The hydrosphere

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The hydrosphere

  1. 1. The Hydrosphere “a river is more than an amenity… it is a treasure.” -Oliver Wendell Holmes-
  2. 2. Hydrosphere • Is a dynamic mass of liquid that is continually on the move, from the oceans to the atmosphere, to the land and back again. • The global ocean is blanketing nearly 71% of the earth’s surface and accounting for about 97% of the earth’s water.
  3. 3. Hydrosphere • Precipitation: • Means falling from a height. • Rain • Snow • Hail • Sleet • Mist
  4. 4. Hydrosphere • Run-off • Refers to the flow back to the oceans of the precipitation that falls on land.
  5. 5. Sources of fresh water • Surface water • Precipitation that does not infiltrate into the ground or return ton the atmosphere by evaporation or transpiration.
  6. 6. Sources of fresh water • Ground water • It is the water that penetrates the soil and reaches the water table. • Zone of saturation The area where all available pores, spaces, or cracks in soil and rock in the earth’s crust.
  7. 7. Sources of fresh water • Water table • Is the upper surface of the zone of saturation. • 40 times as much ground water below the earth’s surface as there is in all the world’s streams and lakes.
  8. 8. Significant of Water • The significant of water needs no elucidation. It is as under: (1) It is revealed by the history of human civilization that water supply and civilization are most synonymous. (2) Several cities and civilizations have disappeared due to water shortages originating from climatic changes. (3) Millions of people all over the world, particularly in the developing countries, are losing their lives every year from water-borne disease.
  9. 9. Significant of Water (4) An understanding of water chemistry is the basis of knowledge of the multidimensional aspects of aquatic environment chemistry, which involve the sources, composition, reactions, and transport of the water. (5) About 97% of the earth’s water supply is in the ocean, which is unfit of the remaining 3%, 2% is locked in the polar ice-caps and only 1% is available as fresh water in rivers, lakes, streams, reservoirs and ground water which is suitable for human consumption.

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