫آل‬:٠٩١–٠٩٠ Al ^Imran 190, 191
  15. 15. THE GATEWAY 15 {( ‫إ‬‫و‬‫ح‬‫ل‬‫ا‬َ‫ق‬َ‫و‬‫ا‬ْ‫و‬َ‫ل‬‫ا‬َ‫ن‬‫ح‬‫ك‬‫ا‬‫ح‬‫ع‬َ‫م‬ ْ‫س‬َ‫ن‬‫ا‬ْ‫و‬َ‫أ‬‫ا‬‫ح‬‫ل‬ِ‫ق‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ن‬‫ا‬َ‫م‬‫ا‬َ‫ن‬‫ح‬‫ك‬‫ا‬ ِ‫ف‬‫ِا‬‫اب‬َ ْ‫ْص‬َ‫أ‬‫ري‬ِ‫ع‬ َ‫إلس‬ )}13 <The Blasphemers will say (after being put in Hellfire), “Had we listened (to the warning of the Messengers as seekers of the truth) and had we used our minds (by contemplation and reflection), we would not have been among the inhabitants of Hell>. In this verse, Allah shows us that the judgment of the mind is considered in the Religion; that the mind has a certain weight and consideration. An-Nasafiyy said: ‫ما‬ ‫أ‬ ‫وا‬َّ‫العقل‬:‫فهو‬َّ‫سبب‬َّ‫للعلم‬‫ا‬ً‫يض‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ “As for the mind, it is also a channel for knowledge.” If it were said, “Had the mind been useful for achieving definite knowledge, then that would take place for everyone who used it, and that is not in compliance with reality, because many people who use their minds do not achieve definite knowledge.” The answer is, “The reason that knowledge did not take place for them is because of the invalidity of their application. As for correct application of the mind, meaning looking into the facts properly, it is in itself a channel for definite knowledge.” -INTUITION- An-Nasafiyy said: ‫وما‬َّ‫ثبت‬‫منه‬َّ‫بالبديهة‬‫فهو‬َّ‫ي‬‫ضرور‬َّ‫كالعلم‬َّ‫ن‬ ‫أ‬ ‫با‬َّ‫كل‬َّ‫الشىء‬َّ‫عظم‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬‫من‬َّ‫ه‬‫ئ‬‫ز‬‫ج‬ “Whatever is confirmed through intuition (badihah) is “necessary knowledge”, such as knowing that all of something is greater than part of it...” This means that whatever is established by the judgment of the mind because of natural disposition, without the need to think, is necessary knowledge. An example is as mentioned, with the condition that one understands the meanings of “all” and “part”. Another example is knowing that negation and confirmation cannot exist simultaneously. This is one of the two types of knowledge; necessary knowledge. 13 ‫الملك‬:٠١ Al-Mulk, 10
  16. 16. THE GATEWAY 16 -DEDUCTION- An-Nasafiyy said: ‫وما‬َّ‫ثبت‬َّ‫منه‬َّ‫بالستدلل‬‫فهو‬َّ‫تسابي‬‫اك‬ “...and whatever is confirmed through deduction is acquired knowledge.” Acquired knowledge is what takes place when one applies his facilities, such as applying his intellect and looking into premises and conclusions, listening and moving his eyes, and the likes among physical matters. All deduced knowledge is acquired knowledge, but not all acquired knowledge is deduced. Evidence is that which when investigated properly leads to the knowledge of what is sought. An example of proper inference is to say: A Prophet among the Prophets performed acts that defied nature and could not be discredited by those who belied him by doing what is similar. The one who does such acts must be believed. Muhammad did such acts, so Muhammad is truthful. This proof is composed of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion. The same is said about Musa, ^Isa and other Prophets. The core of the evidence that this necessitates certain knowledge lies in the fact that the miracles performed by the Prophet ‫ﷺ‬ are confirmed, and they were created for him as an indication of his truthfulness in claiming prophethood. Likewise, the occurrence of the world is proven through such inference. One would say, “Everything that changed is an event. This world changes. Thus, this world is an event. Every event is in need of someone to make it occur. Thus, this world is in need of someone to make it occur.” Anything not realized by the aforementioned means is not confirmed, definitive knowledge. By this, one can see the great difference in accuracy between the Muslim scholars and those who are called scientists and are thought of to be scholars. One of those scientist would notice something, then come with an explanation that he worked on until it complies with the results that he found, and then claim that this thing is the reason for this result, without having definitive knowledge about it, [because he did not witness it, deduce it, nor was he informed about it from a trustworthy source]. Thus, it would be built upon imagination. For example, they talk about the atom, and say that within it are protons and electrons, and that those electrons move in a certain way, although they did not witness that. Rather, they would say, “This issue occurs. Why is it occurring? There should be something there, we will call it the electron, and it should be moving in a certain way...” Then, after time, another person would come with another
  17. 17. THE GATEWAY 17 theory, and the first one would become outdated. The matters of our Religion are not like that. *** ‫و‬‫سبحان‬‫هللا‬‫و‬‫بحمده‬ *** BENEFIT: HOW TO MENTALLY PROVE THE VALIDITY OF THE RELIGIOUS MATTERS WHOSE REALITIES CANNOT BE PROVEN MENTALLY It is true that the mind is not the reference for knowing the Religious Laws, nor the aforementioned creedal matters that cannot be known except through hearing. However, this does not negate the fact that we can mentally establish the truthfulness of the Laws and the Creedal Tenets, such as the prohibition of wine and the existence of Paradise and Hell. The way to that can be achieved in eight steps. It is very important when explaining this case to clarify to the opponent that not every deduction is immediate. Establishing the validity of the aforementioned cases in eight steps is not a way to run away from the question, as an impatient atheist may say. It must be noted that some things are established in stages, especially since someone who does not believe in the existence of God would not believe that wine is unlawful. Thus, there is no escape from establishing several premises. Here, the case will be summarized for the sake of brevity and lack of repetition, for the points that will be mentioned are already spread throughout the book. STEP ONE: CLARIFICATION OF THE CHANNELS OF KNOWLEDGE It has already been established that there are three ways for the creature to achieve knowledge: sound senses, truthful information, and sound intellect. STEP TWO: CLARIFICATION THAT THE WORLD IS AN EVENT To prove the validity of the Divine Laws, one must first prove the existence of God. To prove the existence of God, one must prove that the world is created. This can be achieved by proving that the world is made of masses and qualities; traits; attributes, and thus must be a creation in itself, as presented in detail in the coming section pertaining to existence. One may
  18. 18. THE GATEWAY 18 also prove that the world is created by nullifying the claim of beginningless events, as explained in detail in the section pertaining to eternity. STEP THREE: PROVING THE EXISTENCE OF THE CREATOR If one can successfully prove that the world is created, then he can easily prove that it has a creator, for every doing must a have a doer. STEP FOUR: CLARIFICATION THAT GOD IS THE ONLY CREATOR, AND DOES NOT RESEMBLE CREATED THINGS If the opponent is not an atheist, then one can immediately skip to the fourth step, for usually non-Muslims who confirm the existence of God liken Him to the creation or establish a partner for Him. The evidence for the first case is in the section of dissimilarity, and the evidence for the second case is in the section of oneness. STEP FIVE: PROVING THE EXISTENCE OF MUHAMMAD To prove the validity of the Religious Laws and the other matters whose realities can only be known through hearing, one must prove the validity of prophethood. Before proving the validity of the prophethood of Muhammad, one may need to prove his existence. The evidence for it is tawatur, which falls under the category of truthful information, as previously mentioned. STEP SIX: CLARIFICATION THAT MUHAMMAD IS THE MESSENGER OF ALLAH The way to prove his prophethood is to prove that he did miracles. Some of them were conveyed by tawatur, and the details of clarifying that are in the section about miracles. STEP SEVEN: CARIFICATION THAT HE IS TRUTHFUL ABOUT ALL THAT HE CONVEYED The proof that miracles establish his truthfulness is also mentioned in the section of miracles. STEP EIGHT: ESTABLISHEMT OF THE TRUTHFULNESS OF THE GREAT QUR’AN By proving that Muhammad is truthful in all that he conveyed, one proves that the Qur’an is truthful, and therein is the confirmation of Paradise and Hell, as well as the prohibition of wine, and other matters, and Allah gives the success. *** ‫و‬‫سبحان‬‫هللا‬‫و‬‫بحمده‬ ***
  19. 19. THE GATEWAY 19 B. SPECULATION Speculation is the more probable of the two speculated issues. The unlikely one is just a fancy. The information conveyed by one person does not necessitate knowledge. Rather, if it fulfills the conditions, it necessitates application. Hence, if the chains of the hadiths narrated about purification, prayer, fasting, Hajj, Zakah and the like were sahih, it would be obligatory to apply them. As for whether the Prophet said them or not, this is not definite knowledge. What is narrated through tawatur dictates definite knowledge, and some scholars said the same about what is mashhur. Information is divided into two categories: ahad, and mutawatir. The mutawatir is that which necessitates confirmed knowledge, and it is what is narrated by a group, the likes of which would not conspire to a lie, and so on, until reaching what is being informed about. The original event must have been seen or heard, and not deduced, like the information about witnessing the existence of Makkah, or hearing the information from Allah the Exalted from the route of the Prophet, as opposed to information from a deduced matter14 . The ahad, which is what did not reach the level of tawatur, necessitates application of that for which it is a reference, and does not necessitate definite knowledge, because of the possibility of error in it, even if that were because of absent-mindedness or forgetfulness.” It is possible that contemplated knowledge, if associated with the indications (qara’in), would occur in the ahad information that is divided into mashhur, ˆaziz and gharib. C. INSPIRATION An-Nasafiyy said, “Inspiration is not a channel for knowing the validity of a matter according to the People of the Truth.” 14 Such as the information from the Philosophers that the world is eternal, which is wrong.
  20. 20. THE GATEWAY 20 This means that the inspiration of a waliyy, which is what is thrown into the heart of the waliyy and overcomes him, is not a channel for definite knowledge, and thus it is not evidence, and dreams have even less consideration. What is meant by saying that “it overcomes him (fayd)” is that that would take place without him having previously sought it. According to the terminology of the Sufiyyah, it is also called “al-warid (what comes)”. Abu- l-Qasim Al-Junayd said, “Perhaps I would be overcome with something not witnessed about some people, and I do not accept that except through two witnesses from the Book and the Sunnah.” D. DOUBT The slightest uncertainty about the Belief in Allah or His Messenger is blasphemy. This is not what is meant when the scholars said, that doubt is to deem two matters possible without one being more evident than the other according to the doubter. And so, the equal uncertainty about the confirmation or negation of Zayd standing is doubt. If one of the two possibilities became more probable, then it is speculation, and the fancy is the unlikely possibility. E. DELUSION AND IMAGINATION The delusion15 does not stand as proof for the validity of a matter. The condition for the validity of a matter is that the mental judgments stand 15 De*lu"sion (?) n. [L. delusio, fr. deludere. See Delude.] 1. The act of deluding; deception; a misleading of the mind. Pope. 2. The state of being deluded or misled. 3. That which is falsely or delusively believed or propagated; false belief; error in belief. And fondly mourned the dear delusion gone. Prior. Syn. -- Delusion, Illusion. These words both imply some deception practiced upon the mind. Delusion is deception from want of knowledge; illusion is deception from morbid imagination. An illusion is a false show, a mere cheat on the fancy or senses. It is, in other words, some idea or image presented to the bodily or mental vision which does not exist in reality. A delusion is a false judgment, usually affecting the real concerns of life. Or, in other words, it is an erroneous view of something which exists indeed, but has by no means the qualities or attributes ascribed to it. Thus we speak of the illusions of fancy, the illusions of hope, illusive prospects, illusive appearances, etc. In like manner, we speak of the delusions of stock jobbing, the delusions of honorable men, delusive appearances in trade, of being deluded by a seeming excellence. A fanatic, either religious or political, is the subject of strong delusions; while the term illusion is applied solely to the visions of an uncontrolled imagination, the chimerical ideas of one blinded by hope, passion, or credulity, or lastly, to spectral and other ocular deceptions, to which the word delusion is never applied." Whately.
  21. 21. THE GATEWAY 21 as proof. The creed is not based on delusion or imagination, rather it is by what the sound mind, which is a witness for the Religion, dictates. The way to reach the realization of known things is evidence, not delusion. The confirmation of many a matter is reached by the mind while the imagination is disabled from it. We say: The single indivisible particle is not imaginable while being rational based on the evidence, and likewise the single indivisible moment of time, as well as eternity16 and everlastingness. Similar is the soul according to those who said it is a body. As well, whoever wants to imagine the heavens and the Earth, for example, is unable to imagine except some of it. Equally is imagining the endless things known to Allah, and the endless things under His power. Hence, since the imagination is removed from many existing things, how would the Eternal One, the Glorified, be sought by it, the One Who the creations do not resemble? The basis of the Muslim creed is not illusion, because the illusion judges matters that are not seen according to what has been seen. The illusion causes one to imagine things without proof. For example, the delusion concludes that Allah exists in a place. As for the sound mind, it dictates that Allah exists without a place. Contemplation is to think about the situation of the pondered subject, so to reach either knowledge or speculation about a true or speculative issue. “Thinking” is applying the self in relation to concepts, which is different from applying the self in relation to physical matters, because that would be called “imagining”. Some scholars said that the one who uses his intellect without using the Revelation is like the one who steps into the darkness with his eyes open, and the one who uses the revelation without using his mind is like the one who steps into the light with his eyes closed. [As for the people who deny DELUSION, n. S as z. 1. The act of deluding; deception; a misleading of the mind. Ex: We are all liable to the delusions of artifice. 2. False representation; illusion; error or mistake proceeding from false views. And fondly mourned the dear delusion gone. 16 i.e., existence without beginning
  22. 22. THE GATEWAY 22 the attributes of Allah, they did not learn the proper rules for using their minds]. The danger of the Muˆtazilah faction lies in the fact that they claim that they rely on the mental judgment; that their sayings are supported by the judgment of the mind. They were called Al-Muˆtazilah after being called Al-Qadariyyah. They do not call themselves Muˆtazilah. They called themselves Ahlu-l-ˆAdl (the people of justice), because they claim that when Ahlu-s-Sunnah say that Allah willed for evil to happen then Ahlu-s-Sunnah are attributing injustice to Allah. They wanted to distance themselves from Ahlu-s-Sunnah, so they claim that they are people of the mind and mental proofs, and people of justice.

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