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THE SECURITIES CONTRACTS
 (REGULATION) ACT, 1956
INTRODUCTION
In order to prevent undesirable transactions
 in securities and to regulate the working of
 stock changes in the country, the central
 government enacted the Securities Contracts
 (Regulation) Act in 1956.

It came into force on February 20, 1957.

The Act applies to the whole India
SECURITIES
Shares, stocks, bonds, debentures, debenture stock or other marketable
securities of a like nature in or of any incorporated company or other body
corporate;
Government securities;
Such other instruments as may be declared by the central government to
be securities;
Derivative (derivative includes a security derived from a debt instrument,
share, loan whether secured or unsecured, risk instrument or contract for
difference or any other form of security);
Units of any other instrument issued by any collective scheme to the
investors in such schemes;
Rights or interests in securities;
RECOGNISED STOCK EXCHANGES


Stock exchange means any body of
 individuals, whether incorporated or not,
 constituted for the purpose of assisting,
 regulating or controlling the business of
 buying, selling or dealing in securities. [Sec
 2(j)]
• A stock exchange performs a vital function in the
economic activity of a country. By encouraging
people to save and invest, the stock exchange helps
the capital formation which is essential ingredient for
quicker industrial development.
•     The Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act,
1956 provides that only those stock exchanges
which are granted recognition by the Central
government can function in India. No person shall,
except with the permission of the Central
Government, organise or assist in organising or be a
member of any stock exchange (other than a
recognised stock exchange) for the purpose of
assisting in, entering into or performing any contracts
in securities.
RECOGNISED STOCK EXCHANGES

Application for reorganisation of stock exchange
Grant of recognition of stock exchange
Withdrawal of recognition
Government control over trading methods
Power of recognised stock exchange to make rules
 restricting voting rights
Power of central government to direct rules to be made or
 to make rules.
Power of recognised stock exchanges to make bye-laws.
Power of Securities and Exchange Board of India to make
 or amend bye-laws of recognised stock exchanges.
Nominees of SEBI on governing body

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Securties contract act

  • 1. THE SECURITIES CONTRACTS (REGULATION) ACT, 1956
  • 2. INTRODUCTION In order to prevent undesirable transactions in securities and to regulate the working of stock changes in the country, the central government enacted the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act in 1956. It came into force on February 20, 1957. The Act applies to the whole India
  • 3. SECURITIES Shares, stocks, bonds, debentures, debenture stock or other marketable securities of a like nature in or of any incorporated company or other body corporate; Government securities; Such other instruments as may be declared by the central government to be securities; Derivative (derivative includes a security derived from a debt instrument, share, loan whether secured or unsecured, risk instrument or contract for difference or any other form of security); Units of any other instrument issued by any collective scheme to the investors in such schemes; Rights or interests in securities;
  • 4. RECOGNISED STOCK EXCHANGES Stock exchange means any body of individuals, whether incorporated or not, constituted for the purpose of assisting, regulating or controlling the business of buying, selling or dealing in securities. [Sec 2(j)]
  • 5. • A stock exchange performs a vital function in the economic activity of a country. By encouraging people to save and invest, the stock exchange helps the capital formation which is essential ingredient for quicker industrial development. • The Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 provides that only those stock exchanges which are granted recognition by the Central government can function in India. No person shall, except with the permission of the Central Government, organise or assist in organising or be a member of any stock exchange (other than a recognised stock exchange) for the purpose of assisting in, entering into or performing any contracts in securities.
  • 6. RECOGNISED STOCK EXCHANGES Application for reorganisation of stock exchange Grant of recognition of stock exchange Withdrawal of recognition Government control over trading methods Power of recognised stock exchange to make rules restricting voting rights Power of central government to direct rules to be made or to make rules. Power of recognised stock exchanges to make bye-laws. Power of Securities and Exchange Board of India to make or amend bye-laws of recognised stock exchanges. Nominees of SEBI on governing body

Editor's Notes

  1. Objectives:-To prevent undesirable transactions in securities.To regulate dealings in securities including derivatives.To regulate the functioning of stock exchange.To regulate the buying and selling of securities outside limits of stock exchanges. To provide for reasonable uniformity in respect of the bye-laws and rules of different stock exchanges in india.To protect the interest of investors.
  2. GOVERNMENT SECURITY  Government security means a security created and issued, whether before or after the commencement of this Act, by the Central Government or a State Government for the purpose of raising a public loan and having one of the forms specified in clause (2) of section 2 of the Public Debt Act, 1944. SPOT DELIVERY CONTRACT Spot delivery contract is a contract which provides for the actual delivery of securities and the payment of a price therefore either on the same day as the date of the contract or on the next day, the actual period taken for the despatch of the securities or the remittance of money therefore through the post being excluded from the computation of the period aforesaid, if the parties to the contract do not reside in the same town or locality. 
  3.  APPLICATION FOR REORGANISATION OF STOCK EXCHANGE  Section 3 of the Act lays down that any stock exchange which is desirous of getting recognition should apply to the Central Government in a prescribed form, giving necessary details. Interims of Rule 3 of the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Rules, 1957, this application has to be made in prescribed form A. the application for recognisation has to be accompanied by a copy of the bye-laws of the stock exchange nd also a copy of the rue of the stock exchange.  GRANT OF RECOGNITION OF STOCK EXCHANGE  If the Central Government satisfied, it may grant recognition to a stock exchange. It shall however, grant recognition after:- After making such inquiry as may be necessary in this behalf and Obtaining such further information if any as it may require. The Central Government shall satisfy itself;- That the rules and bye-laws of a stock exchange applying for registration are in conformity with such conditions as may be prescribed with a view to ensure fair dealing and to protect investors ;  That the stock exchange is willing to comply with any other conditions (including conditions as to the number of members) which the Central Government, may impose for the purpose of carrying out the objects of this Act ; and  That it would be in the interest of the trade and also in the public interest to grant recognition to the stock exchange; it may grant recognition to the stock exchange subject to the con ditions imposed upon it as aforesaid and in such form as may be prescribed.  The Central Government shall impose these conditions after consultation with the governing body of he stock exchange for the grant of recognition to the stock exchanges may include, among other matters, conditions relating to,- The qualifications for membership of stock exchanges;  The manner in which contracts shall be entered into and enforced as between members;  He representation of the Central Government on each of the stock exchanges by such number of persons not exceeding three as the Central Government may nominate in this behalf ; and  The maintenance of accounts of members and their audit by chartered accountants whenever such audit is required by the Central Government.  WITHDRAWAL OF RECOGNITION If the Central Government is of opinion that the recognition granted to a stock exchange under the provisions of this Act should, in the interest of the trade or in the public interest, be withdrawn, the Central Government may serve on the governing body of the stock exchange a written notice that the Central Government is considering the withdrawal of the recognition for the reasons stated in the notice, and after giving an opportunity to the governing body to be heard in the matter, the Central Government may withdraw, by notification in the Official Gazette, the recognition granted to the stock exchange: Provided that no such withdrawal shall affect the validity of any contract entered into or made before the date of the notification, and the Central Government may, after consultation with the stock exchange, make such provision as it deems fit in the notification of withdrawal or in any subsequent notification similarly published for the due performance of any contracts outstanding on that date.  GOVERNMENT CONTROL OVER TRADING METHODS POWER OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT TO CALL FOR PERIODICAL RETURNS OR DIRECT INQUIRIES TO BE MADE.  Every recognised stock exchange shall furnish to the Securities and Exchange Board of India such periodical returns relating to its affairs as may be prescribed. Every recognised stock exchange and every member thereof shall maintain and preserve for such periods not exceeding five years such books of account, and other documents as the Central Government, after consultation with the stock exchange concerned, may prescribe in the interest of the trade or in the public interest, and such books of account, and other documents shall be subject to inspection at all reasonable times by the Securities and Exchange Board of India. If SEBI is satisfied that iris in the interest of trade or in the public interest so to do, it may, by order in writing:- Call upon a recognised stock exchange or any member thereof to furnish in writing such information or explanation relating to the affairs of the stock exchange or of the member in relation to the stock exchange or of Securities and Exchange Board of India may require; or  Appoint one or more persons to make an inquiry in the prescribed manner in relation to the affairs of the governing body of a stock exchange or the affair.,; of a of the members of the stock exchange in relation to t stock exchange and submit a report of the result of such inquiry to the [Securities and Exchange Board of India] within such time as may be specified in the order or, in the case of an inquiry in relation to the affairs of any of the members of a stock exchange, direct the governing body to take the inquiry and submit its report to the Securities and Exchange Board of India.    Where any enquiry has been instituted by the SEBI the following persons shall be bound to produce before the authority making the inquiry all such books of account and other documents in their custody or power relating to or having a bearing on the subject matter of such enquiry. Every director, manager, secretary or other officer of such stock exchange ;Every member of such stock exchange;  If the member of the stock exchange is a firm, every partner, manager, secretary or other officer of the firm ; and Every other person or body of persons who has had dealings in the course of business with any of the persons mentioned above, whether directly or indirectly These persons are also under a duty to furnish the authorities within the time specified with any such statement or information as may be required of them. Every recognised stock exchange shall furnish the Central Government with a copy of the ANNUAL REPORT, and such annual report shall contain such particulars as may be prescribed.  POWER OF RECOGNISED STOCK EXCHANGE TO MAKE RULES RESTRICTING VOTING RIGHTS. A recognised stock exchange may make rules or amend any rules made by it to provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:-  The restriction of voting rights to members only in respect of any matter placed before the stock exchange at any meeting;  The regulation of voting rights in respect of any matter placed before the stock exchange at any' meeting so that each member may be entitled to have one vote only, irrespective of his share of the paid-up equity capital of the stock exchange ;  The restriction on the right of a member to appoint another person as his proxy to attend and vote at a meeting of the stock exchange; Such incidental, consequential and supplementary matters as may be necessary to give effect to any of the matters specified above.  The rules or amendments to the rules made by a stock exchange shall have effect only after they have been approved by the Central Government and published in the official Gazette. In approving the rules so made or amended, the Central Government may make such modifications therein as it thinks fit, and on such publication, the rules as approved by the Central Government shall be deemed to have been validly made, notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in the Companies Act, 1956.  POWER OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT TO DIRECT RULES TO BE MADE OR TO MAKE RULES.  Section 8 of this Act empowers the Central government to direct, by order in writing, sock exchanges generally or in any stock exchange particular to make rules or to amend any rules already made in respect of all or any of the following:- The governing body of such stock exchange, its constitution and powers of management and the manner in which its business is to be transacted ; The powers and duties of the office bearers of the stock exchange;  The admission into the stock exchange of various classes of members, the qualifications for membership, and the exclusion, suspension, expulsion and re-admission of members therefrom or thereinto;  The procedure for the registration of partnerships as members of the stock exchange in cases where the rules pro- vide for such membership; and the nomination and appointment of authorized representatives and clerks. The government shall consult with the governing bodies of stock exchanges generally or with the governing body of any stock exchange in particular befoe issuing such order. While issuing the order to make or amend any rules the Government shall also state the reason for it. The stock exchane to whom such an order is issued shall make or amend the rules within a period of two months from the date of the order.If any recognised stock exchange fails or neglects to comply with any order made above within the period specified therein, the Central Government may make the rules for, or amend the rules made by, the recognised stock exchange, either in the form proposed in the order or with such modifications thereof as may be agreed to between the stock exchange and the Central Government. (3) Where in pursuance of this section any rules have been made or amended, the rules so made or amended shall be published in the Gazette of India and also in the Official Gazette or Gazettes of the State or States in which the principal office or offices of the recognised stock exchange or exchanges is or are situate, and, on the publication thereof in the Gazette of India, the rules so made or amended shall, notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in the Companies Act, 1956, (1 of 1956.) or in any other law for the time being in force, have effect as if they had been made or amended by the recognised stock exchange or stock exchanges. POWER OF RECOGNISED STOCK EXCHANGES TO MAKE BYE-LAWS. Section 9 of this Act empowers a recognised stock exchange subject to the previous approval of SEBI, to make bye-laws for the regulation and control of the contracts. This is the general power of stock exchange. In particular there bye laws may provide for:- The opening and closing of markets and the regulation of the hours of trade ; A clearing house for the periodical settlement of contracts and differences thereunder, the delivery of and payment for securities, the passing on of delivery orders and the regulation and maintenance of such clearing house;  The submission to the Securities and Exchange Board of India by the clearing house as soon as may be after each periodical settlement of all or any of the following particulars as that may from time to time, require, namely:  The total number of each category of security carried over from one settlement period to another; The total number of each category of security, contracts in respect of which have been squared up during the course of each settlement period ; The total number of each category of security actually delivered at each clearing ;  The publication by the clearing house of all or any of the particulars submitted to the [Securities and Exchange Board of India] subject to the directions, if any, issued by the Securities and Exchange Board of India. in this behalf; The regulation or prohibition of blank transfers ;  The number and classes of contracts in respect of which settlements shall be made or differences paid through the clearing house; The regulation, or prohibition of budlas or carry- over facilities ;  The fixing, altering or postponing of days for settlements;  The determination and declaration ,of market rates, including the opening, closing, highest and lowest rates for securities ;  The terms, conditions and incidents of contracts, including the prescription of margin requirements, if any, and conditions relating thereto, and the forms of contracts in writing.  The regulation of the entering into, making, performance, rescission and termination, of contracts, including contracts between members or between a member and his constituent or between a member and a person who is not a member, and the consequences of default or in- solvency on the part of a seller or buyer or intermediary, the consequences of a breach or omission by a seller or buyer, and the responsibility of members who are not parties to such contracts  The regulation of taravani business including the placing of limitations thereon ; The listing of securities on the stock exchange, the inclusion of any security for the purpose of dealings and the suspension or withdrawal of any such securities, and the suspension or prohibition of trading in any. specified securities ; The method and procedure for the settlement of claims or disputes,. including settlement by arbitration ;  The levy and recovery of fees, fines and penalties;  The regulation of the course of business between parties to contracts in any capacity ;  The fixing of a scale of brokerage and other charges;  The making, comparing, settling and closing of bargains;  The emergencies in trade which may arise, whether as a result of pool or syndicated operations or cornering or otherwise, and the exercise of powers in such emergencies, including the. power to fix maximum and minimum prices for securities ;  The regulation of dealings by members for their own account ;  The separation of the functions of jobbers and brokers;  The limitations on the volume of trade done by any individual member in exceptional circumstances;  The obligation of members to supply such information or explanation-and to produce such documents relating to the business as the governing body may require.   POWER OF SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE BOARD OF INDIA TO MAKE OR AMEND BYE-LAWS OF RECOGNISED STOCK EXCHANGES. The Securities and Exchange Board of India may, either on a request in writing received by it in this behalf from the governing body of a recognised stock exchange or on its own motion, if it is satisfied after consultation with the governing body of the stock exchange that it is necessary or expedient so to do and after recording its reasons for so doing, make bye-laws for all or any of the matters specified above or amend any bye-laws made by such stock exchange under that section.  Where in pursuance of this section any bye-laws have been made or amended, the bye-laws so made or amended shall be published in the Gazette of India and also in the Official Gazette of the State in which the principal office of the recognised stock exchange is situate, and on the publication thereof in the Gazette of India, the bye-laws so made or amended shall have effect as if they had been made or amended by the recognised stock exchange concerned.  Where the governing body of a recognised stock exchange objects to any byelaws made or amended under this section by the [Securities and Exchange Board of India] on its own motion, it may, within two months of the publication thereof in the Gazette of India, apply to the Government for revision thereof. The Securities and Exchange Board of India after giving an opportunity to the governing body of the stock exchange to be heard in the matter, revise the bye- laws so made or amended, and where any bye-laws so made or amended are revised as a result of any action taken under this sub-section, the bye-laws so revised shall be published and shall become effective.The making or the amendment or revision of any bye-laws shall in all cases be subject to the condition of previous publication: If the Securities and Exchange Board of India is satisfied in any case that in the interest of the trade or in the public interest any byelaws should be made, amended or revised immediately, it may, by order in writing specifying the reasons therefor, dispense with the condition of previous publication.   NOMINEES OF SEBI ON GOVERNING BODY  Rule 10 of Securities Controls (Regulation) Rules 1957 provides that SEBI can nominate up to three persons as member on the governing body of the Stock Exchange. Such nominees have all the powers like elected member of governing body. LISTING OF SECURITIES  Listing of securities means the inclusion of the securities in the official list of a stock exchange for the purpose of trading. It is sanction of the right to trade the securities on the stock exchange. There is no statutory obligation tht every public limited company should get its share listed in stock exchange, but only listed securities ae allowed to be trade on a stock exchange. Company intending to offer shares or debentures to the public for subscription by the issue of a prospectus shall, before such issue, make an application to one or more recognized stock exchanges for permission for the shares or debentures intending to be so offered to be dealt with in the stock exchange or each such stock exchange.Sec 6(3)