anova statistics observational study sample size rstudio reporting guideline change point multilevel model effect size statistical analysis bayes single subject experimental design strobe statement bias power analysis r adaptive phase i/ii bayesian clinical trial diagnostic accuracy stard2015 registration sensitivity and specificity 診断精度 潜在クラス latent class 構造方程式モデリング mplus latent structure 分類分析 taxometric categorical dimensional promis linking equating dif irt cat medelian randomization instrumental variable causal inference risk of bias robans 観察研究 sample size estimation confounding bayesian estimation mcmc research design simsem mvoutlier mvn structural equation modeling multitrait multimethod content validity factor analysis hypothesis test structural validity cosmin precision power accuracy multiple regression accuracy analysis lessr
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