Information Systems Development and Acquisition

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  • An organization can only work on only a limited number of projects at a given time due to limited resources so care must be taken when selecting the projects to build. After all possible projects are identified, those deemed most likely to yield significant organizational benefits, given available resources, are selected for subsequent development. Some possible evaluation criteria for ranking potential projects are: strategic alignment, potential benefits, potential costs and resource availability, project size and duration, and technical difficulty.
  • An organization can only work on only a limited number of projects at a given time due to limited resources so care must be taken when selecting the projects to build. After all possible projects are identified, those deemed most likely to yield significant organizational benefits, given available resources, are selected for subsequent development. Some possible evaluation criteria for ranking potential projects are: strategic alignment, potential benefits, potential costs and resource availability, project size and duration, and technical difficulty.
  • An organization can only work on only a limited number of projects at a given time due to limited resources so care must be taken when selecting the projects to build. After all possible projects are identified, those deemed most likely to yield significant organizational benefits, given available resources, are selected for subsequent development. Some possible evaluation criteria for ranking potential projects are: strategic alignment, potential benefits, potential costs and resource availability, project size and duration, and technical difficulty.
  • An organization can only work on only a limited number of projects at a given time due to limited resources so care must be taken when selecting the projects to build. After all possible projects are identified, those deemed most likely to yield significant organizational benefits, given available resources, are selected for subsequent development. Some possible evaluation criteria for ranking potential projects are: strategic alignment, potential benefits, potential costs and resource availability, project size and duration, and technical difficulty.
  • An organization can only work on only a limited number of projects at a given time due to limited resources so care must be taken when selecting the projects to build. After all possible projects are identified, those deemed most likely to yield significant organizational benefits, given available resources, are selected for subsequent development. Some possible evaluation criteria for ranking potential projects are: strategic alignment, potential benefits, potential costs and resource availability, project size and duration, and technical difficulty.
  • An organization can only work on only a limited number of projects at a given time due to limited resources so care must be taken when selecting the projects to build. After all possible projects are identified, those deemed most likely to yield significant organizational benefits, given available resources, are selected for subsequent development. Some possible evaluation criteria for ranking potential projects are: strategic alignment, potential benefits, potential costs and resource availability, project size and duration, and technical difficulty.
  • An organization can only work on only a limited number of projects at a given time due to limited resources so care must be taken when selecting the projects to build. After all possible projects are identified, those deemed most likely to yield significant organizational benefits, given available resources, are selected for subsequent development. Some possible evaluation criteria for ranking potential projects are: strategic alignment, potential benefits, potential costs and resource availability, project size and duration, and technical difficulty.
  • An organization can only work on only a limited number of projects at a given time due to limited resources so care must be taken when selecting the projects to build. After all possible projects are identified, those deemed most likely to yield significant organizational benefits, given available resources, are selected for subsequent development. Some possible evaluation criteria for ranking potential projects are: strategic alignment, potential benefits, potential costs and resource availability, project size and duration, and technical difficulty.
  • An organization can only work on only a limited number of projects at a given time due to limited resources so care must be taken when selecting the projects to build. After all possible projects are identified, those deemed most likely to yield significant organizational benefits, given available resources, are selected for subsequent development. Some possible evaluation criteria for ranking potential projects are: strategic alignment, potential benefits, potential costs and resource availability, project size and duration, and technical difficulty.
  • An organization can only work on only a limited number of projects at a given time due to limited resources so care must be taken when selecting the projects to build. After all possible projects are identified, those deemed most likely to yield significant organizational benefits, given available resources, are selected for subsequent development. Some possible evaluation criteria for ranking potential projects are: strategic alignment, potential benefits, potential costs and resource availability, project size and duration, and technical difficulty.
  • An organization can only work on only a limited number of projects at a given time due to limited resources so care must be taken when selecting the projects to build. After all possible projects are identified, those deemed most likely to yield significant organizational benefits, given available resources, are selected for subsequent development. Some possible evaluation criteria for ranking potential projects are: strategic alignment, potential benefits, potential costs and resource availability, project size and duration, and technical difficulty.
  • An organization can only work on only a limited number of projects at a given time due to limited resources so care must be taken when selecting the projects to build. After all possible projects are identified, those deemed most likely to yield significant organizational benefits, given available resources, are selected for subsequent development. Some possible evaluation criteria for ranking potential projects are: strategic alignment, potential benefits, potential costs and resource availability, project size and duration, and technical difficulty.
  • An organization can only work on only a limited number of projects at a given time due to limited resources so care must be taken when selecting the projects to build. After all possible projects are identified, those deemed most likely to yield significant organizational benefits, given available resources, are selected for subsequent development. Some possible evaluation criteria for ranking potential projects are: strategic alignment, potential benefits, potential costs and resource availability, project size and duration, and technical difficulty.
  • An organization can only work on only a limited number of projects at a given time due to limited resources so care must be taken when selecting the projects to build. After all possible projects are identified, those deemed most likely to yield significant organizational benefits, given available resources, are selected for subsequent development. Some possible evaluation criteria for ranking potential projects are: strategic alignment, potential benefits, potential costs and resource availability, project size and duration, and technical difficulty.
  • An organization can only work on only a limited number of projects at a given time due to limited resources so care must be taken when selecting the projects to build. After all possible projects are identified, those deemed most likely to yield significant organizational benefits, given available resources, are selected for subsequent development. Some possible evaluation criteria for ranking potential projects are: strategic alignment, potential benefits, potential costs and resource availability, project size and duration, and technical difficulty.
  • An organization can only work on only a limited number of projects at a given time due to limited resources so care must be taken when selecting the projects to build. After all possible projects are identified, those deemed most likely to yield significant organizational benefits, given available resources, are selected for subsequent development. Some possible evaluation criteria for ranking potential projects are: strategic alignment, potential benefits, potential costs and resource availability, project size and duration, and technical difficulty.
  • Information Systems Development and Acquisition

    1. 1. Oleh: Daniel Gunawan - 10110310005 Yonathan Hadiputra - 10110310011 Benyamin Reggy Sianipar - 10110310025 David - 10110310035 Adrian Stefan - 10110310065 Yoel Dennis Salim - 10110310069 Andrey Raharja - 10110310076
    2. 2. Systems analysis and design – the process of designing, building, and maintaining information systems The individual who performs this task is called Systems analyst Organization wants to hire System analyst because they have both technical and managerial expertise.
    3. 3. Evolution of IS development From “art” to a “discipline”: In the early days of computing it was considered an art that a very few people could master Standardized development methods: The techniques used to build an IS varies greatly from individual to individual. It was very difficult to integrate and maintain. To address this problem, info. Sys. professionals decided to use a disciplined approach of introducing common methods, techniques, and tools for building information systems Software engineering: This evolution led to the use of the term software engineering to define what system analyst & programmer do.
    4. 4. Options for Obtaining Information Systems 1. Build your own 2. Buy a prepackaged system from a software development company or consulting firm. Example: Payroll system. 3. Outsource development to a 3rd party: outside organization custom build a system to an organization’s specifications. Good option when an organization does not have adequate resources or expertise. 4. End user development: Individual users and departments build their own custom systems to support their individuals. Example MS. Excel.
    5. 5. System Construction Process 1. Identify a large IT problem to solve 2. Break the large problem into several smaller, more manageable pieces 3. Translate each “piece” (small problem) into computer programs 4. Piece together each program into an overall comprehensive IS that solves the problem
    6. 6. The Role of Users in the Systems Development Process It is important for all members of the organization to understand what is meant by system development and what activities occur. Effective partnership: A close and mutually respectful working relationship between analysts and users is a key to project success.
    7. 7. Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) - describes the life of an information system from conception to retirement. 1. System identification, selection, and planning 2. System analysis 3. System design 4. System implementation 5. System maintenance
    8. 8. Phase 1: System Identification, Selection, and Planning Undertake only those projects critical to mission, goals, and objectives Select a development project from all possible projects that could be performed Different evaluation criteria used to rank potential projects Steps in the Systems Development Process
    9. 9. Phase 1: System Identification, Selection, and Planning Evaluation criteria  Strategic alignment: The extent to which the project is viewed as helping the organization achieve its strategic objectives an d long- term goal.  Potential benefits: The extent to which the project is viewed as improving profits, customer service, and the duration of the benefits  Potential costs and resource availability: The number and types of resources the project requires and their availability  Project size / duration: The number of individuals and the length of time needed to complete the project  Technical difficulty / risks: The level of technical difficulty involved to complete the project within a given time and resources Steps in the Systems Development Process
    10. 10. Phase 2: System Analysis  Collecting System Requirements: Requirement collection is process of gathering and organizing information from users, managers, business processes, an documents to understand how a proposed system should work System analysts use a variety of techniques to collect system requirements  Interviews: analysts interview people  Questionnaires: analysts design and administer surveys.  Observations: analysts observe workers at selected times  Document analysis: analysts study business documents Critical Success Factors (CSF): analysts ask each person to define her own personal CSFs. Joint Application Design (JAD): Special type of a group meeting where all users and analysts meet at the same time Steps in the Systems Development Process
    11. 11. Phase 2: System Analysis Modeling Organizational Data: To construct an information system, systems analysts must understand what data the information system needs in order to accomplish the intended tasks. To do this they use data modeling tools to collect and describe data to users.  Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) Modeling Organizational Processes and Logic  Data flows  Processing logic Steps in the Systems Development Process
    12. 12. Phase 3: System Design Designing forms and reports Designing interfaces and dialogues Designing databases and files Designing processing and logic Steps in the Systems Development Process
    13. 13. Phase 4: System Implementation Software programming Software testing Developmental: Programmers test the correctness of individual modules and the integration of multiple modules Alpha: Software tester tests whether it meets design specifications Beta: Actual system users test the capability of the system in the user environment with actual data Steps in the Systems Development Process
    14. 14. Phase 4: System Implementation System conversion Parallel Direct Phased Pilot System documentation, training, and support User and reference guides Training and tutorials Installation procedures and troubleshooting guides Steps in the Systems Development Process
    15. 15.  Phase 5: System Maintenance  Maintenance process steps: 1. Obtain maintenance request 2. Transform requests into changes 3. Design changes 4. Implement changes Steps in the Systems Development Process
    16. 16.  Phase 5: System Maintenance  Maintenance types: 1. Corrective maintenance 2. Adaptive maintenance 3. Perfective maintenance 4. Preventive maintenance Steps in the Systems Development Process
    17. 17.  Prototyping  Rapid Application Development (RAD)  Object-Oriented Analysis & Design (OOA&D) Other Approaches to Designing and Building Systems
    18. 18. Prototyping
    19. 19. 1. Limited IS staff 2. IS staff has limited skill set 3. IS staff is overworked 4. Problems with performance of IS staff Need for Alternatives to Building Systems Yourself
    20. 20.  External acquisition 1. System identification, selection and planning 2. Systems analysis 3. Development of a request for proposal (RFP) 4. Proposal evaluation 5. Vendor selection Common Alternatives to In-house Systems Development
    21. 21.  Outsourcing – the practice of turning over responsibility of some to all of an organization’s information systems development and operations to an outside firm Common Alternatives to In-house Systems Development
    22. 22.  Why Outsource?  Cost and quality concerns  Problems in IS performance  Supplier pressures  Simplifying, downsizing, and reengineering  Financial factors  Organizational culture  Internal irritants Common Alternatives to In-house Systems Development
    23. 23.  Managing the IS outsourcing relationship  Strong CIO oversight  Measurement of milestones, costs, and benefits  Customer relationship management  Not all outsourcing relationships are the same  Basic relationship  Preferred relationship  Strategic relationship Common Alternatives to In-house Systems Development
    24. 24.  End-user development  Benefits of end-user development  Encouraging end-user development  End-user development pitfalls Common Alternatives to In-house Systems Development

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