Claudius I and the Etruscans

by

Keith Armstrong

2014
London
Acknowledgments
I am grateful to Miss Cecile Mairat, Miss Rachel O'Dowd, Jack Kilmon and Miss
Eva Skoulariki for transcrib...
Claudius I and the Etruscans
Claudius had a number of very strong connections with the Etruscans. His
contribution to Etru...
In approximately 672 - 640 BCE, Albani (a local monarch) gave a speech recorded by Livy.
Albani is reported as having said...
Etruscan women played an important role in writing, they used the metaphor of weaving
for the development of writing. Ther...
Haruspices interpreted three main events: the entrails from sacrificed animals (exta, a
process known as extispicium), unn...
An inscribed bronze tablet was discovered in 1524 in Lyons. Its Latin text is a segment of a
speech made by the emperor Cl...
Arcuatus currus
A two-wheeled carriage with an arched awning over head.
This example is from a painting in an Etruscan tom...
The later Christian emperor, Theodosius I [The Great] (347-395 CE), issued a decree in
392 CE that imposed heavy penalties...
The fact that the proposal was made and discussed with Innocentius I shows how earnestly
the Etruscan doctrine was still t...
End Notes
Note 1: Ellis, Robert, (1870), The Asiatic affinities of the old Italians, (London : Trbner).
Campbell-Dunn, G. ...
Note 13: article: Rix, Helmut, (2004: 946), "Etruscan" in The Cambridge encyclopaedia
of the world's ancient languages, Wo...
Note 21: Rich, Anthony, (Ed.), (1873: 51), Dictionary of Roman and Greek Antiquities,
(3rd Ed.), (London: Longmans, Green,...
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Edited by Keith Armstrong and David Gill
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Emperor Claudius I and the Etruscans by Keith Armstrong

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Emperor Claudius I who was born with cerebral palsy. Apart from being an emperor he was also a major Roman historian who was tutored by Livy (one of most significant Roman historians of all time). Claudius wrote a number of history books and he was one of the last major figures to be fluent in Etruscan. Emperor Claudius I first wife was Etruscan. He also wrote a history of the Etruscans which has since disappeared.

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Emperor Claudius I and the Etruscans by Keith Armstrong

  1. 1. Claudius I and the Etruscans by Keith Armstrong 2014 London
  2. 2. Acknowledgments I am grateful to Miss Cecile Mairat, Miss Rachel O'Dowd, Jack Kilmon and Miss Eva Skoulariki for transcribing from the original text. I would also like to thank the many people who have helped me to live and given me the energy and encouragement to complete this article. This includes the people of Camden and my late mother Mrs. Nina Armstrong. I am particularly grateful to the kind members of staff at all levels within the British Library in London. ----------I must point out that any factual errors or sentiment unwittingly suggested are my responsibility alone. The punctuation and typeface of the authors quoted have at times been modified. All rights are reserved. The author's moral rights are asserted. No part of this paper may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the author. © Copyright 2014 Keith Armstrong, London.
  3. 3. Claudius I and the Etruscans Claudius had a number of very strong connections with the Etruscans. His contribution to Etruscan knowledge is almost always mentioned in the few books published on this mysterious ancient European civilisation. The Etruscans dominated central Italy before the Roman Republic was created and remained a considerable influence there for a long time afterwards. Despite this, the origin of the Etruscans remains unclear even today. Etruscan language is not of Indo-European origin. Over the years linguists have made numerous claims to its origin including Albanian, Anatolian, Aramaic, Armenian, Aztec, Basque, Finnish and Hungarian. The Niger-Congo and even Easter Island have also been championed as its source. 1 In my opinion, the discipline of linguistics is unable to resolve the issue on its own. While many early archaeological significant sites were badly damaged, much has been revealed to us within the past twenty years due in part to the increasing expertise of modern archaeologists and linguists. Remains of the Etruscans have been found as far afield as Cyprus, Crete and the Greek island of Lemnos. Isolated examples of Etruscan texts have also been discovered in Provence and Tunisia.2 An Etruscan text was discovered in 1891 on the restored linen wrappings from a female Egyptian mummy, which is now held in the Zagreb Archaeological Museum in Croatia.3 Etruscan cities prospered in central Italy between the tenth and the first centuries BCE. They influenced the course of history for both their Greek and Roman neighbours. The Etruscan civilisation flourished on the west coast of central and northern Italy, with two of Italy's rivers - the Arno and the Tiber - as its boundaries. The Tyrrhenian Sea to the west was named after them by the Greeks, who knew them as Tyrrhenians. The name of the modern region of Tuscany was derived from Tursci or Tusci, the Roman name for these ancient people.4 Recent finds substantiate the theory that the Etruscan people existed from before the Iron Age in Italy to the end of the Roman Republic-in chronological terms, from c.1200 to c.100 BCE. Many sites of the principal Etruscan cities of historical times were constantly occupied from the Iron Age.5 Werner Keller, in his text The Etruscans, states that Etruscan antiquities are found throughout Italy, from the once famous town of Spina on the Adriatic to the old Tuscan countryside between the Arno and the Tiber, down to once Etruscan Pompei in Campania. Etruscan trade and business used standardised weights and a currency of gold and copper bars. They also had a decimal system of numeration. 6
  4. 4. In approximately 672 - 640 BCE, Albani (a local monarch) gave a speech recorded by Livy. Albani is reported as having said: [...] the magnitude of the Etruscan power which encompasses us, and you especially, you are better aware than we, in proportion as you are nearer to that people. Great is their strength on land, exceedingly great on the sea. You must consider that the instant you give the signal for battle, the Tuscans will be watching our two armies, so that, when we have become tired and exhausted, they may attack at once the victor and the vanquished. In Heaven's name, therefore, since we are not content with unquestioned liberty, but are proceeding to the doubtful hazard of dominion or enslavement, let us adopt some plan by which we may decide the question which nation shall rule the other, without a great disaster and much carnage on both sides.7 Albert Grenier writing on the Etruscan influence on Latin considers that: The Etruscan pronunciation confused the voiced G and the mute C; therefore it was in Etruria that the Greek y was used for the sound intermediate between G and C which existed in the Etruscan language. The Romans, on the contrary, never confused voiced consonants with mute ones. The proof of it is that they introduced into the alphabet the new sign G to indicate the voiced guttural. If the confusion, which did not exist in pronunciation, remained for a time in writing, it was because the writing was of Etruscan origin.8 Grenier states that the Etruscan alphabet used the sign C. If Rome had taken her alphabet directly from the Greeks, the third letter C would always have kept the value G, and K would have been used for the mute guttural. Therefore the Romans must have been taught to write by the Etruscans, in the 6th century BCE, at the latest, since the alphabet maintained by the Romans had disappeared from Etruscan use by the beginning of the 5th century BCE.9 Helmut Rix states in the Cambridge Encyclopaedia of the World’s Ancient Languages that: The Etruscan writing system is an alphabet, which was created at the end of the eighth century [BCE] in several local variants, from an alphabet of West Greek origin; it was taught in scribal schools and is attested in inscriptions. [...] Of the early archaic texts some are written from left to right and some from right to left. Around 600 [BCE] the direction from right to left became standard and was only reversed occasionally in the first century under Latin influence.10 Giuliano Bonfante, in The Etruscan Language: an Introduction, considers that women's studies has become especially relevant in understanding Etruscan civilisation. The three thousand or so bronze mirrors, many engraved with figured representations and often inscribed, were an Etruscan speciality, produced in workshops between c. 500 and 200 BCE. They indicate the literacy and culture of the women for whom they were made, who used them in their lifetime and took them to their graves after their death; women whose names showed them to have had a different legal and social status from the women of Rome.
  5. 5. Etruscan women played an important role in writing, they used the metaphor of weaving for the development of writing. There is also some evidence in favour of the earliest inscriptions coming from women's graves, and many inscriptions are found on implements for wool-working, spools, or loomweights.11 Rix holds that unlike the Indo-European languages with whom it was in contact, Etruscan had no grammatical gender. The female sex was indicated by a suffix, borrowed from Italic, and was used under Italic influence with family names that were in origin adjectives: for example, Tarna-i.12 Some Etruscan numeral characters have the same shape as the Roman ones derived from them: for example I = "1" and X = "10". The Etruscan symbol for the number "5" is ٨ representing the outline of a hand with five digits b (4 fingers and a thumb). It was reversed to make the Roman V. The numeral X is at one and the same time a symbol for the outstretched fingers of two hands and a letter for the initial sound of Etruscan sar.13 As the Romans expanded, the fatalistic Etruscans declined, however certain Etruscan traditions were preserved by the Romans. Spurinna (a well-known Etruscan name) became famous for having warned Julius Caesar about the danger of the Ides of March, (traditionally celebrated on the 15th of March), on the basis of a 'reading' of the liver and other entrails of a sacrificed animal.14 This drawing represents the circular end of the theatre of Marcellus now exists in partial ruins in Rome. There was originally a third storey of the Corinthian order which has entirely disappeared through time. Etruscan haruspex inspecting the entrails of an animal for the purpose of predicting events from their appearances, known as Extispictium.15 The haruspex or harus'pica (female) - plural haruspices, literally meaning "gut-gazer", was a person who carried out haruspicy, a form of divination. The Haruspices were originally Etruscan diviners, believed to be interpreters of the wills of the gods. They came to rival and overlap with the role of augurs, although they had no religious authority in Rome and were probably not organised into a college until the Roman empire. This college (ordo hamspicium) consisted of sixty haruspices and was headed by the chief haruspex (known as a summus, primarius or maximus haruspex).
  6. 6. Haruspices interpreted three main events: the entrails from sacrificed animals (exta, a process known as extispicium), unnatural phenomena (monstra—portents and prodigies, from monere, "to warn") and flashes of lightning (fulgura), all of which were regarded as indications of the wills of the gods (prodigies and lightning being warnings). Entrails were interpreted by the colour, markings and shape of the liver and gallbladder, and there is some evidence that models of livers were used in the training of haruspices. Haruspices had many other key rites such as town planning, water divination (in which they were reported to be very successful) and their annual ritual of fixing a sacred nail in a temple wall as a symbol of time. Perhaps one of the most memorable lines in William Shakespeare's play 'Julius Caesar' (1599) is the simple statement: Caesar: Who is it in the press that calls on me? I hear a tongue, shriller than all the music, Cry ‘Caesar’. Speak; Caesar is turned to hear. soothsayer: Beware the ides of March. [Act 1, sc. 2, l. 15.] Shakespeare also uses the word 'soothsayer' in his play Antony and Cleopatra. His source for both plays was from translations of the work of Plutarch who only wrote his historical text in the Greek language. Neither Plutarch or Shakespeare actually give the name of the soothsayer or any information as to his origin. However, the probable source could still be traced to Suetonius who wrote on Julius Caesar at this time in his Svetoni Tranqvilii Vita Divi Ivli that: [...] et immolantem haruspex Spurinna monuit, caueret periculum, quod non ultra Martias Idus proferretur.16 J. C. Rolfe translates this text as: [...] the soothsayer Spurinna warned him to beware of danger, which would come not later than the Ides of March: 17 A simple reading of this translation does not reveal that Spurinna was an Etruscan, but as far as we know the role of haruspex was exclusive to the Etruscans. Spurinna was personally employed by Julius Caesar, who took no notice of this caution and was duly assassinated on the 15th of March. Spurinna is also mentioned by Pliny the Elder, while Plutarch and Dio frequently refer to the warning, although without mention of Spurinna's name.
  7. 7. An inscribed bronze tablet was discovered in 1524 in Lyons. Its Latin text is a segment of a speech made by the emperor Claudius to a convened Roman senate in 48 CE. Werner Keller writes that: "Servius Tullius," begins Claudius, "was, if we follow our Roman sources, the son of Ocrisia, a prisoner of war." But then the emperor goes on: "If we follow Etruscan sources, he was a loyal friend of Caelius Vibenna and his companion in all his ventures." Claudius then gives the Etruscan version, according to which Servius Tullius came from Etruria with the remains of Caelius's army, and occupied a hill in Rome henceforth named accordingly the Caelian. He then changed his name-it was Mastarna in Etruscan-to Servius Tullius and became king of Rome, "to its great advantage." 18 Keller continues: This statement, coming from an emperor, created something of a sensation. There could be no doubt about the expert authority of the speaker. For Claudius was a historian who knew his subject inside out. Long before he became emperor, [...] he had devoted himself with passionate enthusiasm to learning. He was above all interested in a subject which Roman authors had always studiously neglected, even though it was closely connected with Rome's own history, namely the past of the Etruscans. 19 Keller suggests that: The deeds of the great, ancient people had begun to fade from memory, when unexpectedly the ranks of its enemy and conqueror produced a man who put together everything important that could still be discovered about the Etruscans' past. [...] The story of how he came to do this begins in the lifetime of Augustus. One of the ladies often seen at the imperial court was Urgulania. She was, as is clearly proved by the recent discovery of her name in an inscription at Tarquinia, a member of an Etruscan noble family. She was a close friend of Livia, the emperor's wife, and as such enjoyed so privileged a position that, as Tacitus puts it, she was placed "above the law." 20
  8. 8. Arcuatus currus A two-wheeled carriage with an arched awning over head. This example is from a painting in an Etruscan tomb. 21 When Claudius was a young boy, Emperor Augustus proposed that the grandson of Livia's friend Urgulania, Plautius Silvanus should escort him to functions to see that he did not get into trouble or do anything inapproptiate. Silvanus's sister Plautia Urgulanilla later became Claudius's first wife. This marriage closely connected Claudius with some of the last members of the Etruscan aristocracy.22 Bonfante states that: The scholarly emperor Claudius studied with Livy, whose early books preserve information on the Etruscans. Claudius wrote in Greek a history of the Etruscans, Tyrrhenika, in twenty volumes: they would have been a precious resource for us, and in fact his reference to Mastarna and to Etruscans who became Roman citizens is preserved in one of his speeches. 23 Keller adds that: Claudius, [...] insist[ed] that the "oldest Italian art" should not die out. In a speech to the senate in 47 [CE], of which fragments have survived, he proposed the establishment of a college of Etruscan soothsayers (haruspices). He recalled that "Leading Etruscans, on their own initiative— or the Roman senate's —have kept up the art and handed it down from father to son." But what still existed in imperial times was subsequently lost. Not a single document has survived, either in the original Etruscan or in Latin translation. It is hard to believe that this was the result of pure chance. It seems highly likely that what was considered a dangerous inheritance from "pagan" times was the victim of deliberate, systematic destruction. With the emergence of Christianity there began a ruthless war on all the ancient religions and cults. 24
  9. 9. The later Christian emperor, Theodosius I [The Great] (347-395 CE), issued a decree in 392 CE that imposed heavy penalties on any kind of haruspicy. Anyone who sacrificed an animal and consulted the entrails for the intention of divination incurred the same punishment as for high treason and might well be burned alive. 25 The renowned library of Alexandria was deliberately burned down, resulting in a tremendous loss of knowledge for all humanity. It is not known if Claudius' texts perished at this time, conceivably they were destroyed during the earlier reign of Nero. After the death of Theodosius in 395 CE, the control of the Roman empire was shared between his two sons (it was never to reunite again). The western empire was given over to Honorius (384 - 423 CE). Shortly afterwards, the famed and most significant Etruscan sacred text Etrusca Disciplina, was publicly burned in Rome. In 405, Pope Innocentius (Innocent) I proclaimed a list of prohibited books. 26 Emperor Honorius was one of the most incompetent leaders the Romans ever had. In 409 CE or 410 CE, he lost the Roman governance of Britain, which had been for three hundred and sixty-seven continuous years under Roman rule, ever since Claudius's invasion. Roman occupation had finally ended. 27 That same year the Visigoths army edged on to the city of Rome itself. The Etruscan haruspex volunteered their help to Innocent I, claiming that they could bring down lightning on the enemy and thus save the city. The soothsayers insisted that their ritual be held in public, and that the ancient pre-Christian sacrifices should be carried out in the capitol, but the senate was not prepared to allow this. Count Zosimus, the eminent sixth century historian wrote: [...] the Romans, [...] despairing therefore of all things that conduce to human strength, called to mind the aid which the city had formerly met with in emergencies; and that they, by transgressing their ancient institutions, were now left destitute of it. While they were occupied in these reflections, Pompeianus, the prefect of the city, accidentally met with some persons who were come to Rome from Tuscany, and related that a town called Neveia had delivered itself from extreme danger, the Barbarian having been repulsed from it by storms of thunder and lightning, which was caused by the devotion of its inhabitants to the gods, in the ancient mode of worship. Having discoursed with these men, he performed all that was in his power according to the books of the chief priests. Recollecting, however, the opinions that were then prevalent, he resolved to proceed with greater caution, and proposed the whole affair to the bishop of the city, whose name was Innocentius. Preferring the preservation of the city to his own private opinion, he gave them permission to do privately whatever they knew to be convenient. They declared however that what they were able to do would be of no utility, unless the public and customary sacrifices were performed, and unless the senate ascended to the capitol, performing there, and in the different markets of the city, all that was essential. But no person daring to join in the ancient religions ordinances, they dismissed the men who were come from Tuscany, and applied themselves to the endeavouring to appease the Barbarians in the best possible manner. 28
  10. 10. The fact that the proposal was made and discussed with Innocentius I shows how earnestly the Etruscan doctrine was still taken in the beginning of the fifth century. The city of Rome fell and was sacked on the 24th of August, 410 CE and the once famous Etruscan talent of divination vanished from history. Honorius fled to his new capital of Ravenna. The Roman empire never fully recovered from the incident. As mentioned earlier, Claudius' historical texts may have perished in the time of Nero. However, Albert Grenier suggests that Claudius may very well be the source of the statements about the Etruscans used by Roman writers such as Tacitus and the minor historian Festus. 29 Not a single written chapter of their ancient Etruscan history was preserved in Italy, along with Claudius's unique historical text. If a single copy or even a reasonable fragment of Claudius's history of the Etruscan people is ever found, it will help resolve many tantalising questions that still puzzle archaeologists, historians and linguists in the 21st century. 30 Keller concludes that: No other European people has been as neglected as the Etruscans, and the legacy of no other group has been so systematically destroyed. It is as though posterity had conspired to erase every trace of a nation whose pioneer activity constituted the first major chapter in the history of the West. 31
  11. 11. End Notes Note 1: Ellis, Robert, (1870), The Asiatic affinities of the old Italians, (London : Trbner). Campbell-Dunn, G. J. K, (2004), Comparative grammar Etruscan and Niger-Congo, (Christchurch : Penny Farthing Press). Szalek, Benon Zbigniew, (2003), The Etruscan problem in the light of heuristics: a research report, (Szczecin : B. Z. Szalek). Toth, Siegmund, (1976), Divine antiquities, Vol. 1, Decipherment of the Etruscan language. ([S.l.] : [s.n.]). Woudhuizen, Fred, (1992), The Language of the Sea People, (Amsterdam: Najade Press). Note 2: Woodard, Roger D., (Ed.), (2004: 943), The Cambridge encyclopaedia of the world's ancient languages, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Note 3: Bonfante, Giuliano and Bonfante, Larissa, (2002: Xlll), The Etruscan Language: an introduction, (2nd Ed.), (Manchester : Manchester University Press). Note 5: Bonfante, Giuliano and Bonfante, Larissa, (2002: 30), The Etruscan Language: an introduction, (2nd Ed.), (Manchester : Manchester University Press). Note 6: Keller, Werner, (1975: xii, xiii), The Etruscans, [Trans. from the German by Alexander and Elizabeth Henderson]. (London: Book Club Associates). Note 7: Livy, T., (1919, 2002: 80 - 81), The History of Rome: Books 1-2, [Trans. from the Latin by B. O. Foster], (Cambridge, Massachusetts: London: Loeb Classical Library). Note 8: Grenier, Albert, (1926, 1970: 32), The Roman Spirit in Religion, Thought, and Art, (New York: Cooper Square). Note 9: Grenier, Albert, (1926, 1970: 32), The Roman Spirit in Religion, Thought, and Art, (New York: Cooper Square). Note 10: article: Rix, Helmut, (2004: 946), "Etruscan" in The Cambridge encyclopaedia of the world's ancient languages, Woodard, Roger D., (Ed.), (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Note 11: Bonfante, Giuliano and Bonfante, Larissa, (2002: xv), The Etruscan Language: an introduction, (2nd The Etruscan Language: an introduction, (2nd Ed.), (Manchester : Manchester University Press). Note 12: article: Rix, Helmut, (2004: 951), "Etruscan" in The Cambridge encyclopaedia of the world's ancient languages, Woodard, Roger D., (Ed.), (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). This is similar to modern Hungarian.
  12. 12. Note 13: article: Rix, Helmut, (2004: 946), "Etruscan" in The Cambridge encyclopaedia of the world's ancient languages, Woodard, Roger D., (Ed.), (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Note 14: Bonfante, Giuliano and Bonfante, Larissa, (2002: 33), The Etruscan Language: an introduction, (2nd Ed.), (Manchester : Manchester University Press). Note 15: Suetonius Tranquillus, Caius, (1908: 41), C. Suetoni Tranquilli Opera ... Recensuit Maximilianus Ihm, Vol. 1 Libri VIII, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Graecorum et Romanorum Teubneriana, Lipsiae. The term 'soothsayer' comes from both 'sooth' + 'sayer'. The word 'sooth' comes from the ProtoGermanic, there are cognates throughout northern Europe. Historically the word 'sooth' means for truth, to please with gentle words or to flatter. Barnhart, Robert K., (Ed.), (1988: 1034), Chambers Dictionary of Etymology, (Edinburgh: Chambers). Walter Skeat gives an Anglo-Saxon reference in the Old English of Ælfric's Homilies: "söðsegen" signifying a true saying. Skeat, Walter W., (Ed.), (1910: 581), An Etymological Dictionary of the English Language, (4th Ed.), (Oxford: Clarendon Press). Plutarch, (1958, 1972: 9, 10, 303), Fall of the Roman Republic: Six Lives by Plutarch, [Trans. from the Greek by Rex Warner], (London: Penguin Books). Adkins, Lesley and Adkins, Roy A., (Eds.), (1996, 2000: 97), Dictionary of Roman Religion, (New York: Oxford University Press). Keller, Werner, (1975), The Etruscans, [Trans. from the German by Alexander and Elizabeth Henderson]. (London: Book Club Associates). Rich, Anthony, (Ed.), (1873: 271, 329), Dictionary of Roman and Greek Antiquities, (3rd Ed.), (London: Longmans, Green, & Co.). Note 16: Suetonius, Tranquillus, Caius, (1908: 41), C. Suetoni Tranquilli Opera ... Recensuit Maximilianus Ihm, Vol. 1. Libri LXXXI, (Bibliotheca Scriptorum Graecorum et Romanorum Teubneriana), (Lipsiae: B. G. Teubner). Note 17: Suetonius, Tranquillus, Caius, (1913, 1951, 1998: 136, 137), The Lives of the Caesars LXXXI: Vol. I, Loeb Classical Library No. 31, [Trans. from the Latin by J.C. Rolfe], (Cambridge, Massachusetts and London: Harvard University Press). Note 18: Keller, Werner, (1975: 390), The Etruscans, [Trans. from the German by Alexander and Elizabeth Henderson], (London: Book Club Associates) . Note 19: Keller, Werner, (1975: 390), The Etruscans, [Trans. from the German by Alexander and Elizabeth Henderson], (London: Book Club Associates) . Note 20: Keller, Werner, (1975: 137 - 138), The Etruscans, [Trans. from the German by Alexander and Elizabeth Henderson], (London: Book Club Associates) .
  13. 13. Note 21: Rich, Anthony, (Ed.), (1873: 51), Dictionary of Roman and Greek Antiquities, (3rd Ed.), (London: Longmans, Green, & Co.). Note 22: Keller, Werner, (1975: 389), The Etruscans, [Trans. from the German by Alexander and Elizabeth Henderson], (London: Book Club Associates). Note 23: Bonfante, Giuliano and Bonfante, Larissa, (2002: 33), The Etruscan Language: an introduction, (2nd Ed.), (Manchester : Manchester University Press). Note 24: Keller, Werner, (1975: 79), The Etruscans, [Trans. from the German by Alexander and Elizabeth Henderson], (London: Book Club Associates). Note 25: Keller, Werner, (1975: 398), The Etruscans, [Trans. from the German by Alexander and Elizabeth Henderson], (London: Book Club Associates). Note 26: Pascoe, L.C., and Phythian, Brian (Eds.), (1991: 72), Encyclopaedia of Dates and Events, (Sevenoaks, Kent: Headway). Note 27: Zosimus, (1814: 177), The History of Count Zosimus: sometimes advocate and chancellor of the Roman Empire, Book VI, [Trans. from the Greek], (London: W. Green and T. Chaplin). Note 28: Zosimus, (1814: 165, 166), The History of Count Zosimus: sometimes advocate and chancellor of the Roman Empire, Book V, [Trans. from the Greek], (London: W. Green and T. Chaplin). Note 29: Grenier, Albert, (1926, 1970: 35), The Roman Spirit in Religion, Thought, and Art, (New York: Cooper Square). Note 30: Keller, Werner, (1975: 398), The Etruscans, [Trans. from the German by Alexander and Elizabeth Henderson], (London: Book Club Associates) . Note 31: Keller, Werner, (1975: xiii), The Etruscans, [Trans. from the German by Alexander and Elizabeth Henderson], (London: Book Club Associates). Etruscan Epigraphic Font created by Jack Kilmon.
  14. 14. Other Media by Keith Armstrong Classical history Emperor Claudius I the man: his physical impairment and reactions to it by Keith Armstrong "Challenges the suggestion that both Emperor Claudius I and Franklin Delano Roosevelt had Polio. Both world leaders had major physical impairments before they came to public office." http://www.academia.edu/4779256/Emperor_Claudius_I_the_man_his_physical_i mpairmen t_and_reactions_to_it_by_Keith_Armstrong http://www.slideshare.net/yourkamden/claudius-the-man-his-physicalimpairment-and- reactions-to-it India and Sri Lanka in the time of the Roman Julio-Claudians by Keith Armstrong http://www.academia.edu/3995659/India_and_Sri_Lanka_in_the_time_of_the_Roma n_Juli o-Claudians_by_Keith_Armstrong http://www.slideshare.net/yourkamden/claudius-the-man-his-physicalimpairment-and- reactions-to-it A few words about the word the 'claudius': An etymological journey; five short essays on the word 'claudius' by Keith Armstrong http://www.academia.edu/3631405/A_few_words_about_the_word_the_claudius_ An_etym ological_journey_Five_short_essays_on_the_word_claudius_Keith_Armstrong http://www.slideshare.net/yourkamden/a-few-words-about-the-wordclaudius-keith- armstrong
  15. 15. Etymology The Old English Origin of the Word Cripple Revised by Keith Armstrong Linguistics, Etymology, Anglo-Saxon, Bible Studies, Disability Studies, Latin, Lindisfarne Gospels, Old English http://www.academia.edu/3631339/The_Old_English_Origin_of_the_Word_Crippl e_Revis ed_-_Keith_Armstrong http://www.slideshare.net/yourkamden/the-old-english-origin-of-the-word-cripplerevised- ke A history of the word handicap extended by Keith Armstrong Linguistics, Etymology, Disability Studies, history, US & UK English, biology, Oxford English Dictionary, eugenics, euthanasia, 1915, The Atlantic Monthly,history of sport http://www.academia.edu/4444987/A_history_of_the_word_handicap_extended_Ke ith_Ar mstrong http://www.slideshare.net/yourkamden/a-history-of-the-word-handicap-extended-bykeith- armstrong http://www.academia.edu/3987594/A_history_of_the_word_Handicap_Revised_and _expan ded_by_Keith_Armstrong A few words about the word the claudius An etymological journey five short essays on the word claudius by Keith Armstrong Claudius or Claudia as a personal or first name, The word 'claudius' and it many meanings in Latin, The word 'claudius' as used in Old and Medieval English, The word 'claudius' in the Cymraeg-Welsh language, The word claudius as used in Anatomical Biological and Medical terms http://www.academia.edu/3631405/A_few_words_about_the_word_the_claudius_An _etym ological_journey_Five_short_essays_on_the_word_claudius_Keith_Armstrong http://www.slideshare.net/yourkamden/a-few-words-about-the-word-claudiuskeith- armstrong
  16. 16. These days Crétins study at the University of London https://www.academia.edu/4947260/These_days_Cretins_study_at_the_University_of_ London_by_Keith_Armstrong http://www.slideshare.net/yourkamden/n-these-days-crtins-study-at-the-university-oflondon-by-keith-armstrong Transport A Review of the Alder Valley North Careline Accessible Bus Service 1986 by Keith Armstrong https://www.academia.edu/4331215/A_Review_of_the_Alder_Valley_North_Careline_A ccessible_Bus_Service_1986_by_Keith_Armstrong http://www.slideshare.net/yourkamden/a-review-of-the-alder-valley-north-carelineaccessible-bus-service-1986-by-keith-armstrong Travelling behind Bars - rail travel in 1980's. http://www.slideshare.net/yourkamden/travelling-behind-bars-by-keith-armstrong Transport (video) Travelling behind Bars - rail travel in 1980's. http://youtu.be/b_ys8-5wWyM https://vimeo.com/77252859 http://www.slideshare.net/yourkamden/travelling-behind-bars-by-keith-armstrong Early 19th Century bicycles http://youtu.be/TKYhVLbJ6vg https://vimeo.com/76308242 https://vimeo.com/76295533 Bicycles and manual wheelchairs - a short history http://youtu.be/NpFaAAo3UPE https://vimeo.com/76080069 Transport & Disability Issues (Audio) Transport & building design USA http://youtu.be/TcMFvbk0IoMn
  17. 17. Voices on accessible public transport part one (Audio) Transport issues USA http://youtu.be/hB4IDSzB-oM Voices on accessible public transport part two (Audio) Transport issues USA http://youtu.be/9IAmGR1CQXk Transport and People with impairments (mainly still images) http://www.flickr.com/photos/ruhuman/sets/72157637367331083/ Transport and design (mainly still images) http://www.flickr.com/photos/ruhuman/sets/72157606166053944/ The Arts Visual arts and photography (mainly still images) http://www.flickr.com/photos/ruhuman/sets/72157606166234794/ a short intermission (abstract video) https://vimeo.com/26031527 Typewriter Art slideshow (art video) https://vimeo.com/24862569 TypeWRITER ArT IV (art video) https://vimeo.com/44710285 typewriter art V(ii) (art video) https://vimeo.com/73660772 Shapes https://vimeo.com/36511921 (minimal art video)
  18. 18. Literature The Complete Contents of The Informer (International Poetry Magazine) 1966 - 1971 https://www.academia.edu/5101363/The_Complete_Contents_of_The_Informer_Intern ational_Poetry_Magazine_1966_-_1971 http://www.slideshare.net/yourkamden/the-informer-complete-contents-1966-197128255473 The Informer (International Poetry Magazine) No: 2: 1967 Edited by Keith Armstrong and David Gill Content Details Page 2- Brenda by Edmund Tustian, Autumn by Alan Wheatcroft, The Quiet Life by Phoebe Timpson. Page 3- Little Me by Caro H., Silent Protest by Caro H., The Snow by ?, My Love by Carm. Mac, To Mice and Women by Carm. Mac, I'm Living By Myself by Alistair Wisker. Page 4- Seek...And Ye Shall Find by Nike Sebastian Duke, The Lift by Micheal Bullock, Paul by Carm. Mac, Spring by Keith Armstrong, Thoughts of Boarding School by Kaye Tea, Joy by Phoebe Timpson. Page 5- Reviews poetry books "Christ" Gavin Bantock, "Men without Evenings" David Gill, and Magazines received. Page 6- The Pen by Zel Toevsky, Bells by Micheal Bullock, Page 7- Book reviews by Victor Delainey (James MacDonald), My Turn by John O'Hara, Valley of the Dolls by Jacqueline Susann, The Adventurers by Harold Robbins. Page 8- Memories After Leaving by Angelano, Poem by Micheal Newman, I paint by Paul Metler. Page 9- Obsevarions by Micheal Newman, I Am Sure by Alistair Wisker, What's The Use by Roger Wild. Page 10-Colour Schemes by Micheal Newman, Stars by Michael Bullock, I Shout For Peace by Keith Armstrong. Page 11-A March for World Peace Page 12- Reader correspondence by Y.R Noland. Page 13- The Wallet, a short story by Dirain, Page 14- The Wallet, a short story by Dirain (cont/), Viola Luizzo by Edmund Tustian. http://www.slideshare.net/yourkamden/informer-no-2
  19. 19. The Informer International Poetry Magazine No 8: 1968 Edited by Keith Armstrong and David Gill Content Details P5-6 Break Ice For The Wild Swan, article by Hugh McKinley P7-11 Poems by Ondra Lysohorsky (translated by Hugh McKinley) The Sun, On Lysohorsa, Town On The Black Sea, In The Quarry, The House, The Tree, The Tuner P11 A Slav Poet, article by Boris Pasternak P12-18 Poems by Ondra Lysohorsky (translated by Lydia Pasternak Slater) Vegetable Market In Ostrava, Ponds of Hrusov, Venetian Bridges, Beethoven In The Desert, Summer, Room In Tashkent, DragonFly In Autumn, By The Open Window, In The Ukraine (For Alexander Dowzhenko), Mahatma Gandhi, Poetry (For Charles Baudelaire) Holderlin P19-25 Poems by Ondra Lysohorsky (translated by Ewald Osers) Universe And History, Rhymes?, Early Spring, Dawn, John Huss, Swallow In Poitiers, Ballad Of Jan Pallach, Student And Heretic P26-27 Review by David Gill (The White Hind by David Morrison) P27- Night Has Fallen by Georg Coombs, OMNES by John Fleming, Plea by Wanda Allen Moore, Answer To An Invitation by Lydia Pasternak Slater P28- Message To An Unborn Infant by Martin Booth P29-33 Review by R.G (Junior poems, Stroud Festival 1968, Review Eastern Lovesong And Other Poems by Violet Bowen, Review Living Poetry by Claire May Overy, Review World Aflame by Billy Graham P35- Evergreen, Message and Sierre Madre by Iain Sinclair, Fruit Salad by Lydia Pasternak Slater http://www.slideshare.net/yourkamden/informer-international-poetry-magazine-no-8-1968 dreams (poems) by keith armstrong published by Circle Books (Oxford) 1968. Out of print Music & other audio "An Amazing Grace" by Keith Armstrong 45 rpm (Old Knew Wave Records) 1979 not available Soundcloud : ruhuman http://soundcloud.com/user8580052

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