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Six Month Industrial Training Report at Milestone Gears Ltd


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Milestone Gears Pvt Ltd

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Six Month Industrial Training Report at Milestone Gears Ltd

  2. 2. IEC UNIVERSITY, BADDI CANDIDATE'S DECLARATION I “YOGESH” hereby declare that I have undertaken six months Industrial Training at “Milestone Gears Pvt. Ltd.” during a period from ______ to _______ in partial fulfillment of requirements for the award of degree of B.Tech (Mechanical Engineering) at IEC UNIVERSITY, BADDI. The work which is being presented in the training report submitted to Department of Mechancial Engineering at IEC UNIVERSITY, BADDI is an authentic record of training work. Signature of the Student The industrial training Viva–Voce Examination of__________________ has been held on ____________ and accepted. Signature of Internal Examiner Signature of External Examiner
  3. 3. ACKNOWLEDGMENT I would like to express my gratitude to all those who gave me the possibility to complete this project. I want to thank the Department of MECHANICAL Engineering and “IEC UNIVERSITY BADDI” for giving me such a golden opportunity to commence this project report in the first instance. I have further more to thank the Lecturer ” Mr. RAJWANT ”and our H.O.D “Mr. RAHUL ” who encouraged me to go ahead with my project. I am also thankful to the entire ME Engineering Department of “IEC UNIVERSITY BADDI” for their stimulating support. I am deeply indebted to our training in-charge at industry “Akshay” whose help, stimulating suggestions and encouragement helped me in all the time at the training and also for writing this report. Also I am thankful to industry incharge “Rajiv sir” for helping me understand the products manufacturing operations. My colleagues from the ME Engineering Department supported me in my project work. I want to thank them for all their help, support, interest and valuable hints. Especially, I would like to give my special thanks to my parents whose patient love enabled me to complete this work. And at last but not the least I would like to thank God for the successful completion of my project report.
  4. 4. ABSTRACT All bachelor degree students are required to undergo industrial training for six months as a part of curriculum to complete their 4 year course for bachelor of mechanical engineering. For my industrial training I did at Milestone Gears Pvt. Ltd., Village Barotiwala, Tehsil Baddi, District Solan, Himachal Pradesh – 173 205. It is a manufacturing and export plant. I was assigned to the quality section. My supervisor name was Mr. R.K Sharma who gave me knowledge about how to take measurement of products by measuring instruments and gauges. I learnt lots of basic manufacturing processes at there like milling, hobbing and turning etc. I saw lots of lathe and CNCs etc machines at there.
  5. 5. ABOUT THE COMPANY Milestone Gears is a private limited company which commenced its commercial operations in the year 1985. It was initially started as an ancillary unit for Eicher Tractors. The company has three plants located at Parwanoo and Barotiwala in Himachal Pradesh and one at Kalka in Haryana operating at 75% capacity utilisation. The plants consist of CNC turning, CNC hobbing, gear shaving, induction hardening and case carburizing machines among its machinery. The company supplies to OEMs and caters products exclusively for tractors. Its list of clients includes Mahindra & Mahindra, Eicher, TAFE, Sonalika, New Holland Tractors and Carraro among others. The domestic market accounts entirely for the company’s total revenue. The company showed revenue growth of 50% in the last two years and expects a growth of 35% in the next two years. Its quality certification includes ISO 9001: 2000. Milestone Gears is planning backward integration into forgings and small hydro-power projects in the near future. It also plans to focus on tapping export potential and explore JV and SME acquisition opportunities overseas.
  6. 6. LIST OF FIGURES Figure No. Name 2.1 Quality policy 3.1 Lathe machine 3.2 CNC Machine 3.2.1 CNC Milling Machine 3.3.1 Bull Gears 3.3.2 Transmission Gears 3.3.3 Slender Shafts 3.3.4 Cluster Gears and Shafts 3.3.5 Companion Flanges 3.3.6 Internal Gears 3.3.7 Large Gears 3.3.8 Planetary Gears, Sun Gears & Sun Shafts 3.3.9 Rear Axle Shafts and Stub Axles 3.3.10 Rock Shafts, Brake S-CAM Shafts and PTO Shafts 4.1 Height Gauge 4.2 Micrometer 4.2.1 Parts of Micrometer
  7. 7. 4.2.2 Error of Micrometer 4.3 Slip Gauge or Gage blocks 4.4 Surface Plate 4.5 Bench Centre 4.6 Feeler Gauge 4.7 Coordinate Measuring Machine 4.8 Air Gauge 4.9 Dial Test Indicator 4.10 Caliper 4.10.1 Firm Joint Outside Caliper 4.11 Firm Joint Inside Caliper 4.12 Vernier Caliper 5.2 List of Clients
  8. 8. DEFINATIONS, ACRONYMSAND ABBREVIATIONS CNC Computer Numerical Control NC Numerical control CAD Computer Aided Design CAM Computer Aided Manufacturing ISO International Standard Organization CMM Coordinate Measuring Machine OEM Original Equipment Manufacturers
  9. 9. CONTENTS Topic Page No. Certificate by Company/Industry/Institute i Candidate’s Declaration ii Acknowledgement iii Abstract iv About the Company/ Industry / Institute v List of Figures vi-vii Definitions, Acronyms and Abbreviations viii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATION(s) 1.1 Industry Profile 1.2 General Information 1.3 The Story in Number CHAPTER 2 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING WORK UNDERTAKEN 2.1 Quality Control 2.2 Quality Policy CHAPTER 3 PROJECT WORK 3.1 List ofMachines 3.1.1 Lathe 3.1.2 CNC Machining 3.1.3 Shot Blasting 3.2 Manufacturing Process 3.3 Products CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Measuring Range 4.2 Least Count 4.3 List ofTools About Which I got Knowledge during Training CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION ANDFUTURESCOPE 5.1 Conclusion and Future Scope 5.2 List ofClients REFERENCES APPENDIX (Program or any additional information regarding training)
  10. 10. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATION 1.1 INDUSTRYPROFILE Milestone Gears was started in 1984, by technocrat Mr. Ashok Tandon who has a masters degree in engineering and administration from USA. In 70’s and early 80’s, the manufacturing process for rear axles commonly involved hardening and tempering operations. Such processes were not only expensive, but often left the axle vulnerable to performance and fatigue failures. The company was incepted to address such problem of high cost and low performance of rear axles. In late 80’s, the company pioneered introduction of induction hardening technology for component development in India, which resulted in several OEMs making a switch from toughening to induction hardening of rear axles. The company has since led the technology curve. Today, it manufactures over 350 + auto components and caters to 20 + major OEMs in 9 global geographies. It has the unique distinction of zero ppm defects with its export customers and has carved a market leadership position for itself in manufacturing of rear axles, transmission gears & shafts, and planetary drive components for automotive use.
  11. 11. 1.2 GENERALINFORMATION Milestone Gears is a private limited company which commenced its commercial operations in the year 1985. It was initially started as an ancillary unit for Eicher Tractors. The company has three plants located at Parwanoo and Barotiwala in Himachal Pradesh and one at Kalka in Haryana operating at 75% capacity utilisation. The plants consist of CNC turning, CNC hobbing, gear shaving, induction hardening and case carburizing machines among its machinery. The company supplies to OEMs and caters products exclusively for tractors. Its list of clients includes Mahindra & Mahindra, Eicher, TAFE, Sonalika, New Holland Tractors and Carraro among others. The domestic market accounts entirely for the company’s total revenue. The company showed revenue growth of 50% in the last two years and expects a growth of 35% in the next two years. Its quality certification includes ISO 9001: 2000. Milestone Gears is planning backward integration into forgings and small hydro-power projects in the near future. It also plans to focus on tapping export potential and explore JV and SME acquisition opportunities overseas. Vision To lead the Indian industry in manufacturing of transmission component and sub-assemblies with 25 % of revenue coming from exports. Mission To achieve customer’s delight by delivering world class quality products using cutting edge technologies and deploying best manufacturing practices.
  12. 12. 1.3 THE STORYIN NUMBERS  Incepted in 1984  350+ Auto Components  250,000 Sq. Ft. Across 20+ Acres  Ranked No. 1 for Tractor in India  Six plants in India  Team of 1000+ Engineers and Machinist  Zero PPM Defects with Export consumers  100+ CNCs for Turning, Gear cutting, Heat Treatment and Grinding  20+ OEM Customers  ISO 9001:2008; TS 16949
  13. 13. CHAPTER 2 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING WORK UNDERTAKEN 2.1 Quality control (QC) Quality control (QC) is a procedure or set of procedures intended to ensure that a manufactured product or performed service adheres to a defined set of quality criteria or meets the requirements of the client or customer. QC is similar to, but not identical with, quality assurance (QA). QA is defined as a procedure or set of procedures intended to ensure that a product or service under development (before work is complete, as opposed to afterwards) meets specified requirements. QA is sometimes expressed together with QC as a single expression, quality assurance and control (QA/QC). In order to implement an effective QC program, an enterprise must first decide which specific standards the product or service must meet. Then the extent of QC actions must be determined (for example, the percentage of units to be tested from each lot). Next, real-world data must be collected (for example, the percentage of units that fail) and the results reported to management personnel. After this, corrective action must be decided upon and taken (for example, defective units must be repaired or rejected and poor service repeated at no charge until the customer is satisfied). If too many unit failures or instances of poor service occur, a plan must be devised to improve the production or service process and then that plan must be put into action. Finally, the QC process must be ongoing to ensure that remedial efforts, if required, have produced satisfactory results and to immediately detect recurrences or new instances of trouble.
  14. 14. 2.2 QUALITY POLICY To increase consumer satisfaction through continuous improvement of products and services, this is achieved by following PDCA functions and levels of PRODUCTION. Figure 2 QUALITY POLICY
  15. 15. CHAPTER 3 PROJECTWORK 3.1 List of machines use in company 3.1.1 Lathe 3.1.2 CNC Machining 3.1.3 Shot Blasting 3.1.1 Lathe A lathe is a machine tool that rotates the workpiece on its axis to perform various operations such as cutting, sanding, knurling, drilling, or deformation, facing, turning, with tools that are applied to the workpiece to create an object with symmetry about an axis of rotation. Figure 3.1 lathe machine
  16. 16. Lathes are used in woodturning, metalworking, metal spinning, thermal spraying, parts reclamation, and glass-working. Lathes can be used to shape pottery, the best-known design being the potter's wheel. Most suitably equipped metalworking lathes can also be used to produce most solids of revolution, plane surfaces and screw threads or helices. Ornamental lathes can produce three-dimensional solids of incredible complexity. The workpiece is usually held in place by either one or two centers, at least one of which can typically be moved horizontally to accommodate varying workpiece lengths. Other work-holding methods include clamping the work about the axis of rotation using a chuck or collet, or to a faceplate, using clamps or dogs. Examples of objects that can be produced on a lathe include candlestick holders, gun barrels, cue sticks, table legs ,bowls, baseball bats, musical instruments (especially woodwind instruments), crankshafts, and camshafts. oflathe machine A lathe may or may not have legs, which sit on the floor and elevate the lathe bed to a working height. A lathe may be small and sit on a workbench or table, not requiring a stand. Almost all lathes have a bed, which is (almost always) a horizontal beam (although CNC lathes commonly have an inclined or vertical beam for a bed to ensure that swarf, or chips, falls free of the bed). Woodturning lathes specialized for turning large bowls often have no bed or tail stock, merely a free-standing headstock and a cantilevered tool rest. At one end of the bed (almost always the left, as the operator faces the lathe) is a headstock.
  17. 17. Unless a workpiece has a taper machined onto it which perfectly matches the internal taper in the spindle, or has threads which perfectly match the external threads on the spindle (two conditions which rarely exist), an accessory must be used to mount a workpiece to the spindle. A workpiece may be bolted or screwed to a faceplate, a large, flat disk that mounts to the spindle. In the alternative, faceplate dogs may be used to secure the work to the faceplate. The headstock contains high-precision spinning bearings. Rotating within the bearings is a horizontal axle, with an axis parallel to the bed, called the spindle. Spindles are often hollow and have exterior threads and/or an interior Morse taper on the "inboard" (i.e., facing to the right / towards the bed) by which work-holding accessories may be mounted to the spindle. Spindles may also have exterior threads and/or an interior taper at their "outboard" (i.e., facing away from the bed) end, and/or may have a hand-wheel or other accessory mechanism on their outboard end. Spindles are powered and impart motion to the workpiece. The spindle is driven either by foot power from a treadle and flywheel or by a belt or gear drive to a power source. In most modern lathes this power source is an integral electric motor, often either in the headstock, to the left of the headstock, or beneath the headstock, concealed in the stand. In addition to the spindle and its bearings, the headstock often contains parts to convert the motor speed into various spindle speeds. Various types of speed-changing mechanism achieve this, from a cone pulley or step pulley, to a cone pulley with back gear (which is essentially a low range, similar in net effect to the two-speed rear of a truck), to an entire gear train similar to that of a manual-shift auto transmission. Some motors have electronic rheostat-type speed controls, which obviates cone pulleys or gears. The counterpoint to the headstock is the tailstock, sometimes referred to as the loose head, as it can be positioned at any convenient point on the bed by sliding it to the required
  18. 18. area. The tail-stock contains a barrel, which does not rotate, but can slide in and out parallel to the axis of the bed and directly in line with the headstock spindle. The barrel is hollow and usually contains a taper to facilitate the gripping of various types of tooling. Its most common uses are to hold a hardened steel center, which is used to support long thin shafts while turning, or to hold drill bits for drilling axial holes in the work piece. Many other uses are possible. Metalworking lathes have a carriage (comprising a saddle and apron) topped with a cross-slide, which is a flat piece that sits crosswise on the bed and can be cranked at right angles to the bed. Sitting atop the cross slide is usually another slide called a compound rest, which provides 2 additional axes of motion, rotary and linear. A top that sits a toolpost, which holds a cutting tool, which removes material from the workpiece. There may or may not be a leadscrew, which moves the cross-slide along the bed. Woodturning and metal spinning lathes do not have cross- slides, but rather have banjos, which are flat pieces that sit crosswise on the bed. The position of a banjo can be adjusted by hand; no gearing is involved. Ascending vertically from the banjo is a tool-post, at the top of which is a horizontal toolrest. In woodturning, hand tools are braced against the tool rest and levered into the workpiece. In metal spinning, the further pin ascends vertically from the tool rest and serves as a fulcrum against which tools may be levered into the workpiece. A workpiece may be mounted on a mandrel, or circular work clamped in a three- or four-jaw chuck. For irregular shaped workpieces it is usual to use a four jaw (independent moving jaws) chuck. These holding devices mount directly to the Lathe headstock spindle. In precision work, and in some classes of repetition work, cylindrical workpieces are usually held in a collet inserted into the spindle and secured either by a draw-bar, or by a collet closing cap on the spindle. Suitable collets may also be used to mount square or hexagonal workpieces. In precision
  19. 19. toolmaking work such collets are usually of the draw-in variety, where, as the collet is tightened, the workpiece moves slightly back into the headstock, whereas for most repetition work the dead length variety is preferred, as this ensures that the position of the workpiece does not move as the collet is tightened. A soft workpiece (e.g., wood) may be pinched between centers by using a spur drive at the headstock, which bites into the wood and imparts torque to it. Live center (top); dead center (bottom). A soft dead center is used in the headstock spindle as the work rotates with the centre. Because the centre is soft it can be trued in place before use. The included angle is 60°. Traditionally, a hard dead center is used together with suitable lubricant in the tailstock to support the workpiece. In modern practice the dead center is frequently replaced by a live center, as it turns freely with the workpiece — usually on ball bearings — reducing the frictional heat, especially important at high speeds. When clear facing a long length of material it must be supported at both ends. This can be achieved by the use of a traveling or fixed steady. If a steady is not available, the end face being worked on may be supported by a dead (stationary) half center. A half center has a flat surface machined across a broad section of half of its diameter at the pointed end. A small section of the tip of the dead center is retained to ensure concentricity. Lubrication must be applied at this point of contact and tail stock pressure reduced. A lathe carrier or lathe dog may also be employed when turning between two centers. In woodturning, one variation of a live center is a cup center, which is a cone of metal surrounded by an annular ring of metal that decreases the chances of the workpiece splitting. A circular metal plate with even spaced holes around the periphery, mounted to the spindle, is called an "index plate". It can be used to rotate the spindle to a precise angle, then lock it in place, facilitating repeated auxiliary operations done to the workpiece. Other accessories, including items such as taper
  20. 20. turning attachments, knurling tools, vertical slides, fixed and traveling steadies, etc., increase the versatility of a lathe and the range of work it may perform. ofuse When a workpiece is fixed between the headstock and the tail-stock, it is said to be "between centers". When a workpiece is supported at both ends, it is more stable, and more force may be applied to the workpiece, via tools, at a right angle to the axis of rotation, without fear that the workpiece may break loose. When a workpiece is fixed only to the spindle at the headstock end, the work is said to be "face work". When a workpiece is supported in this manner, less force may be applied to the workpiece, via tools, at a right angle to the axis of rotation, lest the workpiece rip free. Thus, most work must be done axially, towards the headstock, or at right angles, but gently. When a workpiece is mounted with a certain axis of rotation, worked, then remounted with a new axis of rotation, this is referred to as "eccentric turning" or "multi-axis turning". The result is that various cross sections of the workpiece are rotationally symmetric, but the workpiece as a whole is not rotationally symmetric. This technique is used for camshafts, various types of chair legs.
  21. 21. 3.1.2 Numericalcontrol Numerical control (NC) is the automation of machine tools that are operated by precisely programmed commands encoded on a storage medium, as opposed to controlled manually by hand wheels or levers, or mechanically automated by cams alone. Figure 3.2 CNC machine Most NC today is computer (or computerized) numerical control (CNC), in which computers play an integral part of the control. In modern CNC systems, end-to-end component design is highly automated using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) programs. The programs produce a computer file that is interpreted to extract the commands needed to operate a particular machine by use of a post processor, and then loaded into the CNC machines for production. Since any particular component might require the use of a number of different tools – drills, saws, etc., modern machines often combine multiple tools into a single "cell". In other installations, a number of different machines are used with an external controller and
  22. 22. human or robotic operators that move the component from machine to machine. In either case, the series of steps needed to produce any part is highly automated and produces a part that closely matches the original CAD design. The first NC machines were built in the 1940s and 1950s, based on existing tools that were modified with motors that moved the controls to follow points fed into the system on punched tape. These early servomechanisms were rapidly augmented with analog and digital computers, creating the modern CNC machine tools that have revolutionized the machining processes. Motion is controlled along multiple axes, normally at least two (X and Y), and a tool spindle that moves in the Z (depth). The position of the tool is driven by direct-drive stepper motor or servo motors in order to provide highly accurate movements, or in older designs, motors through a series of step down gears. Open-loop control works as long as the forces are kept small enough and speeds are not too great. On commercial metalworking machines, closed loop controls are standard and required in order to provide the accuracy, speed, and repeatability demanded. As the controller hardware evolved, the mills themselves also evolved. One change has been to enclose the entire mechanism in a large box as a safety measure, often with additional safety interlocks to ensure the operator is far enough from the working piece for safe operation. Most new CNC systems built today are 100% electronically controlled. CNC-like systems are now used for any process that can be described as a series of movements and operations. These include laser cutting, welding, friction stir welding, ultrasonic welding, flame and plasma cutting, bending, spinning, hole punching, pinning, gluing, fabric cutting, sewing, tape and fiber placement, routing, picking and placing, and sawing.
  23. 23. Examples of CNC machines CNC mills use computer controls to cut different materials. They are able to translate programs consisting of specific numbers and letters to move the spindle (or workpiece) to various locations and depths. Many use G-code, which is a standardized programming language that many CNC machines understand, while others use proprietary languages created by their manufacturers. Figure 3.2.1 CNC machine milling These proprietary languages, while often simpler than G code, are not transferable to other machines. CNC mills have many functions including face milling, shoulder milling, tapping, drilling and some even offer turning. Standard linear CNC mills are limited to 3 axis (X, Y, and Z), but others may also have one or more rotational axes. Today, CNC mills can have 4 to 6 axes. HOBING Lathes are machines that cut workpieces while they are rotated. CNC lathes are able to make fast, precision cuts, generally using index able tools and drills. They are particularly effective for
  24. 24. complicated programs designed to make parts that would be difficult to make on manual lathes. CNC lathes have similar control specifications to CNC mills and can often read G-code as well as the manufacturer's proprietary programming language. CNC lathes generally have two axes. (X and Z), but newer models have more axes, allowing for more advanced jobs to be machined. Hobbing is a machining process for gear cutting, cutting splines, and cutting sprockets on a hobbing machine, which is a special type of milling machine. The teeth or splines are progressively cut into the workpiece by a series of cuts made by a cutting tool called a hob. Compared to other gear forming processes it is relatively inexpensive but still quite accurate, thus it is used for a broad range of parts and quantities. It is the most widely used gear cutting process for creating spur and helical gears and more gears are cut by hobbing than any other process since it is relatively quick and inexpensive. A type of skiving that is analogous to the hobbing of external gears can be applied to the cutting of internal gears, which are skived with a rotary cutter (rather than shaped or broached).
  25. 25. Turning Turning is a machining process in which a cutting tool, typically a non rotary tool bit, describes a helical tool path by moving more or less linearly while the workpiece rotates. The tool's axes of movement may be literally a straight line, or they may be along some set of curves or angles, but they are essentially linear (in the nonmathematical sense). Usually the term "turning" is reserved for the generation of external surfaces by this cutting action, whereas this same essential cutting action when applied to internal surfaces (that is, holes, of one kind or another) is called "boring". Thus the phrase "turning and boring" categorizes the larger family of (essentially similar) processes. The cutting of faces on the workpiece (that is, surfaces perpendicular to its rotating axis), whether with a turning or boring tool, is called "facing", and may be lumped into either category as a subset. Turning can be done manually, in a traditional form of lathe, which frequently requires continuous supervision by the operator, or by using an automated lathe which does not. Today the most common type of such automation is computer numerical control, better known as CNC. (CNC is also commonly used with many other types of machining besides turning.) When turning, a piece of relatively rigid material (such as wood, metal, plastic, or stone) is rotated and a cutting tool is traversed along 1, 2, or 3 axes of motion to produce precise diameters and depths. Turning can be either on the outside of the cylinder or on the inside (also known as boring) to produce tubular components to various geometries. Although now quite rare, early lathes could even be used to produce complex geometric figures, even the platonic solids; although since the advent of CNC it has become unusual to use non-computerized toolpath control for this purpose. The turning processes are typically carried out on a lathe, considered to be the oldest machine tools, and can be of four different types such as straight turning, taper turning, profiling or
  26. 26. external grooving. Those types of turning processes can produce various shapes of materials such as straight, conical, curved, or grooved workpiece. In general, turning uses simple single-point cutting tools. Each group of workpiece materials has an optimum set of tools angles which have been developed through the years. 3.1.3 Shotblasting Shotblasting is a method used to clean, strengthen (peen) or polish metal. Shot blasting is used in almost every industry that uses metal, including aerospace, automotive, construction, foundry, shipbuilding, rail, and many others. There are two technologies used: wheelblasting or airblasting. Airblast machines can take the form of a blastroom or a blast cabinet, the blast media is pneumatically accelerated by compressed air and projected by nozzles onto the component. For special applications a media water mix can be used, this is called wet blasting. In both air and wet blasting the blast nozzles can be installed in fixed positions or can be operated manually or by automatic nozzle manipulators or robots.
  27. 27. 3.2 MANUFACTURING PROCESS The main steps involved in manufacturing process are as under: 3.2.1 Raw Material - Steel Bar 3.2.2 Cutting 3.2.3 End Heating and Forgin 3.2.4 Heat Treatment 3.2.5 Shot Blasting 3.2.6 Machining 3.2.7 Induction Hardening 3.2.8 Tempering 3.2.9 Grinding 3.2.10 Final Inspection & Packing 3.2.2 Cutting The basic raw material is steel bars of different specifications and lengths, which are cut into required length as per specification of the different axle shafts and other components with Bandsaw machine.
  28. 28. 3.2.3 End Heating and Forging The cut lengths are put into End Heating furnace for heating up to the required temperature (normally around 1200 C) and red-hot pieces are put on the die of the Upsetter Forging Machine for forging. After three to four strokes, the hot pieces get the final shape. 3.2.4 HeatTreatment As per requirement of different components, the forged parts are hardened and tempered to give the desired core hardness or normalized/ ISO thermal annealed depending upon the product requirement, in fully automatic ISO Thermal Annealing cum Heat Treatment Plant. 3.2.5 ShotBlasting The forged parts usually have scaling, which is removed mechanically through shot blasting machine. 3.2.6 Machining The parts are then straightened on hydraulic straightening press are rough turned on conventional Turning Lathes and finished turned on CNC Turing Lathes, flange holes drilled on piller/radial/multi spindle/CNC controlled VMC, flange hobbed on hobbing machines and finally
  29. 29. splines rolled on hydraulic spline rolling machine to give the final machined shape to the component. 3.2.7 Induction Hardening The machined parts are then hardened on induction hardening machine to give the desired strength to the component as per its specification. 3.2.8 Tempering During induction hardening, certain stresses get generated on the components which are removed by heating them at a temperature of 200-300 deg C and air cooled inside the tempering furnace for a specified time. 3.2.9 Grinding The bearing areas, if any, on the component are then on universal cylindrical grinding machine. 3.2.10 FinalInspection& Packing The components are then finally inspected for cracks and grain flows Warm Forged Bevel Gear
  30. 30. 3.3 PRODUCTS 3.3.1 Bull Gears 3.3.2 Transmission Gears 3.3.3 Slender Shafts 3.3.4 Cluster Gears and Shafts 3.3.5 Companion Flanges 3.3.6 Internal Gears 3.3.7 Large Gears 3.3.8 Planetary Gears, Sun Gears & Sun Shafts 3.3.9 Rear Axle Shafts and Stub Axles 3.3.10 Rock Shafts, Brake S-CAM Shafts and PTO Shafts
  31. 31. 3.3.1 Bull Gears  India’s largest manufacturer of tractor bull gears.  Installed capacity to manufacture 400,000 bull gears per annum  Capability to deliver both case carburized and induction hardened bull gears. Figure 3.3.1
  32. 32. 3.3.2 TRANSMISSIONGEARS  The company has a state-of-the-art gear unit that produces high quality transmission gears.  We’re working to enhance the current installed capacity of 84,000 gears per annum to 170, 000 gears annually. Figure 3.3.2
  33. 33. 3.3.3 SLENDERSHAFTS  Installed capacity to manufacture 96,000 slender shafts annually.  Maximum length – 1500mm Figure 3.3.3
  34. 34. 3.3.4 ClusterGears and Shafts  Installed capacity to manufacture 150,000 cluster gears and shafts annually. Figure 3.3.4
  35. 35. 3.3.5 CompanionFlanges  Installed capacity to manufacture 72,000 companion flanges annually. Figure 3.3.5
  36. 36. 3.3.6 Internal Gears Milestone manufactures high quality, precision internal ring gears. At present, the company is looking forward to enhance the current production of 84,000 internal ring gears to 264,000 gears per annum. Figure 3.3.6
  37. 37. 3.3.7 Large Gears  The company specializes in producing large gears for heavy duty industrial machines and has an installed capacity to manufacture 6,000 gears every year  Maximum gear diameter - 670 mm  Capability to deliver Module 8. Figure 3.3.7
  38. 38. 3.3.8 PlanetaryGears, SunGears & Sun Shafts workload. We Milestone manufactures gear sets that are stronger, compacter, quieter and sturdier to withstand currently have an installed capacity to manufacture of 400,000 planetary gears and 180,000 sun gears and plate carriers annually. Figure 3.3.8
  39. 39. 3.3.9 RearAxle Shafts and Stub Axles Rear Axle Shafts and Stub Axles constitute our flagship product range.  The company has an installed capacity to manufacture 360,000 rear axles and 180,000 stub axles annually.  Maximum flange diameter - 280 mm  Maximum length - 1200 mm Figure 3.3.9
  40. 40. 3.10 Rock Shafts, BrakeS-CAM Shafts and PTO Shafts Milestone manufactures highly durable rock shafts and induction hardened PTO ground shafts.  The company has an installed capacity to manufacture 180,000 rock shafts & 240,000 PTO shafts annually.  Maximum shaft length - 1270 mm (being enhanced to 1500 mm) Figure 3.3.10
  41. 41. CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION I leant lots of tools during my training session. I learnt to read them, use of them and much more like (find least count, range and error etc.) with the guidance of my supervisor and corporative workers of company. 4.1 Measuring range It is the range of values of the measured quantity for which the error obtained from a single measurement under normal conditions of use does not exceed the maximum permissible error. The measuring range is limited by the maximum capacity and the minimum capacity. Maximum capacity is the upper limit of the measuring range and is dictated by the design considerations or by safety requirements or both. Minimum capacity is the lower limit of the measuring range. It is usually dictated by accuracy requirements. For small values of the measured quantity in the vicinity of zero, the relative error can be considerable even if the absolute error is small. The measuring range may or may not coincide with the range of scale indication. 4.2 Leastcount Least count is the lowest limit of measuring using any measuring instrument. Ex: Vernier Callipers has a least count of 0.01cm that means it cannot measure any thing which is of lesser length. Accuracy is the number of observations which are alike.
  42. 42. 4.3 List of tools about which I gotknowledge during training session 4.3.1 Height gauge 4.3.2 Micrometer 4.3.3 Slip Gauge or Gage blocks 4.3.4 Surface plate 4.3.5 Bench centre 4.3.6 Feeler gauge 4.3.7 Coordinate measuring machine (CMM) 4.3.8 Air gauge 4.3.9 Dial test indicator 4.3.10 Bore gauge 4.3.11 Calipers 4.3.12 Vernier Calipers
  43. 43. 4.3.1 Height gauge Figure 4.1 Height gauge A height gauge is a measuring device used either for determining the height of objects, or for marking of items to be worked on. These measuring tools are used in metalworking or metrology to either set or measure vertical distances; the pointer is sharpened to allow it to act as a scriber and assist in marking out work pieces. Devices similar in concept, with lower resolutions, are used in health care settings (health clinics, surgeries) to find the height of people, in which context they are called stadiometers. Height gauges may also be used to measure the height of an object by using the underside of the scriber as the datum. The datum may be permanently fixed or the height gauge may have provision to adjust the scale, this is done by sliding the scale vertically along the body of the height gauge by turning a fine feed screw at the top of the gauge; then with the scriber set to the same level as the base, the scale can be matched to it. This adjustment allows different scribers or probes to be used, as well as adjusting
  44. 44. for any errors in a damaged or resharpened probe. In the toolroom, the distinction between a height gauge and a surface gauge is that a height gauge has a measuring head (whether vernier, fine rack and pinion with dial, or linear encoder with digital display), whereas a surface gauge has only a scriber point. Both are typically used on a surface plate and have a heavy base with an accurately flat, smooth underside. 4.3.2 Micrometer Figure 4.2 Micrometer A micrometer sometimes known as a micrometer screw gauge, is a device incorporating a calibrated screw widely used for precise measurement of components in mechanical engineering and machining as well as most mechanical trades, along with other metrological instruments such as dial, vernier, and digital calipers. Micrometers are usually, but not always, in the form of calipers (opposing ends joined by a frame), which is why micrometer caliper is another common name. The spindle is a very accurately machined screw and the object to be measured is placed between the spindle and the anvil. The spindle is moved by turning the ratchet knob or thimble until the object to be measured is lightly touched by both the spindle and the anvil. Micrometers are also used in telescopes or microscopes to measure the
  45. 45. apparent diameter of celestial bodies or microscopic objects. The micrometer used with a telescope was invented about 1638 by William Gascoigne, an English astronomer. Figure 4.2.1 Parts of Micrometer A micrometer is composedof Frame The C-shaped body that holds the anvil and barrel in constant relation to each other. It is thick because it needs to minimize flexion, expansion, and contraction, which would distort the measurement. The frame is heavy and consequently has a high thermal mass, to prevent substantial heating up by the holding hand/fingers. It is often covered by insulating plastic plates which further reduce heat transference. Explanation: if one holds the frame long enough so that it heats up by 10 °C, then the increase in length of any 10 cm linear piece of steel is of magnitude
  46. 46. 1/100 mm. For micrometers this is their typical accuracy range. Micrometers typically have a specified temperature at which the measurement is correct (often 20 °C [68 °F], which is generally considered "room temperature" in a room with HVAC). Toolrooms are generally kept at 20 °C [68 °F]. Anvil The shiny part that the spindle moves toward, and that the sample rests against. Sleeve / barrel / stock The stationary round component with the linear scale on it. Sometimes vernier markings. Lock nut / lock-ring / thimble lock The knurled component (or lever) that one can tighten to hold the spindle stationary, such as when momentarily holding a measurement. Screw The heart of the micrometer, as explained under "Operating principles". It is inside the barrel. This references the fact that the usual name for the device in German is Messschraube, literally "measuring screw". Spindle The shiny cylindrical component that the thimble causes to move toward the anvil.
  47. 47. Thimble The component that one's thumb turns. Graduated markings. Ratchetstop Device on end of handle that limits applied pressure by slipping at a calibrated torque The screw has a known pitch such as 0.5 mm. Pitch of the screw is the distance moved by the spindle per revolution. Hence in this case, for one revolution of the screw the spindle moves forward or backward 0.5 mm. This movement of the spindle is shown on an engraved linear millimeter scale on the sleeve. On the thimble there is a circular scale which is divided into 50 or 100 equal parts. When the anvil and spindle end are brought in contact, the edge of the circular scale should be at the zero of the sleeve (linear scale) and the zero of the circular scale should be opposite to the datum line of the sleeve. If the zero is not coinciding with the datum line, there will be a positive or negative zero error as shown in figure below.
  48. 48. Figure 4.2.2 Error of Micrometer Zero error in case of screw gauge While taking a reading, the thimble is turned until the wire is held firmly between the anvil and the spindle. The least count of the micrometer screw can be calculated using the formula given below: Least count = 0.01 mm
  49. 49. 4.3.3 Slip Gauge or Gage blocks Figure 4.3 Slip Gauge or Gage blocks Slip gauges (also known as Gage blocks,Johansson gauges) are precision ground and lapped measuring standards. They are used as references for the setting of measuring equipment such as micrometers, gap gauges, sine bars, dial indicators (when used in an inspection role). gauges Grades: They are available in various grades depending on their intended use.  Calibration (AA) - (tolerance +0.00010 mm to -0.00005 mm)  Reference (AAA) -high tolerance (± 0.00005 mm or 0.000002 in)  Inspection (A) - (tolerance +0.00015 mm to -0.00005 mm)  workshop (B) - low tolerance (tolerance +0.00025 mm to -0.00015mm
  50. 50. Slip gauges are wrung together to give a stack of the required dimension. In order to achieve the maximum accuracy the following precautions must be preserved. - Use the minimum number of blocks. - Wipe the measuring faces clean using soft clean chamois leather. - Wring the individual blocks together. 4.3.4 Surface plate Figure 4.4 Surface plate A surface plate is a solid, flat plate used as the main horizontal reference plane for precision inspection, marking out(layout), and tooling setup. The surface plate is often used as the baseline
  51. 51. for all measurements to the workpiece, therefore one primary surface is finished extremely flat with accuracy up to 0.00001 in or 250 nm for a grade AA or AAA plate. Surface plates are a very common tool in the manufacturing industry and are often permanently attached to robotic type inspection devices such as a coordinate-measuring machine. Plates are typically square or rectangular. One current British Standard includes specifications for plates from 160 mm x 100 mm to 2500 mm x 1600 mm. 4.3.5 Benchcentre Bench centre consists of a rigid cast iron base made from close grained cast iron having minimum hardness of 180 HB (free from distortion, porosity and other casting defects). The base is provided with suitable T-solts for the attachment of the centre holders. Figure 4.5 Bench centre
  52. 52. The centre holders can be located in any desired position. The male or female centres are adjus- table and can be locked in any position along the ground vees of the centre holder. These are used for checking eccentricity of rotary components between centres. These are available with heights of centres 125, 160, 200, 250 and 300 mm. For easy loading and unloading, one of the centre is spring loaded. The distance between the centres may vary from 500 mm to 1500 mm depending on the height of the centres. The coaxiality of centres and parallelism of axis of centres with respect to guideways should be ensured within close tolerances. The permissible deviations in parallelism of the axis of centres with respect to guideways, as per IS: 1980—1978 are 0.01 mm per 300 mm, and 0.015 mm/300 mm respectively leaning towards the free end of mandrel for centre heights of 125—160 mm and 200—300 mm respectively. The corresponding permissible errors in coaxiality of centres are 0.01 mm and 0.015 mm respectively over any length of 300 mm. 4.3.6 Feelergauge Figure 4.6 Feeler gauge
  53. 53. A feeler gauge is a tool used to measure gap widths. Feeler gauges are mostly used in engineering to measure the clearance between two parts. They consist of a number of small lengths of steel of different thicknesses with measurements marked on each piece. They are flexible enough that, even if they are all on the same hinge, several can be stacked together to gauge intermediate values. It is common to have two sets for imperial units (typically measured in thousandth of an inch) and metric (typically measure in hundredths of a millimetre) measurements. A similar device with wires of specific diameter instead of flat blades is used to set the gap in spark plugs to the correct size; this is done by increasing or decreasing the gap until the gauge of the correct size just fits inside the gap. The lengths of steel are sometimes called leaves or blades, although they have no sharp edge. 4.3.7 Coordinate measuring machine (CMM) Figure 4.7 Coordinate measuring machine (CMM)
  54. 54. A coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is a device for measuring the physical geometrical characteristics of an object. This machine may be manually controlled by an operator or it may be computer controlled. Measurements are defined by a probe attached to the third moving axis of this machine. Probes may be mechanical, optical, laser, or white light, among others. A machine which takes readings in six degrees of freedom and displays these readings in mathematical form is known as a CMM. Description The typical 3D "bridge" CMM is composed of three axes, X, Y and Z. These axes are orthogonal to each other in a typical three-dimensional coordinate system. Each axis has a scale system that indicates the location of that axis. The machine reads the input from the touch probe, as directed by the operator or programmer. The machine then uses the X,Y,Z coordinates of each of these points to determine size and position with micrometer precision typically. A coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is also a device used in manufacturing and assembly processes to test a part or assembly against the design intent. By precisely recording the X, Y, and Z coordinates of the target, points are generated which can then be analyzed via regression algorithms for the construction of features. These points are collected by using a probe that is positioned manually by an operator or automatically via Direct Computer Control (DCC). DCC CMMs can be programmed to repeatedly measure identical parts, thus a CMM is a specialized form of industrial robot Air gauge Air gauging relies on a law of physics that states flow and
  55. 55. pressure are directly proportionate to clearance and react inversely to each other. As clearance increases, air flow also increases, and air pressure decreases proportionately. As clearance decreases, air flow also decreases, and air pressure increases. 4.3.8 Air gauge Air gauging relies on a law of physics that states flow and pressure are directly proportionate to clearance and react inversely to each other. As clearance increases, air flow also increases, and air pressure decreases proportionately. As clearance decreases, air flow also decreases, and air pressure increases. Figure 4.8 Air gauge This is accomplished by having a regulated air flow that travels through some type of restriction, such as a needle valve or jeweled orifice, and then through the nozzle in the air tool. As the obstruction (i.e., workpiece) is brought closer to the nozzle, air flow is reduced and the back pressure is increased. When the nozzle is completely obstructed, the flow is zero, and the back
  56. 56. pressure is equal to the regulated air. Conversely, when the nozzle is open to the atmosphere, air flow is at a maximum, and the back pressure is at a minimum 4.3.9 Dialtest indicator Figure 4.9 Dial test indicator A dial test indicator, also known as a lever arm test indicator or finger indicator, has a smaller measuring range than a standard dial indicator. A test indicator measures the deflection of the arm, the probe does not retract but swings in an arc around its hinge point. The lever may be interchanged for length or ball diameter, and permits measurements to be taken in narrow grooves and small bores where the body of a probe type may not reach. The model shown is bidirectional, some types may have to be switched via a side lever to be able to measure in the opposite direction. These indicators actually measure angular displacement and not linear displacement; linear distance is correlated to the angular displacement based on the correlating variables. If the cause of movement is perpendicular to the finger, the linear displacement error is acceptably small within the display range of the dial. However, this error starts to become noticeable when this
  57. 57. cause is as much as 10° off the ideal 90°. This is called cosine error, because the indicator is only registering the cosine of the movement, whereas the user likely is interested in the net movement vector. Cosine error is discussed in more detail below. Contact points of test indicators most often come with a standard spherical tip of 1, 2, or 3mm diameter. Many are of steel (alloy tool steel or HSS); higher-end models are of carbides (such as tungsten carbide) for greater wear resistance. Other materials are available for contact points depending on application, such as ruby (high wear resistance) or teflon or PVC (to avoid scratching the workpiece). These are more expensive and are not always available as OEM options, but they are extremely useful in applications that demand them. Modern dial test indicators are usually mounted using either an integrated stem (on the right of the image) or by a special clamp that grabs an dovetail on the indicator body. Some instruments may use special holders.
  58. 58. 4.3.10 Calipers For the parts which can’t be measured directly with the scale, assistance of calipers can be taken. Calipers thus act as accessories to scales. The caliper consists of two legs hinged at top, Figure 4.10 Calipers and the ends of legs span the part to be inspected. This span is maintained and transferred to the scale. It would be noted that calipers easily sense diameter (i.e. maximum distance) and transfer the distance between the faces to the rule in such a way as to reduce sighting errors and increase the reading accuracy. Calipers can be either spring type or firm-joint type. Again under spring calipers we can have outside and inside calipers and under firm-joint calipers we have outside, inside, transfer and hermophrodite calipers. In spring calipers, spring tension holds the caliper legs firmly against the adjusting nut. These are more accurate and permit accurate sense of touch in measuring. Firm joint calipers work on the friction created at the junction of legs. These become loose after certain use. But they are easier to adjust and are particularly suitable for larger work.
  59. 59. 4.3.11 FirmJoint Caliper These are the devices for comparing measurements against known dimensions. In the case of firm joint calipers, two legs (which are made from carbon and alloy steel containing not more than 0.05 per cent sulphur and 0.05 per cent phosphorus) and working ends are suitably hardened and tempered to a hardness of 400 to 500 HV and measuring Figure 4.10.1 Firm joint Outside Caliper faces are hardened to a hardness of 650 ± 50 HV exactly identical in shape with the contact points and equally distant from the fulcrum, the legs are joined together by a rivet. The legs are set correctly so that the working ends meet evenly and closely when brought together. In case the two legs are joined together by screw, nut and washer instead of rivet, then the threads of screw and nut should be full and true and the joints made such that these function freely with even tension without any undue play or stiffness.
  60. 60. Figure 4.11 Firm joint Inside Caliper. The component parts of the calipers should be free from seams, cracks, flaws and must have smooth bright finish. The firm joint calipers can be designed for inside measurement as well as outside measurements depending upon the shape of the legs. The distance between the roller centre and the extreme working end of one of the legs is known as nominal size and these calipers are available in the nominal size of 100,150, 200 and 300 mm. The capacity of the caliper is the maximum dimension which can be measured by it. The capacity of the caliper should not be less than its nominal size. The legs of these calipers are made of rectangular cross- section. For assuring that the calipers function satisfactorily, it is essential to ensure that each caliper works smoothly and retains its size when adjusted to three test pieces of the sizes at extreme (lower and upper) ends and middle of the instrument range. The accurate use of calipers depends upon sense of feel of operator. For this purpose, caliper should be held gently, and held square to the work, and only light gauging pressure should be applied.
  61. 61. 4.3.12 VernierCaliper The Vernier Caliper is a precision instrument that can be used to measure internal and external distances extremely accurately. The example shown below is a manual caliper. Measurements are interpreted from the scale by the user. This is more difficult than using a digital vernier caliper which has an LCD digital display on which the reading appears. The manual version has both an imperial and metric scale. Manually operated vernier calipers can still be bought and remain popular because they are much cheaper than the digital version. Also, the digital version requires a small battery whereas the manual version does not need any power source. Figure 4.12 Vernier Caliper
  62. 62. CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE Milestone Gears Pvt. Ltd. deals in manufacturing differential automotive components like Bull Gears, Transmission Gears, Slender Shafts, Cluster Gears and Shafts Companion Flanges, Internal Gears, Large Gears, Planetary Gears, Sun Gears & Sun Shafts, Rear Axle Shafts and Stub Axles, Rock Shafts, Brake S-CAM Shafts and PTO Shafts which are commonly used in automotives i.e. Passenger and Cargo Vehicles, Tractors and other Utility vehicles. They are now in this business for more than a decade, catering both to the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) and the replacement market in the domestic as well as the international market. We enjoy wide patronage in twenty major countries around the globe and are an established player in the domestic market. In the overseas market, we mainly specialize in manufacturing and supplying high value added range of differential parts for off road and drag racing vehicles. We are now moving towards offering a ‘One Stop Solution’ for most of the Differential Parts.
  63. 63. 5.2 List of clients  Mahindra  Sonalika International  TAFE Limited  New Holland  Escort  Eicher International Clients  AGCO Corporations US  TEREX Simplicity US  Zetor Tractors Czech Republic  JCB Transmissions UK,  TEREX UK  TWIN DISC  DANA Worldwide  Meritor. Figure 5.2 List of Clients