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Biology Knowlegde


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Biology Knowlegde

  1. 1. BIOLOGY SHOW LIVE© Copyright Template Berri Dwi Putra 2012
  2. 2. BIOLOGY SHOW LIVE UNIT 3 Movement in and out of cells© Copyright Template Berri Dwi Putra 2012
  3. 3. BIOLOGY SHOW 3.1 LIVE DIFFUSION Diffusion is net movement of molecules from high concentration gradient to lower concentration gradient Concentration gradient is the difference between the concentration of molecules in two places Factors that affect diffusion : • Distance • Concentration gradient • Surface area • Temperature • Size of molecules A Solution is made up of two parts, the solute and the solvent© Copyright Template Berri Dwi Putra 2012
  4. 4. BIOLOGY SHOW 3.2 LIVE OSMOSIS Osmosis is diffusion of water from a dilute solution into a more concentrated solution through a partially permeable membrane. A Partially permeable membrane allows small molecules such as water to pass through but not large solute molecules.© Copyright Template Berri Dwi Putra 2012
  5. 5. BIOLOGY SHOW 3.3 LIVE Osmosis in plant and animal cells Turgidity Turgidity is the process where the condition of water potential in surrounding of cell is bigger than inside of cell so water move into the cell and the cell become turgid or hypotonic Plasmolysis Plasmolysis is the process where the condition of water potential inside of the cell is bigger than in surrounding of cell so water move out of the cell and the cell become flaccid or hypertonic Osmosis in animal cells :  Hysotonic  Isotonic  Hypertonic© Copyright Template Berri Dwi Putra 2012
  6. 6. BIOLOGY SHOW 3.4 LIVE Active transport Active transport is the movement of ions or molecules across the cell membrane, against a concentration gradient, using energy from respiration Active transport need energy to change the shape of carrier protein as the way of ions to move in or out of cell© Copyright Template Berri Dwi Putra 2012
  7. 7. BIOLOGY SHOW LIVE UNIT 4 ENZYMES© Copyright Template Berri Dwi Putra 2012
  8. 8. BIOLOGY SHOW 4.1 LIVE Structure and action of enzymes Enzyme is a biological catalyst that speed up a chemical reaction and all enzymes are proteins How enzymes work : 1. Anabolisme, Breaking large molecules into small ones 2. Katabolism, Building up large molecules from small ones 3. Converting one small molecules into another Two Theory about Enzymes  Lock and key theory  Induced fit© Copyright Template Berri Dwi Putra 2012
  9. 9. BIOLOGY SHOW 4.2 LIVE Factors affecting enzyme action Effect of temperature on enzymes  Increasing the temperature of an enzymes- controlled reaction increase the rate of reaction up to a maximum, which occurs at the optimum temperature.  At higher temperatures the rate of reaction decreases quickly until it stop acting and denaturate. Enzymes and pH© Copyright Template Berri Dwi Putra 2012
  10. 10. BIOLOGY SHOW 4.3 LIVE Enzymes in industries Biological washing powders :  Proteases – break down protein stains, e.g. blood, grass and egg.  Lipases – break down fats in grease stains, e.g. butter, lipstick mayonnaise. Amylases – break down starch, e.g. food stains containing starch. Cellulases – break down cellulose fibres.© Copyright Template Berri Dwi Putra 2012
  11. 11. BIOLOGY SHOW LIVE UNIT 5 NUTRITION© Copyright Template Berri Dwi Putra 2012
  12. 12. BIOLOGY SHOW 5.1 LIVE Nutrients Nutrition is the obtaining of food to provide energy and substances needed for growth and repair. Seven different nutrients needed for a balanced diet for human are : 1. Carbohydrate 2. Protein 3. Fats 4. Vitamins 5. Minerals 6. Fibre 7. Water© Copyright Template Berri Dwi Putra 2012
  13. 13. 5.2 BIOLOGY SHOW LIVE Chemical test for nutrients Testing for starch – iodine solution Testing for sugars – Benedict’s solution Testing for protein – biuret solution Testing for fats – ethanol 5.3 Sources of nutrients Carbohydrates : rice, potatoes, bread, yams, sugar and honey. Protein : meat, fish, milk and nuts. Fats : butter, cheese, fat in meats and fish, nuts. Water : H2O Vitamins and minerals : oranges, lemons, milk, butter, liver, egg, green vegetables, etc. Fibre : cabbage, sweetcorn, and celery© Copyright Template Berri Dwi Putra 2012
  14. 14. BIOLOGY SHOW LIVE UNIT 6 Plant nutrition© Copyright Template Berri Dwi Putra 2012
  15. 15. BIOLOGY SHOW 6.1 LIVE Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the process by which plants make glucose from raw materials using energy from light. Carbon dioxide and water are the raw materials for photosynthesis. Chlorophyll absorbs light energy that is used in photosynthesis. 6CO2 + 6H2O light and chlorophyll C6H12O6 + 602© Copyright Template Berri Dwi Putra 2012
  16. 16. BIOLOGY SHOW 6.2 LIVE What is needed for photosynthesis? The requirement for photosynthesis: • Light, which provides energy for the process • Chlorophyll, a green pigment that absorb the energy from light . •Carbon dioxide, which diffuses into the leaves from the air. • Water, which is absorbed by the plant’s root from the soil.© Copyright Template Berri Dwi Putra 2012
  17. 17. 6.3 BIOLOGY SHOW LIVE Product of photosynthesis • glucose is used for respiration. • some glucose is changed into starch • some glucose is used to make cellulose • glucose is converted to sucrose • glucose and nitrate are used to form amino acid • sugars are convert to oils Oxygen is a by-product of photosynthesis© Copyright Template Berri Dwi Putra 2012
  18. 18. BIOLOGY SHOW 6.4 LIVE Rate of photosynthesis A limiting factor is something in such short supply that it restrict life processes. Limiting factors of photosynthesis are : •light intensity •Temperature •carbon dioxide concentration.© Copyright Template Berri Dwi Putra 2012
  19. 19. BIOLOGY SHOW 6.5 LIVE Glasshouse production Condition inside a glasshouse allow plants to : • grow earlier in the year • grow in places where they would not normally grow well The following condition inside glasshouses are controlled.  Temperature  Light  Carbon dioxide  Water© Copyright Template Berri Dwi Putra 2012
  20. 20. BIOLOGY SHOW 6.6 LIVE Leaves Leaves have :  a large surface area – to absorb light rays  a thin shape – so gases can diffuse in and out easily  many chloroplasts – to absorb light for reaction that take places in photosynthesis  veins – to support the leaf surface and to carry water and ions to the leaf cells, and to take sucrose and amino acid away from the leaf to all other parts of tbe plants. Stomata usually open during the day and close at night© Copyright Template Berri Dwi Putra 2012
  21. 21. BIOLOGY SHOW 6.7 LIVE Mineral requirements Plant nutrients I. Nitrate ions to make amino acid which are used to make proteins. II. Magnesium ions are absorbed by plant and used to make chlorophyll. III. Phosphate for making compounds such as DNA and for respiration. Fertilisers I. Nitrogen for growth of leaves and stems. II. Phosphorus for healthy roots. III. Potassium for healthy leaves and flowers.© Copyright Template Berri Dwi Putra 2012
  22. 22. BIOLOGY SHOW LIVE UNIT 7 Animal Nutrition© Copyright Template Berri Dwi Putra 2012
  23. 23. BIOLOGY SHOW 7.1 LIVE A balanced diet A balanced diet provides an adequate intake of the nutrients and energy needed to sustain the body and ensure good health and growth. A nutrients is a substance in food that provides benefit to the body. Three basics function of nutrients : o To provide Diet depends on age, sex and activity energy o To allow growth and repair o To regulate the body’s metabolism Diet depends on age, sex and activity© Copyright Template Berri Dwi Putra 2012
  24. 24. BIOLOGY SHOW 7.2 LIVE Balancing energy needs Energy intake is the energy from the food in a day in carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Energy output is the energy that is used by body in a day. OBESITY CAUSED BY : • high intake of fatty food • too little exercise • social and emotional stress How could someone lose weight? They could : A sensible approach to slimming • Eat less high-energy should combine : foods • a balanced diet with a lower intake • Take more exercise of energy • a gradual increase in exercise • having an ideal, but achievable© Copyright Template Berri Dwi Putra 2012
  25. 25. BIOLOGY SHOW 7.3 LIVE Digestion Digestion is the breakdown of large , insoluble food molecules into small, water-soluble food molecules so that can be absorbed into the bloodstream. Mechanical digestion is Chemical digestion is the the breakdown of large breakdown of the large food pieces of food into smaller molecules into smaller molecules by piece of food without the action of enzymes. changing the food molecules.© Copyright Template Berri Dwi Putra 2012
  26. 26. BIOLOGY SHOW 7.4 LIVE Teeth • incisors are chisel-shaped for biting and cutting. • canines are pointed for piercing and tearing. • premolars have aneven ‘cusps’ for grinding and chewing. • molars are like premolars and for chewing up the food. Adult humans have 32 teeth : 8 incisors, 4 canines, 8 premolars, and 12 premolars. Tooth decay is caused by bacteria in plaque, which changes sugar to acid that attacks the enamel and dentine of the tooth. Tooth decay can be avoided by regular brushing with a good toothbrush, avoiding sugary food and visiting the dentist regularly.© Copyright Template Berri Dwi Putra 2012
  27. 27. BIOLOGY SHOW 7.5 LIVE The stomach and small intestine Peristalsis involves a wave of muscular contraction that squeeze the food bolus, carrying it down the oesophagus to the stomach. The stomach is a muscular bag that usually holds about 1 liter of food but can stretch to accommodate more. In the stomach, food is churned up and mixed with gastric juice and hydrochloric acid. This start the digestion of protein. In the small intestine, there is pancreatic juice that contain : • amylase – breaks down starch to maltose. • trypsin – a protease that breaks down protein and polypeptides to peptides. • lipase – breaks down fats to fatty acid and gliycerol.© Copyright Template Berri Dwi Putra 2012
  28. 28. BIOLOGY SHOW 7.6 LIVE Absorption and assimilation Absorption is the movement of digested food molecules through the wall of the intestine into the blood or the lymph. Assimilation means that the food molecules that have been absorbed now become part of the cells or are used by the cells. • Stores glucose by removing it from the blood and storing it as glycogen. • Uses amino acid to make protein. • breaks down excess amino acid. • converts fatty acid and glycerol into fats. • produces cholesterols from fats.© Copyright Template Berri Dwi Putra 2012