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use of force

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  1. 1. Excessive Force <ul><li>Mary Arnold </li></ul><ul><li>Michelle Keterson </li></ul><ul><li>Maureen Mavelle </li></ul><ul><li>Katie Schmitter </li></ul><ul><li>Erik Young </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ibSwITK4jjQ
  2. 2. Use of Force <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>-There is no one, all </li></ul><ul><li>encompassing definition </li></ul><ul><li>-Based on a continuum </li></ul><ul><li>-The officer may use force that is equal to that used by the suspect </li></ul><ul><li>-Different for each police department </li></ul>
  3. 3. Deadly Force <ul><li>-When and officer uses force that leads to severe physical harm or death of a suspect </li></ul><ul><li>-Not necessarily excessive </li></ul>
  4. 4. Excessive Force <ul><li>-When an officer clearly uses too much force in a situation </li></ul><ul><li>-Must be decided whether the </li></ul><ul><li>officer acted with </li></ul><ul><li>malicious intent to harm </li></ul><ul><li>or out of a perceived </li></ul><ul><li>threat of danger to </li></ul><ul><li>himself and others. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Prevalence <ul><li>Difficult if not impossible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No national databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media interference </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Dean v. City of Worcester <ul><li>Officers had an active warrant for a man with a history of known violence. </li></ul><ul><li>Officers encountered a man resembling the suspect in an known area for where the suspect might be. </li></ul><ul><li>Police immediately threw him on the ground, face first, and cuffed him. </li></ul><ul><li>Gerard Dean was the wrong man. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sean Bell <ul><li>After leaving a night club, Bell and two other individuals drove down the block and struck an unmarked undercover police van. </li></ul><ul><li>Bell put the car in reverse and struck the van again, missing an undercover police officer. </li></ul><ul><li>Five officers shot over 50 rounds into the car. Over 21 rounds hit the car and killed Sean Bell, severely injuring the other two individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Sean Bell was to be married the following day to the mother of his two young daughters. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Pro’s of Use of Force <ul><li>Gives officer’s an outline to use certain amounts of force for certain situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps officers safe and as well as the offender. </li></ul><ul><li>In court it helps to determine if officers are in the wrong. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Con’s of Use of Force <ul><li>There is no universal continuum of force for officers to abide by. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual agencies teach different ways of dealing with certain situations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is very broad and does not account for the adrenalin that an officer might experience during a certain confrontation. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Utilitarianism <ul><li>The Greater Good </li></ul><ul><li>-Conduct should benefit the happiness of the greatest number of people, even at the expense of the few. </li></ul><ul><li>-Trolley Example </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Police <ul><li>-Police officers are responsible for public safety </li></ul><ul><li>-In some cases that means using force to stop one person from doing damage to others. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Egoism -Definition- Egoism maintains that each man should seek his own good and ignore that of others, except when this would be to his disadvantage. -Example- -Loaning money to a friend.
  13. 13. Explaining Egoism and Excessive Force <ul><li>Knowledge of Interests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everybody knows what is in our own interests. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We know other people’s interests, imperfectly. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Devaluation of the Individual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One life to live. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One opportunity to gain happiness. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Egoism and Excessive Force <ul><li>Protecting the Self </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results from 1 study looking at use of force. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>30 out of 113 cases resulted in excessive force. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Situations explained a gun or physical confrontation took place </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not only protecting the self, but protecting others. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can compare to loaning money to a friend. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Egoism and Excessive Force cont. <ul><li>Police Subculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Training compared to “tips” from veteran officers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Veteran Officers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive force encouraged/learned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New officers earn “shaky” reputation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressured to use excessive force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isolated from other officers if they don’t. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Determinism <ul><li>Everything is predetermined to happen as it actually does happen. Every event has a cause. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Causation <ul><li>Nothing happens that is not caused to happen by some other event, condition, or set of events and/or conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Every event is connected to the preceding events in such a way that if the first events had not occurred, the second would not have occurred. </li></ul>
  18. 18. 4 Casual Factors <ul><li>Social ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Demographics </li></ul><ul><li>Officer attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Institution ideals </li></ul>
  19. 19. Social Ecology <ul><li>High crime areas </li></ul><ul><li>Low crime areas </li></ul>
  20. 20. Demographics <ul><li>Drunk, poor, Afro-American male </li></ul><ul><li>Sober, working class Caucasian male </li></ul>
  21. 21. Officer Attitude <ul><li>It’s us… </li></ul><ul><li>Against them </li></ul>
  22. 22. Institution Ideals <ul><li>Saving face & saving money </li></ul><ul><li>Crime control models and military control models </li></ul>
  23. 23. Ways to Prevent Excessive Force: Training <ul><li>More effective training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On the job training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reality training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swat team training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feasibility </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Ways to PreventExcessive Force: Leadership <ul><li>Hold Leaders Accountable </li></ul>
  25. 25. References <ul><li>Adelman, S. E. (2010, June). Court reaffirms Governing Excessive-Use-of-Force </li></ul><ul><li>      Lawsuits. Corrections Today, 72 (3). Retrieved from http://0-web.ebscohost.com.source.unco.edu/ehost/detail?vid=1&hid=7&sid=4e946792-7bcb-4eea-91ac61ce3164a116%40sessionmgr12&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=52418497 </li></ul><ul><li>CNN (2010). Sean Bell: News & Videos. Retrived from: http://topics.cnn.com/topics/sean_bell </li></ul><ul><li>Dean v. City of Worcester, slip op. (Jan. 23, 1991) (Open Jurist). </li></ul><ul><li>Duffee, D. (1980). Explaining criminal justice: Community theory and criminal justice reform. As cited in: Engel, R.S., 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Durose, M.R., Langan, P.A. & Smith, E.L. (2007). Contacts between police and the public, 2005. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics. </li></ul><ul><li>Engel, R.S. (2008). Revisiting critical issues in police use-of-force research. Criminology & Public Policy . 7(4), 557-562. doi: 10.1080/155488070.156470 </li></ul><ul><li>Fehige, C., Frank, R. Feeling Our Way to the Common Good: Utilitarianism and the Moral Sentiments. http://0-web.ebscohost.com.source.unco.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=6&hid=9&sid=2fdf1198-f75d-482b-9301-b98fa89d56bb%40sessionmgr14 </li></ul><ul><li>Friedrich, R.J. (1980). Police use of force: Individuals, situations and organizations. As cited in: Harris, C.J., 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>Hall, J. (1997, October). Police Use of Nondeadly Force to Arrest. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. Retrived from http://www.fbi.gov/publications/leb/1997/oct975.htm. </li></ul><ul><li>Harris, C.J. (2009). Police us of improper force: A systematic review of the evidence. Victims and Offenders . 4(1), 25-41. doi: 10.1080-155488070.156870 </li></ul><ul><li>Huberts, L., Kaptein, M., & Lasthuizen, K. (2007, April 19). A study of the impact of three leadership styles on integrity violations committed by police officers. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management , 30 (4), 587-607. Retrieved from www.emeraldinsight.com/.htm </li></ul>
  26. 26. References cont. <ul><li>Hunt, J. (1985, January). Police Accounts of Normal Force. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 13 (4), 315-341. </li></ul><ul><li>Klinger, D.A. (1997). Negotiating order in patrol work: An ecological theory of police response to deviance. As cited in Phillips, S.W. & Sobol, J.J., 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>Lersch, K. M., & Feagin, J. R. (1996, July). Violent Police-Citizen Encounters: An Analysis of Major Newspaper Accounts. Critical Sociology, 22 (2), 29-49. </li></ul><ul><li>Mcfadden, R. D. (2006, November 26). Police Kill Man After a Queens Bachelor Party . The New York Times . Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/‌/‌/‌//.html?_r=4&pagewanted=1 </li></ul><ul><li>Micucci, A.J. & Gomme, I.M. (2005). American police and subculture support for the use of excessive force. Journal of Criminal Justice . 33(5), 487-500. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier Database </li></ul><ul><li>National Institute of Justice. (August 2009). The Use-of-Force Continuum. 1 October 2010. http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/topics/law-enforcement/officer-safety/use-of-force/continuum.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Niederhoffer, A. (1967). Behind the shield: The police in urban society. As cited in Micucci, A.J. & Gomme, I.M., 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Phillips, S.W. & Sobol, J.J. (2010). Police attitudes about use of unnecessary force: An ecological examination. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology , 25. </li></ul><ul><li>Reiss, A.J. (1968). Police brutality-answers to key questions. As cited in Harris, C.J., 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>Skolnick, J. (1994). Justice without trial: Law enforcement in a democratic society. As cited in Micucci, A.J. & Gomme, I.M., 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Worden, R.E. (1995). The causes of police brutality: Theory and evidence on the police use of force. As cited in Harris, C.J., 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>Williams, C. & Arrigo, B.A. (2008). Ethics, Crime, and Criminal Justice . Pearson Prentice Hall: New Jersey, 55-57. </li></ul>