This slide sums it all up. These are the risk factor categories. When you look at a job it is important to break it down into each risk factor category. Force- Weight of an object, torque level on a bolt. Repetition – Cycle time, number of screws, overall hours of exposure per day Vibration – Hand arm vibration from tools, whole body vibration from vehicles (forklifts) Contact stress- Physical contact between your body and an object, for example leaning your elbow on a table. Posture – The position and motion of your body during work Environment – Lighting, temperature, humidity, noise Personal – Some diseases will increase risks of CTD’s; certain medications, a persons overall fitness will affect their risk level. Often it is not possible to reduce a category of risk. For example you may not be able to reduce the repetition rate, however, you may be able to reduce the force involved in completing each repetition. There will always be risk factors on jobs. This does not mean that all jobs produce injury. It is a question of the magnitude and overall exposure to the risk that will determine injury potential.
CTDs are the focus of ergonomics. The good news is that they don’t happen suddenly. There will often be some discomfort, signs or symptoms BEFORE a serious injury will occur. It is important to address discomfort early to avoid developing a serious issue. May affect: Muscles Tendons Ligaments Nerves Cartilage Spinal disks Note: In the office, the common areas at risk include the lower back and the upper extremities (hands/wrists, forearms/elbows, shoulder).
Anthropometry is related to: body sizes range of movement muscle strength clearances reach/vision envelopes. It is a fundamental tool necessary in the design and layout of the workplace.
Look at how your keyboard and mouse are used. Adjust position to minimize the hand/wrist stress.
Briefly describe the effects of posture & strength DEMONSTRATION: Biofeedback on the wrists w/ associated explanations.
Reductions in strength due to abduction. The arms weigh 13% of our total body weight. This is why reaching becomes stressful… It is not the weight of the test tube we are concerned with, it’s the 13 lbs of arm weight that you are lifting. Not a big deal if done several times daily. However, 100’s or 1000’s of repetitions may be an issue!
Improving through moving
Exercise and Rheumatic Diseases
improving through moving
Jennifer Horonjeff, MS, PhD Candidate
Ergonomic Consultant, Certified Pilates Instructor
Program of Ergonomics and Biomechanics
Occupational & Industrial Orthopaedic Center
New York University
What are your complaints about the disease?
What are your excuses for not to exercising?
Do you feel comfortable talking about exercise
with your doctor?
• Reaction Time
• Muscle activation strategies
THE BODY CAN REWIRE!
and fibromyalgia who
complain of less pain
Pain and Fatigue
Lack of Physical Activity
•Deconditioning of muscles
•Activities require greater effort
•Increase chance for injury
•Increase in pain
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and
American College of Sports Medicine
Accumulate at least 30 minutes of moderate intensity
physical activity on most, if not all days of the week.
30 MIN DOES NOT NEED TO BE CONSECUTIVE!
Listen to your body
Find range where you feel good without
over-doing it and you’ll be more likely to
stick with it!
No one program is right for everyone
Is it safe?
Types of Exercise
Alone not able to bolster bone mineral density
Dynamic high-intensity exercise
Reduction of disease activity greater than usual care
Non-weight bearing exercises
Best when baseline radiologic damage exists
Some people have experienced feeling better than did with land exercises
MUST BE ENJOYABLE!
Fitness programs with social or self-efficacy
component had greater compliance
During a flare: PRESERVE!
When under control: Improve fitness and participation in activities
Aids in release of tightened muscle bands and provides
Stretch to point of resistance and hold stretch
•Allows Golgi tendon to signal muscle fibers to relax
DO NOT stretch to point of increased pain—causes
muscle fibers to contract and have opposite effect.
•Improve aerobic capacity
•Improve cardiovascular health
•Reduction in pain
•Improve functional abilities
•Improve quality of life
•Improve sense of well-being
•Improve quality of sleep
•Reduce anxiety and depression
Musculoskeletal DisordersMusculoskeletal Disorders
• Acute Trauma Disorders (ATD’s)Acute Trauma Disorders (ATD’s)
• Injuries which occur instantaneously due to
a known cause
• Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTD’s)Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTD’s)
• Injuries occurring over time due to
repeated exposure to various risk factors