English Skills

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English Skills

  1. 1. English skills
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>English Linguistics approach </li></ul><ul><li>The use of English as a second language. </li></ul><ul><li>English skills </li></ul><ul><li>The international English assessment systems </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion & discussion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>The English language is spoken by 750 million people in the world as either the official language of a nation, a second language, or in a mixture with other languages ( pidgins and creoles.) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>English is a West Germanic language originating in England , and the first language for most people in the ANGLOPHONE CARIBBEAN </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>English is a West Germanic language originating in England , and the first language for most people in the </li></ul><ul><li>AUSTRALIA </li></ul><ul><li>15,581,334 N.S </li></ul>
  6. 6. Introduction <ul><li>English is a West Germanic language originating in England , and the first language for most people in the </li></ul><ul><li>CANADA </li></ul><ul><li>17,694,830 N.S </li></ul>
  7. 7. Introduction <ul><li>English is a West Germanic language originating in England , and the first language for most people in the </li></ul><ul><li>NEW- </li></ul><ul><li>ZEALAND </li></ul><ul><li>3,500,000+ N.S (approx) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Introduction <ul><li>English is a West Germanic language originating in England , and the first language for most people in the </li></ul><ul><li>IRELAND </li></ul><ul><li>4,200,000+ N.S (approx) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Introduction <ul><li>English is a West Germanic language originating in England , and the first language for most people in the </li></ul><ul><li>UNITED </li></ul><ul><li>KINGDOM </li></ul><ul><li>58,200,000 N.S </li></ul>
  10. 10. Introduction <ul><li>English is a West Germanic language originating in England , and the first language for most people in the </li></ul><ul><li>USA </li></ul><ul><li>214,809,000 N.S </li></ul>
  11. 11. Introduction <ul><li>Commonwealth C ountries </li></ul>
  12. 12. Introduction <ul><li>Commonwealth International </li></ul><ul><li>Countries organizations </li></ul>
  13. 13. Introduction <ul><li>Commonwealth International </li></ul><ul><li>Countries organizations </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations </li></ul>
  14. 14. Introduction <ul><li>Commonwealth International </li></ul><ul><li>Countries organizations </li></ul><ul><li>The Anglosphere </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations </li></ul>
  15. 15. Introduction <ul><li>A native or fluent speaker of English is known as an </li></ul><ul><li>Anglophone </li></ul>
  16. 16. Introduction <ul><li>A native or fluent speaker of English is known as an </li></ul><ul><li>Anglo phone </li></ul><ul><li>« English » </li></ul>
  17. 17. Introduction <ul><li>A native or fluent speaker of English is known as an </li></ul><ul><li>Anglo phone </li></ul><ul><li>« sound, speech »   </li></ul>
  18. 18. Introduction <ul><li>Modern English is sometimes described as a linguafranca . </li></ul><ul><li>English is the dominant language in many fields </li></ul><ul><li>British Empire is the primary reason for the initial spread </li></ul><ul><li>Since World War II, United States has accelerated the adoption of English. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, over a billion people speak English . </li></ul>
  19. 19. Introduction C hanges in English (Demonstration) <ul><li>1.Old English (ca .500 CE-1100 CE) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Introduction C hanges in English (Demonstration) <ul><li>2.Middle English (ca. 1100 CE -1500 CE ) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Introduction C hanges in English (Demonstration) <ul><li>3.Early Modern English (ca. 1500 CE-1800 CE ) </li></ul>
  22. 22. English linguistics approach <ul><li>Linguistics </li></ul><ul><li>-Grammar : parts of speech ; Nouns, adj, adv, prepositions, </li></ul><ul><li>conjunctions, pronouns, verbs, </li></ul><ul><li>interjections. </li></ul><ul><li>-Phonology </li></ul><ul><li>-Phonetics </li></ul><ul><li>-Morphology </li></ul>
  23. 23. English linguistics approach <ul><li>Language theory / Language technology </li></ul><ul><li>( Competence & performance )    </li></ul><ul><li>« Chomsky » </li></ul><ul><li>« Colourless green ideas sleep furiously » </li></ul><ul><li>S V Adv </li></ul>
  24. 24. English linguistics approach <ul><li>Language theory / Language technology </li></ul><ul><li>What significance can language technology have for the language theory ? </li></ul>
  25. 25. English linguistics approach <ul><li>Language theory / Language technology </li></ul><ul><li>The problem of ambiguity in relation to the </li></ul><ul><li>current language processing systems </li></ul>
  26. 26. English linguistics approach <ul><li>Language theory / Language technology </li></ul><ul><li>How can we be able to turn linguistics into </li></ul><ul><li>a hard science ? </li></ul>
  27. 27. English linguistics approach <ul><li>Language theory / Language technology </li></ul><ul><li>What are the limitations of current </li></ul><ul><li>language systems ? </li></ul>
  28. 28. English linguistics approach <ul><li>Language theory / Language technology </li></ul><ul><li>What is competence and performance ? </li></ul><ul><li>« Colourless green ideas sleep furiously » </li></ul><ul><li>S V Adv </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grammar </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meaning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. The use of English as a 2 nd language Meeting Obama was great ! Unfortunately, I couldn’t speak well English…
  30. 30. The use of English as a 2 nd language 1-Common errors <ul><li>What is an error in English ? </li></ul>
  31. 31. The use of English as a 2 nd language 1-Common errors <ul><li>All deviations from the standard use of English as </li></ul><ul><li>judged by sophisticated users </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>The aim is </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid (-) consequences </li></ul>
  32. 32. The use of English as a 2 nd language 1-Common errors <ul><li>Why don’t we cover all important points of grammar ? </li></ul>
  33. 33. The use of English as a 2 nd language 1-Common errors <ul><li>Lack of practice </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with other languages backgrounds </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient input Listening </li></ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Unstructured output Speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul>
  34. 34. The use of English as a 2 nd language 2-Idioms <ul><li>1-idiomatic expressions: </li></ul><ul><li>Confusing an idiomatic expression . </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties understanding the meanings. </li></ul>
  35. 35. The use of English as a 2 nd language 2-Idioms <ul><li>1-Idiomatic expressions: </li></ul><ul><li>exp : literal meaning </li></ul><ul><li>«  Before the bartender made the drink,she broke the ice with a small hammer and dropped it into the blender.  » </li></ul><ul><li>idiomatic meaning </li></ul><ul><li>«  Before the conference began, the speaker broke the ice with a joke .” </li></ul>
  36. 36. The use of English as a 2 nd language 2-Idioms <ul><li>1-Idiomatic expressions: </li></ul><ul><li>broke the ice </li></ul><ul><li>To make a beginning To get through the </li></ul><ul><li>1st difficulties in </li></ul><ul><li>starting a conversation </li></ul>
  37. 37. The use of English as a 2 nd language 2-Idioms <ul><li>2-Phrasal verb: </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently heard in spoken English </li></ul><ul><li>Phrasal verb is a verb + preposition structure </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes referred to as 2-word or 3-word verb. </li></ul><ul><li>S pecial meaning </li></ul>
  38. 38. The use of English as a 2 nd language 2-Idioms <ul><li>2-Phrasal verb: </li></ul><ul><li>Exp: </li></ul><ul><li>Put off –delay............................ postpone </li></ul><ul><li>Sow up – appear ........................... come </li></ul>
  39. 39. English skills <ul><li>The focus on this point is : </li></ul><ul><li>-To highlight the importance of each skill area. </li></ul><ul><li>-To illustrate each skill requirements </li></ul><ul><li>-To gather a global 4-skills-concept in mind </li></ul>
  40. 40. English skills <ul><li>What do you have to do before you can </li></ul><ul><li>speak? </li></ul><ul><li>What does a child learn before he </li></ul><ul><li>talks? </li></ul><ul><li>What do we do before chatting? </li></ul>
  41. 41. English skills <ul><li>Listening </li></ul>
  42. 42. English skills 1-Listening <ul><li>Children begin listening to their parents </li></ul><ul><li>Children automatically acquire such language </li></ul><ul><li>listening can help improve speaking considerably </li></ul><ul><li>It is neither the easiest nor the most meaningless </li></ul>
  43. 43. English skills 1-Listening <ul><li>Why is listening good ? </li></ul>
  44. 44. English skills 1-Listening <ul><li>Reviewing a lot of English usage </li></ul><ul><li>Learning new words and expressions </li></ul><ul><li>General knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>We can imitate what we hear </li></ul><ul><li>Listening can be a good “hobby” </li></ul><ul><li>To train our attention . </li></ul>
  45. 45. English skills 1-Listening <ul><li>How can we listen to English? </li></ul>
  46. 46. English skills 1-Listening <ul><li>Radio programmes </li></ul><ul><li>English broadcaster </li></ul>
  47. 47. English skills 1-Listening <ul><li>Some of the most listening skills are : </li></ul><ul><li>-Listening for gist </li></ul><ul><li>-Listening for detail </li></ul><ul><li>-Listening for specific information </li></ul><ul><li>-Inferential listening </li></ul>
  48. 48. English skills <ul><li>Speaking </li></ul>
  49. 49. English skills 2 -Speaking <ul><li>How do you become a more confident </li></ul><ul><li>English speaker ? </li></ul>
  50. 50. English skills 2 -Speaking <ul><li>Practice anywhere, anytime. </li></ul><ul><li>Build confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Experiment English that you know </li></ul><ul><li>Try to Respond </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid translation </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid being silent </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t speak too fast </li></ul><ul><li>Relax </li></ul>
  51. 51. English skills 2 -Speaking <ul><li>Remember, when speaking English… </li></ul>
  52. 52. English skills 2 -Speaking <ul><li>Be less hesitant </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t be shy to speak </li></ul><ul><li>Be polite </li></ul>
  53. 53. English skills <ul><li>Reading </li></ul>
  54. 54. English skills 3 -Reading <ul><li>Do I read every word in my own language when I am reading a schedule, summary, or other outlining document? </li></ul>
  55. 55. English skills 3 -Reading <ul><li>Do I read every word in my own </li></ul><ul><li>language when I am reading a schedule, summary, or other outlining document? </li></ul><ul><li>No ! </li></ul>
  56. 56. English skills 3 -Reading <ul><li>Skimming </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive reading </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive reading </li></ul>
  57. 57. English skills 3 -Reading <ul><li>Skimming </li></ul>
  58. 58. English skills 3 -Reading <ul><li>Scanning </li></ul>
  59. 59. English skills 3 -Reading <ul><li>Extensive reading </li></ul>
  60. 60. English skills 3 -Reading <ul><li>Intensive reading </li></ul>
  61. 61. English skills <ul><li>Writing </li></ul>
  62. 62. English skills 4 -Writing <ul><li>Write with necessary caution… </li></ul>
  63. 63. English skills 4 -Writing
  64. 64. English skills 4 -Writing <ul><li>Avoid slangs </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid abbreviations unless necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Steer away from symbols « & » </li></ul><ul><li>Becareful with stereotypes (clichés) </li></ul><ul><li>( ) to play down words or phrases </li></ul><ul><li>_ for emphasis </li></ul><ul><li>Spell names correctly </li></ul>
  65. 65. English skills 4 -Writing <ul><li>Numbers < 10 should be expressed as words </li></ul><ul><li>exp : « Ten years ago,my brother… ». </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers > 10 are expressed as they are </li></ul><ul><li>exp « My brother has 13 sandal peers ». </li></ul><ul><li>(“ ” / ‘ ’) should be placed around speech </li></ul><ul><li>and titles . </li></ul><ul><li>Keep short sentences. </li></ul>
  66. 66. English skills <ul><li>Remember… </li></ul><ul><li>Input Output </li></ul><ul><li>(listening, reading) (speaking, writing) </li></ul>
  67. 67. The international English assessment systems <ul><li>Cambridge exams: IELTS, BEC </li></ul><ul><li>Exams from British examining boards </li></ul><ul><li>Using British English </li></ul>
  68. 68. The international English assessment systems <ul><li>American E xams: TOEFL, TOEIC </li></ul><ul><li>Exams from U-S examining boards </li></ul><ul><li>Using American English </li></ul>
  69. 69. The international English assessment systems <ul><li>The main levels: </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced / Proficient / Level 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Intermediate / Higher Intermediate / Level 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediate / Level 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Intermediate /Pre-Intermediate/Primary/ Level 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Elementary / Beginners / Basic / Level 1 </li></ul>
  70. 70. The international English assessment systems 100 400 _ KET 4.0 Elementary 520 150 470 Preliminary PET 5.0 Lower intermediate 660 200 530 Vantage FCE 6.0 Intermediate 810 250 600 Higher CAE 7.0 Upper intermediate 990 290 670 _ CPE 8.0 Advanced TOEIC TOEFL electro TOEFL paper BEC Cambri- dge IELTS LEVELS
  71. 71. The international English assessment systems <ul><li>Abbreviations : </li></ul><ul><li>IELTS  : International English Language Testing System </li></ul><ul><li>BEC  : Business English Certificate </li></ul><ul><li>TOEFL  : Test of English as a Foreign Language </li></ul><ul><li>TOEIC  : Test of English for International Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Cambridge exams: </li></ul><ul><li>KET (Key English Test) PET (Preliminary English Test) FCE (First Certificate in English) CAE (Certificate in Advanced English) CPE (Certificate of Proficiency in English) </li></ul>
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