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1. 1. Kinds of Sentences andTheir PunctuationA sentence may be one of fourkinds, depending upon the number and type(s)of clauses it contains.
2. 2. Review:An independent clause contains asubject, a verb, and a complete thought.
3. 3. A dependent clause contains a subjectand a verb, but no complete thought.
4. 4. 1. A SIMPLE SENTENCE hasone independent clause.
5. 5.  Punctuation note: NO commasseparate compound elements(subject, verb, direct object,indirect object, subjectivecomplement, etc.) in a simplesentence.
6. 6. 2. A COMPOUND SENTENCE has twoindependent clauses joined by A. a coordinating conjunction(for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so), B. a conjunctive adverb (e.g.however, therefore), or C. a semicolon alone.
7. 7. Punctuation patterns (to matchA, B, and C above):A. Independent clause, coordinatingconjunction independent clauseB. Independent clause; conjunctiveadverb, independent clause.C. Independent clause; independentclause.
8. 8. 3. A COMPLEX SENTENCE has onedependent clause (headed by a subordinatingconjunction or a relative pronoun ) joined to anindependent clause.
9. 9. Punctuation patterns (to matchA, B, C and D above):A. Dependent clause, independentclauseB. Independent clause dependentclauseC. Independent, nonessentialdependent clause, clause.D. Independent essential dependentclause clause.
10. 10. 4. A COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE has twoindependent clauses joined to one or more dependentclauses.
11. 11. Punctuation patterns:Follow the rules given above forcompound and complex sentences.A compound-complex sentence ismerely a combination of the two.
12. 12. CONNECTORS--COMPOUND ANDCOMPLEX SENTENCESTwo independent clauses may bejoined by1. Coordinating conjunctions(FANBOYS) Ic, and ic2. Conjunctive adverbs Ic;therefore, ic.
13. 13.  A dependent (subordinate) clause maybe introduced by 1. Subordinating conjunctions(ADVERB CLAUSE) Dc, ic. orIc dc. 2. Relative pronouns (ADJECTIVECLAUSE) I, dc, c. or Idc c. 3. Relative pronoun, subordinatingconjunctions, or adverbs (NOUNCLAUSE)