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Psychology A Freud

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Psychology A Freud

  1. 1. A Freudian Perspective Psychology A
  2. 2. Dr Sigmund Freud 1856-1939 <ul><li>Oldest of eight children </li></ul><ul><li>Married with 3 girls and 3 boys </li></ul><ul><li>Jewish-anti-religion-All religion an illusion used to cope with feelings of infantile helplessness </li></ul><ul><li>Based theory on personal experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Died of cancer of jaw & mouth lifelong chain-smoker </li></ul>
  3. 3. Freud <ul><li>To have a look in the Freud Museum click here. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Approach: <ul><li>Model of personality development </li></ul><ul><li>Method of Psychotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>Identified dynamic factors that motivate behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on role of unconscious </li></ul>
  5. 5. Determinism <ul><li>According to Freud behaviour is determined by : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrational forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconscious motivations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological and instinctual drives as they evolve through the six psychosexual stages of life </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Instincts <ul><li>Libido – sexual energy – Pleasure principle – goal of life gain pleasure and avoid pain </li></ul><ul><li>Death instinct – accounts for aggressive drive – to die or to hurt themselves or others </li></ul><ul><li>Sex and aggressive drives-powerful determinants of people ’ s actions </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Structure of Personality <ul><li>THE ID — The Demanding Child </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruled by the pleasure principle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>THE EGO — The Adult </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruled by the reality principle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>THE SUPEREGO — The Judge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruled by the moral principle </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The mind is an iceberg <ul><li>The id and superego </li></ul><ul><li>are below the surface </li></ul><ul><li>Only the ego is on the conscious level. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Id <ul><li>Basic psychic energy and motivations </li></ul><ul><li>Operates to demands of Pleasure Principle - strive to satisfy desires and reduce inner tension </li></ul><ul><li>The Demanding Child </li></ul>
  10. 10. Ego <ul><li>Deals with real world </li></ul><ul><li>Operates to demands of Reality Principle solves problems by planning & acting </li></ul><ul><li>The Adult </li></ul>
  11. 11. Superego <ul><li>Internalised social norm & moral forces pressing on and constraining individual action </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as our conscience </li></ul><ul><li>The Judge </li></ul>
  12. 12. Psychosexual Theory of Development <ul><li>Five Stages of Development </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oral Stage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anal Stage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phallic Stage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Latency Period </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genital Stage </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Defense Mechanisms <ul><li>To protect the ego against the painful and threatening impulses arising from the id we distort the reality </li></ul><ul><li>The processes that distort the reality for the ego are called defense mechanisms </li></ul>
  14. 14. Types of Defense Mechanisms <ul><li>Repression </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction Formation </li></ul><ul><li>Denial </li></ul><ul><li>Regression </li></ul><ul><li>Sublimation </li></ul>
  15. 15. What is the Unconscious <ul><li>That portion of the mind inaccessible to usual, conscious thought </li></ul><ul><li>Get to unconscious through Free Association : spontaneous free flowing associations of ideas and feelings </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Unconscious <ul><li>Clinical evidence for the unconscious mind : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dreams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slips of the tongue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posthypnotic suggestions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Material derived from free-association </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolic content of psychotic symptoms </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Dream Interpretation <ul><li>“ Royal road to the unconscious” </li></ul><ul><li>What is important in dreams is the infantile wish fulfillment represented in them </li></ul><ul><li>Freud assumed every dream has a meaning that can be interpreted by decoding representations of the unconscious material </li></ul><ul><li>Dream symbol = represents some person, thing, or activity involved in the unconscious process </li></ul>
  18. 18. Dream Interpretations <ul><li>Knife, umbrella, snake = Penis </li></ul><ul><li>Box, oven, ship = Uterus </li></ul><ul><li>Room, table with food = Women </li></ul><ul><li>Staircase, ladder = Sexual intercourse </li></ul><ul><li>Baldness, tooth removal = castration </li></ul><ul><li>Left (direction) = crime, sexual deviation </li></ul><ul><li>Fire = bedwetting </li></ul><ul><li>Robber = father </li></ul><ul><li>Falling = anxiety </li></ul>
  19. 19. Freudian Slip <ul><li>Psychological error in speaking or writing </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of some unconscious urge, desire, or conflict & struggle </li></ul><ul><li>When ego or superego are not doing their job properly elements of id slip out or are seen </li></ul>
  20. 20. Psychoanalytic Techniques <ul><li>Free Association </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Client reports immediately without censoring any feelings or thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Therapist points out, explains, and teaches the meanings of whatever is revealed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dream Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Therapist uses the “royal road to the unconscious” to bring unconscious material to light </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Contributions of Freud <ul><li>First personality & psychotherapy theory </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on sexuality as influence </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of early childhood experience </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of unconscious </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on Helper Role in therapeutic relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific approach to mental health on continuum from physical health </li></ul>
  22. 22. Limitations of Freud’s Work <ul><li>Pessimistic and deterministic approach to personality </li></ul><ul><li>No controlled studies-poor research </li></ul><ul><li>Overemphasis on differences between men and women </li></ul><ul><li>Unconcerned with interpersonal relations, individual identity and adaptation over one’s lifetime </li></ul>
  23. 23. Freud’s Heritage <ul><li>Learn how Freudian ideas have been used in Public Relations campaigns. </li></ul><ul><li>See how psychoanalysts encouraged women to smoke </li></ul><ul><li>Find out about how the Freud dynasty have used Freudian ideas to their advantage. </li></ul><ul><li>Find out how we have been influenced by Freudian ideas in this compelling social history. </li></ul>
  24. 24. To further your interest <ul><li>To visit the Freud Archive - click here </li></ul><ul><li>Keep up to date with the latest research </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology Today </li></ul>
  25. 25. Freudian Ideas and Film Makers <ul><li>Freudian Ideas have been used extensively by British Film Makers – click on the link below </li></ul><ul><li>Screen O nline </li></ul><ul><li>Watch clips from the film Black Narcissus to see Freudian Ideas at work </li></ul>

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