THE EROSION OF TIME :• School calender.• Instructional time.• The pace of instruction.• Teacher time-on-task.• Student time-on-task.
PRISONERS OF TIME :The National Education Commission reported ,in April 1994, that schools were very much controlled by the clock and that true school reform must re-examine the allocation and use of time in the schools. The report came up with eight recommendations as the rudder of a school reform:
Reinvest school around learning, not time.Fix the design flaw: use time in new and better ways.Establish an academic dayKeep schools open longer to meet the needs of children and communities.Give teachers the time they need.Invest in technology.Develop local action plans to transform schools.Share the responsibility: finger-pointing and evasion must end.
BLOCK SCEDULING:• What is a Block Schedule? On a Block Schedule, the length of class periods gets doubled. For example, students attend four 90-minute classes each day rather than six 50-minute classes each day. Because of the increased time in each course, a student can complete a traditional years worth of study in one semester. This allows students to take more courses throughout a school year and opens up the possibility to study either a wider range of elective subjects or more depth in a particular subject such as science, math or history.
Advantages of block scheduling: Extra time supports more project-based learning and more learning activities. Teachers see fewer students each day and know them better. Time permits more cooperative and hands-on learning. Greater depth and breadth of content is possible. Less time spent in between class transitions. Opportunity for providing more individualized instructions. Blocks allow time for more and more one-on-one teaching and evaluation. Teachers ‘planning time is longer and more feasible. Students have less homework each weekday. Blocks allow more time to integrate technology into instruction.
Disadvantages of block scheduling: Teachers face the challenges of holding students’ attention. Teachers must have a variety of instructional skills. Teachers have to spend more time with exasperating classes. Students lack daily reinforcement of content. Students find it harder to catch up after absences. Impact on achievement is still questionable. Teachers may end up teaching more courses in a year. Student transfers between schools are more difficult to handle. Blocks may decrease participation in extra-curricular activities. (largely due to schedule conflicts with academic courses).
Six tips for minimizing classroom interruptions. Carry a stopwatch for a day or a week Let the world know that intrusions are not welcome Hang out a sign outside the doors, such as Important Learning in Progress or Please do not disturb : Learning in Progress If doors or windows provide too many visual distractions, rearrange the furniture to face away from the distraction Let other teachers know that sending students to borrow supplies during class is not welcome. Be tactful but assertive Conduct a well planned, organized lesson, have the necessary materials ready before class begins.
Teacher time robbers:Teachers usually suffer from the activities that they most frequently cite as keeping them from doing their job better. The following are examples of those activities: filling out forms, paper work. repeating directions. dealing with unplanned interruptions. doing clerical tasks , photocopying. handling classroom behavior.
Classroom routines:Here are some specific routines some teachers find helpful in running their classrooms daily activities.Taking attendance.Distributing and collecting materials.Regaining students’ attention.
Storage solutionsA place for everything, and everything in its place
The challenge of paperworkChallenges of producing paperwork are :• Question of environment .• Time consuming.
Causes of the paper DelugeWhat are the causes of having a lot of papers? The number of publications has exploded. Many people are concerned with documentation. The invention of technology (photocopier and computer).
Some tips for handling paperworkNever save papers because you might need them someday.Set aside one day a year to purge all your files of any piece of paper you don’t need.Save only one copy of papers you need in the future.In your desk or at the front of your file drawer, keep three folders ; label the first Corespondence, the second Schedules, and the third Forms.A computer has the potential to help with all kinds of paper work chores.
CommunicationsA teacher’s job entails hundreds of communications each day.Tips fo effective use of communication channels:Leave notes for teachers, administrators,or students_rather than taking time to wait for someone.Use a Rolodex file to record important phone and fax numbers and email adresses …etcDevelop your own form of letters.
Teacher Time LogTeacher Time Log is a record that reveals how class time is really spent.The Log aims at :heplping you get a good reflection on where your time really goes.Developing new strategies that help you spend more time on doing higher-priority activites
To-Do ListList everything you need or want to get done.Set your priorities. A - Must be done B – Should be completed if at all possible C – Low priority, completed only after doing A’s and B’s Prioritize tasks within each group.Developing this habit will increase productivity.
Assessing Student Time-On-TaskHow ?Focus on decreasing noninstructional activites.Increasing student engagement rates.Using a systematic observation :how long does it take to get a class started ?how smooth are the transitions from one task to the next ?
Procrastinations payoffsDifferent ‘reason’ for procrastinations.Procrastinations as a life style.Some of its ADVANTAGES !!!Cases in which it occurs.
Attacking procrastinationBegin small and progress as you experience success.Establish your own deadlines.Set a definite beginning point.Set priorities.Reward yourself.
Tipsongettingorginized Plan for Discover you prime time. Know what success Are you an early you want!! bird or a night owl? When you are . most creative.Nothing is so fatiguing as the eternal hanging on an uncompletedtask. --William, Letters of William
Look for alternatives to a meeting• E-mail• Telephone call• Adapt the ’ Delphi technoque’
Have an agendaDistribute the written agenda a day or two before the meeting if possible.Invite advance preparation.Clear-cut goals for the meetingSchedule discussion
Begin on timeWaiting for all the late comers to arrive punishes those who are punctual.Make sure the meeting will begin on timeSuggest to the chairperson that the meeting begin.Send out the notice and agenda for the begining and ending.Try to begin off-hour times
Include only necessary peopleInvite only those persons whose presence is directly related to the meeting goals.Attend only those meetings at which your presence is essencial.
Select a conductive environmentSeek a location that avoids traffic flow.Close the doorBe interrupted only for emergencies.Don’t allow cell phones.Rerrange the chairs to fit the meeting purpose.
Keep the meeting on taskEvery meeting room must have a clockSummarize segnificant points.Remain sensitive to participants’s hidden agendas.
Record progressKeep a written account of the discussion.Use PERT to help manage large projects.Summarize decisions and include a list of responsibilities for the follow up action.If the group is meeting again,Include the meeting time and agenda.
End on timeAgree on specific ending time at the begining and use back-to-back technique.Set the time for your next meeting before the meeting
Student helpGive students a chance to learn new skills.Introduce student assistance the first week of school.Ask students to complete specific tasks.