Chapter lll:Based on: How To Teach Speaking by Scott Thorn buryPresented by:Omar Taky eddine Younes TAIAUniversity of IBN-ZOHR Teaching Productive SkillsMA TEFL&ICT Prof. Richard KahnSemester 2
L1 & L2Communication strategiesWhat L2 Speakers Need To KnowAvailability for use: Implication forTeachers
Problems• Lack of automaticity can inhibit face to faceinteraction.• How much grammatical and lexical a speaker has.• Shortage of opportunities for practice (ofcommunication in L2) is one of the main factors inspeaking failure.• Being afraid of making mistakes.• Distributing their attention between planning andarticulation, beside the new input they are exposed to.• Excessive self monitoring. (krashen Monitoroverusers).
Similarities between L1 & L2• In terms of the stages of mental processinginvolved, there is probably not muchdifference at all.• They both produce speech through aprocess of conceptualizing, thenformulating, and finally articulating, duringwhich they are also self-monitoring.
Differences between L1 & L2• In terms of vocabularies andGrammar.• Unavailability of knowledge.• Complicated process when the personconcerned think in L1 and Speaks inL2.
Communication Strategies.• Circumlocution: such as I get a red in my head tomean shy.• Word coinage: such as vegetarianist forvegetarian.• Foreignizing a word: such as turning the Spanishword carpeta (meaning a file for papers) into theEnglish-sounding a carpet.• Approximation: using an alternative, relatedword, such as using work table for workbench.
• Using an all-purpose word, such as stuff, thing,make, do• Language switch: using the L1 word or expression(also called Code switching)• Para linguistics: using gesture, mime, and so on, toconvey the intended meaning.• Appealing for help, e.g. by leaving an utteranceincomplete, as in:I just want…hmm• Avoidance strategy.• Discourse strategy.
What L2 speakers need to know• Sociocultural knowledge:It’s the knowledge about social values and the norms ofbehaviors in a given society, including the way these rules,values and norms are realized through language. Intercultural competence• Genre knowledge:• Genre knowledge includes knowing how different speechevents are structured• the term ‘genre’ is used simply to mean a type of speechevent, especially in terms of how that speech event might belabelled by its participants.• Speech acts: (functions)The ways specific speech acts are typically encoded. E.g. waysadvice, suggestion. Agreeing. Complaining. Introducingyourself
• Register:• How to adapt these speech-act formulas for different situations (thestatus of the person they are talking to)Role-plays• Discourse:• involves using grammar and vocabulary in order to connect speaking turnsand to signal speaker intentions.Discourse markers; (that reminds me of/ By theway/ Yes, but/ Uh-huh…)• Grammar:• Grammar systems that favour rapid speech production.• sentence grammar has limited usefulness for speaking learners should be able to distinguish betweenspoken and written grammar. E.g. reportedspeech, subordinate clauses, the passive
• Vocabulary: native speakers employ over 2,500 words tocover 95% of their needs.FrequencySome examples: wh-words to formulate questions ,modal verbs, demonstrative pronouns,prepositions, linking words…• Phonology:the influence of the first language pronunciation. intelligibilityAreas crucial for intelligibility:1)certain consonant sounds.2) the contrast between long and short vowels,3) words and sentence stress. For example, "subject,"when pronounced SUB-ject, is a topic of discussion. Ifthe stress falls on the last syllable, as in sub-JECT,then the word becomes a verb, meaning to causesomeone to suffer.
• I said she might consider a new haircut.• I said she might consider a new haircut.• I said she might consider a new haircut.• I said she might consider a new haircut.• I said she might consider a new haircut.• I said she might consider a new haircut.• I said she might consider a new haircut.• Not just a haircut.• Its a possibility.• It was my idea.• Not something else.• Dont you understand me?• Not another person.• She should think about it. its a good idea.
• How knowledge be made available for use?• What knowledge is required for speaking?
Availability for use: implications forteaching• There have been three theories that are relevant to theteaching speaking:oThe behaviorist theory: Tabula Rasa / modelling, repetition ,practice/ PPPo Explicit focus on the rules of the systemo Listening and imitating a taped dialogue, then the performance of thedialogue in class.oThe cognitivist theory: awareness rising: attention, noticing,understanding.
Socio-cultural theoryoall learning is mediated through social andcultural and cultural activityoTeacher interact with the learner to provide asupportive framework.o Solving pbs in small group during which theteacher intervenes when necessary to providesuggestions or often to model the targetedbehavior.