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3 centripetal (1)


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3 centripetal (1)

  1. 1. Centrifugal and Centripetal Forces What brings together or pulls apart a nation
  2. 2. Centripetal forces   Forces that promote national unity and solidarity. The ultimate centripetal force is the nation’s raison d’être:   Its ‘reason for being’ Every state must have a reason to exist:     Defending a culture or ideology Standing up to a common enemy Special status in the world States that don’t have a raison d’etre try to create one to unify the people.
  3. 3. Examples of centripetal forces 1. Nationalism is the primary source of group identity in the modern state.    It is the idea that a person derives a significant part of his identity from a sense of belonging to a nation. States try to create allegiance to keep country stable: want their populace to accept the ideology, adhere to laws, participate in its operation. Icons—flags, national sports teams, holidays.
  4. 4. Centripetal forces 2. Unifying institutions: schools, the armed forces and state churches. *Religion can be a unifying, cohesive force, like Buddhism in Thailand, Judaism in Israel. 2. 3. 4. Organization and administration of the government. Transportation and communication. A perceived threat to a group’s sense of identity.
  5. 5. Centrifugal forces  Forces that disrupt internal order and further the destruction of a country.      Ethnic conflicts; competing claims among ethnic groups. Religion Poorly run government and/or transportation systems. A dissident minority seeking autonomy Devolution: transfer of power from the state’s central government. to separate political subdivisions within its territory.
  6. 6. Government systems and Cultural Diversity   Homogenous populations with similar languages, religions and shared history—a single identity—are best governed as unitary states. Reaction by the people against unitary rule can generate strong centrifugal forces. Heterogeneous population are best governed as federal states. Allowing people to govern themselves close to home can generate strong centripetal forces.
  7. 7. Size and shape    Can influence the viability of a state. The size may encourage unity or division The shape may also encourage unity or division  Thus either size or shape have the potential to generate centrifugal or centripetal forces.
  8. 8. Centrifugal forces Size Shape “Too big” Or “Too small” “Too much like Shattered glass” Or “Too much like Swiss cheese.” Centripetal forces “Just right” “Just the right shape”
  9. 9. Advantages Large Size Small Size Disadvantages Large population: more talent large army More natural resources Economic selfsufficiency Difficult to unify Population: more spread out, more culturally diverse. Transportation difficult Everyone pays attention Easier to unify Population is closer together Less culturally diverse Transportation easy No one pays attention Small population: Less talent Small defense force Vulnerable to attack Fewer resources Economic vulnerability