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  1. 1. INTRODUCTION :-The term Social refers to a characteristic of living organisms (humans in particular, though biologists alsoapply the term to populations of other animals). It always refers to the interaction of organisms withother organisms and to their collective co-existence, irrespective of whether they are aware of it or not,and irrespective of whether the interaction is voluntary or involuntaryPeople take on roles for different reasons. Sometimes its because its what is expected of you. Other timesits because you think it will help you get ahead. If youre playing a role that doesnt suit your naturaltalents, you could be undermining your own success.SOCIAL ROLES:-But every day, you actually play all kinds of social roles in your relationships with others. A "social role"is the part played by a person in a given social context, including typical or expected patterns ofbehavior.For example, as part of a family youre a father or mother, sister or brother, son or daughter, cousin, etc.Youre a friend, mentor or role model to someone, or if you have a career you maybe an employee, orboss, or both.Some social roles, like wife and husband or employee and boss, are determined by the relationship youhave to others in your life.But there are other social roles you play that are often not as obvious to you or even to those aroundyou. These roles are usually ones youve chosen, based on your personality profile and they play animportant part in determining how much youre enjoying life. Simply put, while you can play manydifferent social roles, you have a natural predisposition for some over others.For example many people can learn to sell, but not all are naturally gifted at being a salesperson. Somepeople find that managing people comes easily and is very rewarding, while others have no idea how tooversee and direct other peoples work.Personal growth always involves change. Sometimes it means changing the roles we play, other timesits a change in how we play a role. But it always begins with a conscious understanding of who we areand the roles we play on a daily basis.Discovering how well your natural skill sets support the roles you play is an important step to attainingsuccess for life. This knowledge allows you to have the all important element of choice.Carry a small notebook with you for the next 3-5 days and make a note of every role you play in yourown and someone elses life.Once you have your list, categorize the roles into ones you enjoy and do well, and ones you dont takepleasure in. Decide what actions to take to either let go of the unpleasant roles or what behaviors youcan adopt to increase your enjoyment of them.There are many ways that people can influence our behaviour, but perhaps one of the mostimportant is that the presence of others seems to set up expectations. We do not expect people tobehave randomly but to behave in certain ways in particular situations. Each social situationentails its own particular set of expectations about the “proper” way to behave. Suchexpectations can vary from group to group.One way in which these expectations become apparent is when we look at the roles that peopleplay in society.Social roles are the part people play as members of a social group. With each social role youadopt, your behaviour changes to fit the expectations both you and others have of that role.
  2. 2. In the words of William Shakespeare:-All the worlds a stage,And all the men and women merely players:They have there exits, and their entrances;And one man in his time plays many parts.These lines capture the essence of social roles. Think of how many roles you play in a single day,e.g.:-son,daughter,sister,brother,students,worker,friend etc.Each social role carries expectedbehaviours called norms.Social Norms are unwritten rules about how to behave. They provide us with an expected idea of how tobehave in a particular social group or culture. For example we expect students to arrive to lesson ontime and complete their work.Social roles are the accepted standards of behaviour of social groups.These groups range fromfriendship and work groups to nation states. Behaviour which fulfils these norms is called conformity,and most of the time roles and norms are powerful ways of understanding and predicting what peoplewill do.There are norms defining appropriate behaviour for every social group.For example, students,neighbours and patients in a hospital are all aware of the norms governing behaviour.And as theindividual moves from one group to another,their behaviour changes accordingly. Norms provide orderin society.It is difficult to see how human society could operate without social norms.Human beingsneed norms to guide and direct their behaviour, to provide order and predictability in socialrelationships and to make sense of and understanding of each other’s actions.These are some of thereasons why most people, most of the time, conform to social norms.There is considerable pressure to conform to social roles.Social roles provide an example of socialinfluence in general and conformity in particular.Most of us,most of the time, conform to the guidelinesprovided by the roles we perform.We conform to the expectations of others, we respond to theirapproval when we play our roles well, and to their disapproval when we play our roles badly. But thequestion is how far will conformity correspond to our social role?ROLE OF A SOCIAL WORKER:-A social worker generally spends their time improving the lives of others. So that may mean visiting apersons home to investigate their living conditions and finding something better for them. : A social workers usually handles family problems. They are usually court assigned and deal mainlywith children. They might take children out of violent or unfit homes.Social work is a profession for those with a strong desire to help improve peoples lives. Social workersassist people by helping them cope with issues in their everyday lives, deal with their relationships, and
  3. 3. solve personal and family problems. Some social workers help clients who face a disability or a life-threatening disease or a social problem, such as inadequate housing, unemployment, or substanceabuse. Social workers also assist families that have serious domestic conflicts, sometimes involving childor spousal abuse. Some social workers conduct research, advocate for improved services, engage insystems design or are involved in planning or policy development. Many social workers specialize inserving a particular population or working in a specific setting.Social workers usually spend most of their time in an office or residential facility, but they also maytravel locally to visit clients, meet with service providers, or attend meetings. Some may meet withclients in one of several offices within a local area. Social work, while satisfying, can be challenging.Understaffing and large caseloads add to the pressure in some agencies. To tend to patient care or clientneeds, many hospitals and long-term care facilities employ social workers on teams with a broad mix ofoccupations, including clinical specialists, registered nurses, and health aides. Full-time social workersusually work a standard 40-hour week, but some occasionally work evenings and weekends to meetwith clients, attend community meetings, and handle emergencies. Some work part time, particularly involuntary nonprofit agencies.Social casework process is a scientific technique to solve such problems of persons whichobstruct the effective social adjustment of the person. Following steps are involved in theSocial casework process:-1. Phycho-social study of the problem of the individual.2. Assessment/diagnosis of the problem of the individual.3. Treatment of the problem.4. Followup.COMPONENTS:-I. PERSON: The person’s behaviour has this purpose and meaning: to gain satisfactions, to avoid or dissolve frustration and to maintain his balance-in-movement. Whether a person’s behaviour is or is not effective in promoting his well-being depends in large part upon the functioning of his personality structure. The structure and functioning of personality are the products of inherited and constitutional equipment in continuous interaction with the physical, psychological and social environment the person experiences. A person at any stage of his life – not only is a product of nature and nurture but is also and always in process of being in the present and becoming in the future. The person’s ‘being and becoming’ behaviour is both shaped and judged by the expectations he and his culture have invested in the statussocial role he carries. and the major The person who comes as a client to a social agency is always under stress. To understand human behaviour and individual difference, Grace Mathew has given the following propositions:
  4. 4. 1. An individual’s behaviour is conditioned by his/her environment and his/her experiences. Behaviour refers to reacting, feeling, thinking, etc. the conditions and influences surrounding the person constitutes the environment. 2. For human growth and development it is essential that certain basic needs should be met. (Maslow’s hierarchy of needs) 3. Emotional needs are real and they cannot be met or removed through intellectual reasoning. 4. Behaviour is purposeful and is in response to the individual’s physical and emotional needs. 5. Other people’s behaviour can be understood only in terms of ones own emotional and intellectual comprehension.II. PROBLEM: The problems within the purview of social casework are those which vitally affect or are affected by a person’s social functioning. The multifaceted and dynamic nature of the client’s problem makes necessary the selection by caseworker and client some part of it as the unit for work. The choice of problem depends on (1) whether the problem is the client’s problem (2) leadership given by case worker depends upon the professional knowledge and judgment and (3) agency’s function e.g. hospital, etc. Problems in any part of a human being’s living tend to have chain reactions. …..> cause > effect > cause.. Any problem which a person encounters has both an objective and subjective significance – quality and intensity of our feelings. Not only do the external (objective) and internal (subjective) aspects of the problem co-exist, but either may be the cause of the other. Whatever the nature of the problem the person brings to social agency; it is always accompanied and often complicated by the problem of being a client. Problems can be categorized as follows (Grace Mathew): 1. Problems related to illness and disabilities 2. Problems due to lack of material resources. 3. School related problems.
  5. 5. 4. Problems related to institutionalization. 5. Behaviour problems. 6. Problems of marital discord. 7. Problem situations needing a follow-up service. 8. Needs related to rehabilitation of people. 9. Clients caught up in social problems like gambling, prostitution, alcoholism, drug addiction and unmarried motherhood.III. PLACE: The social agency is an organization fashioned to express the will of a society or of some group in that society as to social welfare – community decides the need of the agency. Each social agency develops a program by which to meet the particular areas of need with which it sets out to deal. It depends on factors like money, knowledge and competence of the agency staff, the interest, resources available and support of the community. The social agency has a structure by which it organizes and delegates its responsibilities and tasks, and governing policies and proceduresHierarchy – roles and responsibilities clear, designated and delegated – collaborationprocedures and policies, understand the usefulness. by which it stabilizes and systematizes its operations. – among workers – The social agency is a living, adaptable organism susceptible to being understood and changed, much as other living organisms. – Past, present and future – not static and fixed. Every staff member in an agency speaks and acts for some part of the agency’s function, and the case worker represents the agency in its individualized problem solving help. – Case worker not an independent professional practitioner – case worker speaks and acts for the agency – psychologically identified with its purpose and policies The case worker while representing his agency is first and foremost a representative of his profession. – must know and be committed with feeling to the philosophy that guides the practice of the social work profession.
  6. 6. Agency – Private e.g. funding agencies and Public e.g. family welfare orgs. Primary e.g. NGO and Secondary e.g. Hospitals, schools, etc. Based on functions – child welfare, family welfare, education, specialization based. Also differs based on Source of support, Professional authority, Clientele they serve, Services they offer, Goals of the agency, etc.IV. PROCESS: In order to understand what the case work process must include in its problem- solving help, it is necessary to take stock first of the kinds of blockings which occur in people’s normal problem-solving efforts. The six are: 1. If necessary tangible means and resources are not available to the person. 2. Out of ignorance or misapprehension about the facts of the problem or the facts of existing ways of meeting it. 3. If the person is depleted or drained of emotional or physical energy. 4. Some problems arouse high feelings in a person – emotions so strong that they overpower his reason and defy his conscious controls. 5. Problem may lie within the person; he may have become subject to, or victim of, emotions that chronically, over a long time, have governed his thinking and action. 6. Haven’t developed systematic habits or orderly method of things and planning. The intent of the case work process is to engage the person himself both in working on and coping with the one or several problems that confront him and to do so by such means as may stand him in good stead as he goes forward in living. The means are 1. The provision of a therapeutic relationship 2. The provision of a systematic and flexible way and 3. Provision of such opportunities and aids.
  7. 7. All competent problem-solving, as contrasted with trail-and-error method, contains three essential operations. Urgent pressures will often dislodge their sequence, but any conscious effort to move from quandary (difficulty) to solution must involve these modes of action: 1. Study (fact-finding) 2. Diagnosis (thinking about and organizing facts into a meaningful goal-pointed explanation) and 3. Treatment (implementation of conclusions as to what and how of action upon the problem).Finally, for the solution or mitigation of many problems there must exist certain material means or accessible opportunities which are available to the needful person and which he can be helped to use. Kinds of resources that a person may need are money, medical care, nursery schools, scholarships, foster homes, recreation facilities, etc. BIBLIOGRAPHY:- (social role,components refered by Helen harris Perlman) and some library books.