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  1. 1. MATE 33rd Annual Conference Marrakech 28-31 Jabuary 2013 Beyond Gender: Is Englishbecoming exclusive in Morocco? Abdelmajid Bouziane Faculty of Letters and Humanities Ben Msik Casablanca
  2. 2. Outline• Prospects related to English in Morocco• State-of-the art of English provisions in Morocco• The English divide
  3. 3. Prospects• The Financial Times’ specialist division FDI Intelligence named Morocco the African Country of the Future 2011/12 due to its ongoing success in attracting foreign direct investment (FDI).• The average salary gap between non-English speakers and English speakers is estimated at around 12% in Morocco• 85% of Moroccans consider speaking English beneficial for the country (Euromonitor reprt 2012: 24-25)
  4. 4. Which languages do we speak in Morocco?
  5. 5. How many speak English in Morocco?
  6. 6. Why do Moroccans learn English?
  7. 7. Sectors that demand English
  8. 8. Opportunities for development?Big projects in Morocco:• Nearshoring and offshoring (50,000 jobs in call centres; aeronautic industry, IT services, …)• Digital Morocco 2013 (e-gov, e-commerce, 10,000 engineers a year, …)• Plan Azur (20M tourists by 2020)• Plan Maroc vert: agriculture to increase by 2.5 by 2020• The National Initiative for Human Development (INDH)• Environment: renewed energy• Education: literacy, languages, GENIE, quality, …
  9. 9. English provisions in private / public sectors
  10. 10. ELT status in public institutions• Starting English earlier (back to 70s, shrinking)• Oral in the Bac exams abolished• Preformation classes abolished• Group hours abolished• Number of hours of English reduced• Number of supervisors critically reduced• Pre-service training radically changed (less input)• … we must shift our focus from knowledge to skills --shifting the focus from what students know to what students know how to do with their English (Buckner, 2008: 116)
  11. 11. English in Higher education and media• Access to Departments of English restricted• Large size classes in HE (early retirement –DVD-)• Most input in the departments of English related to literature, linguistics, culture, …• English in schools of humanities replaced with French• English provisions in vocational training and science/engineering/management schools need more structuring• News in English on TV abolished• Learning English on TV abolished (Aloula)• Newspapers and journals stopped publishing
  12. 12. Is enthusiasm enough?• … the language of international communication and scientific and technological development is, and will remain for a long time, English. (Benyakhlef, 1987: 5)• … the importance of English not only as a language of science and technology but also that of economics, and trade – on the whole, the language of culture in the world. (Alaoui Mdaghri, 1994: 4)• This [the spread of English and its use in different international and regional gatherings] all means that we Moroccans, whether we are in government, in business, or simply as individuals, need to know English, hence the importance of the role of your association [addressing MATE members]. … the motto for scientists is no longer ‘Publish or Perish’ but rather ‘Use English or Perish’. (Guedira, 1998: 6)• … English is no longer the language of the British [referring to its native speakers] like French is the language of the French or Japanese of the Japanese; rather, English is the language of everyone (all). (Aourid, 2000: 6)
  13. 13. Spread of English in Morocco (1)• Private schools (less than 10% of pupils)• Through ICT (the Net), the media (social networks => hyper incidental learning!)• Babysitters from Asia hired by wealthy Moroccan families
  14. 14. Spread of English in Morocco (2)Places for elites:• proliferation of language centres (including in small towns),• primary thru high schools with English as a medium of instruction (American and British schools, 65% are Moroccan pupils),• HE institutions with subjects provided in English (BAs, BScs, MAs, MBAs – sometimes at exorbitant fees!),• increasing number of graduates from English-speaking countriesAll the above address issues related to development in Morocco: is this equal opportunity?
  15. 15. Same Same opportunities
  16. 16. Takeaway message!• Unless we reduce the Englishdivide now, …
  17. 17. References• MATE Proceedings (1987, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2008)• Bouziane, A. (in press) English Language Profile: Morocco. Report written for the British Council• Ramaswami, S., Sarraf, I., Haydon, J. (2012) The Benefits of the English Language for Individuals and Societies: Quantitative Indicators from Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Tunisia and Yemen. Euromonitor International. Available on: ts-english-language-individuals-societies-quantitative- indicators-algeria-egypt
  18. 18. Thank you••••