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Learn Singing

                   Sessions Overview




www.muziclub.com
Why Sing

                     Singing - Essential to every Human Being

• Human voice is one of the most wonderful musical Instruments capable of
  producing rich musical tones and endless Pitches… and the best thing is it comes
  absolutely free.

• Singing has strong positive impact on health based on numerous researches
     • It involves deep breathing, which is good for the nervous system
     • Great way to work out – singing as aerobic exercise increases oxygen levels in
       the blood
     • Improves posture and tones tummy muscles.
     • Reduces stress levels and blood pressure.

• Vocalizing helps in Ear Training and developing overall musicality




                                         2
Course Objectives



 • The course is targeted for people with little or no
   background in Singing

 • Includes introduction to fundamental music concepts
   required for Singing

 • References and examples are drawn from Indian and
   Western Styles, largely focussing on common elements

 • Aimed to instil love for Music, especially Singing




                                3
Contents


 Session 1                                             Session 7
  Overview of Music Scales and Notes                   Singing in different Scales
  Singing Scales and Notes with different Styles


 Session 2                                             Session 8
  Identifying your Vocal Range
                                                       Song Structure and Arrangement
  Identifying favourite Songs suited to Voice


 Session 3                                             Session 9
  Singing Various Note Patterns - Alankaars            Taal Kaherwa


 Session 4                                             Session 10
  Singing across Octaves                               Expressive Singing


 Session 5                                             Session 11
  Singing with Pauses                                  Singing in Public


 Session 6                                             Session 12
                                                       Preparing for Performance
  Singing in Rhythm
                                                       Next Steps




                                                   4
Session 1
Overview of Music Scales and Notes

Preparation to Sing - Breathing Exercises, Omkar

Singing Single Note with different Styles

Singing all Notes in a Diatonic Scale




www.muziclub.com
Notes on Musical Scales
                   Overview                              Indian    Western
• Musical Note is a sound of constant Pitch /            Swars     Notes
  Frequency
                                                          Sa        C5                523 Hz
• Musical Scale consists of Notes with defined
                                                          Ni        B
  Pitch distances

• In a commonly used ‘Equal Tempered’ scale, the         Dha        A                 440 Hz
  Notes are divided into 12 equal steps

• Each Step is referred to as a Semitone (S) and 2       Pa         G                 392 Hz
  steps as Tone (T)

• Notes with Frequency difference of two times           Ma         F                 349 Hz
  are said to be an Octave apart.                                             S
                                                         Ga         E

• Note A above middle C with frequency of 440 Hz
  is used as Tuning Standard in Western Music            Re         D

Indian Music               Western Music                                          T

Swar                       Note                          Sa        Middle C           261.5 Hz
                                                                   (C4)
Saptak                     Octave
                                                         Music Scale shown over 12 Equal Temperaments
Thaat                      Scale

                                                     6
Diatonic Music Scale (Bilawal Thaat)
Most of the Music systems in the world use Diatonic Scale as the basic framework for musical
Compositions which follows same pattern of Pitch distances T T S T T T S

      8       C                Sa                       C       D     E F         G        A       B C
                      S
      7                               Guitar
              B                Ni
                          T

      6       A               Dha

                         T            Piano
      5       G               Pa                         C      D    E     F          G    A       B     C
                         T

      4       F               Ma      Staff
                     S                Notation
      3       E
                              Ga
                         T
                                      English Notes         C   D      E    F         G        A   B     C
      2       D               Re
                         T            Indian Notes          Sa Re Ga Ma               Pa Dha Ni Sa

      1       C               Sa
                                      Spanish Notes         Do Re Me         Fa       So       La Ti     Do

     Pitch gaps in a Diatonic Scale                  Diatonic Notes Names in various Music Systems


                                              7
Preparation to Sing

            Breathing Exercises                                     Favourite Song routine

                                                          • Identify selection of songs that you truly enjoy
• Breathing exercises to strengthen singing ability
                                                            singing almost any time
      • Find comfortable position
                                                          • Narrow down to 4-5 songs that you would want
                                                            to focus on during the Vocals learning
      • Inhale deeply for a count of 6
                                                            programme in early days
      • Hold breadth for count of 6
                                                          • Identify, ideally with the help of a teacher, a
                                                            song that you would like to practice everyday as
      • Exhale slowly for a count of 12
                                                            a warm up routine.


                                            Omkar Routine

•   Take a deep Breath, Relax

•   While exhaling slowly from the mouth, sing OM, sounding AUM

•   Remember to sing at a consistent comfortable pitch and consistent volume

Singing Om regularly enhances deep breathing pattern and provides nice warm up for the Vocal Chords

                                                      8
Sing a single Note with different styles.


 • Sing at a consistent pitch – ‘Do’ or ‘Sa’ while changing the volume as shown below

 • Choose a comfortable pitch within your Vocal Range (your teacher will help you in this)

 • Sing using different sounds – AA, EE, OO, O etc



        Constant Volume



        Increasing Volume



        Decreasing Volume



        Low High Low Volume



        High Low High Volume


                                              9
Singing Scales

 • Now you should try singing various notes in a scale by matching your pitch with a
   keyboard/piano (or any other pitched instrument).

 • You can use either Indian ( sa, re, ga,…) or western notes (do, re, me,…) for singing

 • You can also use the practice sound-clips available from Muziclub




                                               10
Session 2
Identifying your Vocal Range

Identifying favourite Songs suited to Voice




www.muziclub.com
Identifying your Vocal Range
• Every human being or a musical Instrument is capable of producing a limited range of
  pitches known as Vocal Range. Following diagram shows typical vocal ranges

• During this session we will help you identify your vocal range.

• For this you need to try singing various notes on a keyboard starting with middle C going
  up and down to identify the highest and lowest note that you can sing comfortably (your
  teacher will help you in this)

                                          Human Voice

                                             Concert Piano

                                                                  Violin

                            Bass Guitar

                                            Guitar




C0         C1          C2          C3         C4             C5            C6   C7 Octave C8
                                            Middle C

                                            12
Identifying favourite songs for Practice
 • While learning to sing its useful to identify simple favourite songs that suit your voice
   range and quality for practicing

 • There are several Voice Characteristics which influence the kind of Songs that you can
   sing properly and comfortably
      •   Vocal Range: Total span of ‘musically useful’ pitches that can be produced by a person
      •   Male/Female, Age
      •   Voice Quality/ Timber/ Tone
      •   Voice Type. In western music following are the classifications
             •   Soprano: C4 – C6
             •   Mezzo-soprano: A3 – A5
             •   Contralto: F3 – F5
             •   Tenor: C3 – C5
             •   Baritone: F2 – F4
             •   Bass: E2 – E4


 • Choose few of your favourite songs with following guidelines
      •   Song Notes are within your Vocal Range
      •   Narrow Melodic Range
      •   Medium or slow Temp
      •   Easy memorable lyrics

 • Your teacher will help you in making the right selections


                                                    13
Session 3
Singing various Note Patterns (Alankaars)
       sa, sa, re, re
       sa, sa, sa, re, re, re
       sa, re, re, ga, ga, ma
       sa, re, sa, re, ga, re




www.muziclub.com
Singing various Note Patterns
• During this session, we will focus on singing various combinations of notes in the
  scale as shown below

• These exercises help you to bring ease in singing and make your vocal chords
  flexible. The more flexibility you get, the faster and clear you can sing.




                                         15
Singing various Note Patterns … contd




• Its important to sing notes correctly at the right pitch for these exercises

• You can sing along either with the teacher or while playing these notes on an Instrument.
  Alternatively you can use practice sound files on Muziclub website

                                             16
Singing various Note Patterns – additional exercises

• sa sa sa, re re re, gag a ga, ma ma ma, pa pa pa,dha dha dha, ni ni ni, sa` sa` sa`
• sa` sa` sa`, ni ni ni,dha dha dha,pa pa pa,ma ma ma, ga ga ga, re re re, sa sa sa



• sa re, re ga, ga ma, ma pa, pa dha, dha ni, ni sa
• sa ni, ni dha, dha pa, pa ma, ma ga,ga re, re sa



• sa re sa, re ga re, ga ma ga, ma pa ma, pa dha pa,dha ni dha, ni sa`ni, sa` re sa`
• sa` re` sa`, ni sa ni,dha ni dha,pa dha pa,ma pa ma,ga ma ga, re ga re,sa re sa



• These exercises can be sung using Indian or Western notes (Do, Re, Me etc)

• Like previous exercises, its important that you sing at the right pitch. For this, you can sing
  along either with the teacher or while playing these notes on an Instrument. Alternatively
  you can use practice sound files on Muziclub website

                                             17
Session 4

 Singing across Octaves




www.muziclub.com
Multiple Octaves / Saptaks
• In Indian music, a group of seven Swar (notes) is called Saptak. There are three types of Saptak:
      • Mandra (lower) Saptak
      • Madhya (middle) Saptak
      • Taar (Higher) Saptak

• Mandra Saptak is represented by a dot below the swar. Taar Saptak is represented by a dot
  above the swar and Madhya Saptak is represented by writing the swar as it is, without dots

                                                                                         …
                                                                                 Ga
                                                                           Re
                                                                      Sa
                                                                 Ni
                                                           Dha
                                                    Pa
                                              Ma
                                         Ga
                                   Re
                              Sa
                         Ni
                   Dha
              …

            Mandra Saptak                  Madhya Saptak                   Taar Saptak



                                              19
Singing across Octaves / Saptaks


• ‘Aaroha’ is a series of notes sung in the ascending order of a pitch.
• ‘Avaroha’ is a series of notes sung in the descending order of the pitch
• Now we will sing combinations which includes Aaroha and Avaroha together.

                    sa re re sa, re ga ga re, ga ma ma ga, ma pa pa ma
                    pa dha dha pa, dha ni ni dha, ni sa sa ni, sa re re sa


• In this exercise we have to start singing a sa from Madhya saptak considering it a root
  note, then we will start adding mandra saptak swaras one by one and keep coming back
  on the root note. Now we will keep changing the root notes followed by re, ga etc
                                               sa

                                           sa ni sa

                                       sa ni dha ni sa

                                   sa ni dha pa dha ni sa


                                           20
Session 5

Singing with Pauses




www.muziclub.com
Singing with Pauses

• Now we will sing Sa ,RE, Ga, Ma putting the coma (,) in different ways. The sign of coma (,)
  shows a pause. So we will have to take a little pause where we see a coma (,).


       Sa Re Ga Ma
•   Sa, Re, Ga, Ma
•   Sa, Re Ga Ma
•   Sa Re, Ga Ma
•   Sa Re Ga, Ma
•   Sa Re Ga Ma,
                                 Pa Dha Ni Sa
                          •   Pa, Dha, Ni, Sa`
                          •   Pa, Dha Ni Sa`
                          •   Pa Dha, Ni Sa`
                          •   Pa, Dha Ni Sa`
                          •   Pa Dha Ni Sa`,                                 All Notes
                                                      •   Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni, Sa`
                                                      •   Sa Re, Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni Sa
                                                      •   Sa Re Ga Ma, Pa Dha Ni Sa
                                                      •   Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha, Ni Sa
                                                      •   Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni Sa,


                                                 22
Session 6
Singing in Rhythm

Taal Dadra - 6/8 Rhythm

Singing Alankar in Taal Dadra




www.muziclub.com
Rhythm / Taal

                                                     Overview
• Rhythm (Taal in Indian music) is regulated succession of strong and weak elements. Its made up of
  sounds and silences which are put together to form a pattern of sounds which gets repeated in time
• Singing in Rhythm involves singing the right notes/words at the right time for the right duration



            Tempo                                    Metric Level             Western Music    Indian Music
                                           • Basic Unit of time that can      Rhythm           Taal
 • Speed or Pace of a given piece
                                             be audible
 • Can affect the mood and                                                    Tempo            Laya
                                           • Also called Beat level
   difficulty of a piece.
                                           • Repeating series of              Bar              Khand
 • Usually expressed in Beats per
                                             identical distinct periods
   minute
                                             known as Bar                     Beat             Matra




          Whole note                     Half note                  Quarter note              Eighth note
          4 Beats                        2 Beats                    1 Beat                    1/2 Beat


                                                                    Beat Level                 Division Level
                       Multiple Levels


                                                        24
Taal Dadra - 6/8 Time signature

      Dadra Taal Structure
                                                         6
 •   Matra – 6                                           8
 •   Khand – 2
 •   Taali – On 1st
 •   Khali – On 4th
                                                         6/8 Time Signature




                      1     2     3    4        5    6
                      Dha   Dhi   Na   Dha      Ti   Na
                      X                0




                                           25
Singing Scale Patterns/ Alankars in Taal Dadra

• In this exercise, we will sing notes on Scale in the given pattern over the beats of Taal Dadra as shown in
  the figures below. This could be done by playing a track of Dadra Taal or 6/8 Time Signature




   1       2        3        4       5       6           1      2         3        4      5        6
   sa     re       ga        re      ga      ma          ga      ma       pa      ma      pa       dha
   X                         0                           X                        0


   1       2        3        4       5        6          1      2         3        4      5        6
   pa      dha      ni       dha      ni      sa         sa     ni       dha      ni      dha      pa
   X                         0                           X                        0


   1       2        3        4       5        6          1      2         3        4      5        6
   dha     pa       ma       pa      ma       ga         ma      ga       re      ga      re      sa
   X                         0                           X                        0

                                                    26
Session 7

Singing in different Scales

Alankaars with Teevra Madhyam




www.muziclub.com
Structure of Alankaar with Teevra Madhyam

 Diatonic Scale   Indian Swars     Western Notes      Teevra Madhyam
        C         sa               Octave             sa
        B         ni (shuddha)     Major seventh      ni
                  ni (komal)       Minor seventh
        A         dha (shuddha)    Major sixth        dha
                  dha (komal)      Minor sixth
        G         pa               Perfect fifth      pa
                  ma (teevra)      Augmented fourth   ma (teevra ma)
        F         ma (shuddha)     Perfect fourth
             S
        E         ga (shuddha)     Major third        ga
                  ga (komal)       Minor third

        D         re (shuddha)     Major second       re
              T   re (komal)       Minor second
        C         sa               Unison             sa


                                  28
Singing Alankaars with Teevra Madhyam

• These exercises are similar to earlier exercises involving Bilawal That (Diatonic Scale). Only
  difference is that instead of singing ‘shuddha ma’ you have to sing ‘teevra ma’. ‘Teevra ma’
  is shown with a little vertical line over ma - ma

• sa, re, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni, sa`
• sa`, ni, dha, pa, ma, ga, re, sa

• sa sa, re re, ga ga, ma ma, pa pa, dha dha, ni ni, sa` sa`
• sa` sa`, ni ni, dha dha, pa pa, ma ma, ga ga, re re, sa sa

• sa sa sa, re re re, gag a ga, ma ma ma, pa pa pa,dha dha dha, ni ni ni, sa` sa` sa`
• sa` sa` sa`, ni ni ni,dha dha dha,pa pa pa,ma ma ma, ga ga ga, re re re, sa sa sa

• sa re, re ga, ga ma, ma pa, pa dha, dha ni, ni sa
• sa ni, ni dha, dha pa, pa ma, ma ga,ga re, re sa

• sa re sa, re ga re, ga ma ga, ma pa ma, pa dha pa,dha ni dha, ni sa`ni, sa` re sa`
• sa` re` sa`, ni sa ni,dha ni dha,pa dha pa,ma pa ma,ga ma ga, re ga re,sa re sa


                                              29
Session 8

Song Structure and arrangement
     Intro and Outro
     Verse
     Chorus
     Middle 8




www.muziclub.com
Song structure and arrangements

• During this session, we will discuss Structure of a song covering various parts
• We will specifically cover these details for the song selected for you
• Following is a general overview of key song sections and a typical song arrangement

                          Intro and Outro
• Unique section at the beginning (Intro) and end (Outro) of a song             Intro
• Generally this contains only music and no words                              Verse

                                  Verse                                       Chorus
• Main part of the song comprising of poetic stanzas
• Song mostly consists of two or more parts with same melody and               Verse
  different lyrics. Each such part is known as a Verse
                                                                              Chorus

                                Chorus                                        Middle 8
• Chorus is part of song that repeats itself both musically and lyrically
• Conveys main theme of the song                                              Chorus
• This part is of highest musical and emotional intensity in the song
                                                                              Chorus

                               Middle 8                                        Outro
• Section of song with different musical feel then rest of the song
• This part is mostly music with little or no words                         Typical Song
• Its usually in the middle of the song and typically has 8 bars            Arrangement

                                                      31
Session 9

Taal Kaherawa




www.muziclub.com
Taal Kaherawa - 4/4 Time signature

 Taal Kaherawa Structure
                                                         4
 •   Matra – 8                                           4
 •   Khand – 2
 •   Taali – On 1st
 •   Khali – On 5th
                                                         4/4 Time Signature




                 1     2    3       4     5        6      7         8
                 Dha   Ge   Na     Ti     Na       Ka     Dhi      Na
                 X                        0




• During this session we will discuss the structure and composition of another popular Taal

• We will sing Alankaar in Taal Kaherwa as we did for Taal Dadra


                                              33
Session 10

Making Singing more Expressive

Enriching Voice Quality




www.muziclub.com
Expressive Singing
                                                  Diction
• Diction refers to distinctness of pronunciation in singing
• Pay attention to each and every word in a song and learn how exactly it is pronounced


                                                Dynamics
• Dynamics refers to managing loundness while singing various parts of the song
• Some vocal exercises as covered in session 1 help in improving Singing Dynamics. Try doing these exercises
  for different notes in a scale to sing at a certain pitch while increasing or decreasing volume
• Use of Dynamics in a Song goes hand in hand with the meaning of the lyrics to enhance emotional
  expression

                                     Phrasing and Articulation
• Articulation refers to overemphasizing certain words or parts in a song while Phrasing refers to taking
  pauses and breaths at correct spots.
• There are various techniques to enhance the impact through phrasing and articulation such as - Linger
  over a long note, Change inflection on some words, use throaty huskiness on certain words etc

                                          Emotional connect
• Perhaps the most critical element for bringing correct expression in singing is to emotionally connect with
  the song and bring the emotions out through singing

     Expressive Singing requires long time of dedicated learning. Most of these techniques are covered in
     Advanced Singing courses. However in this starter course, the Muziclub teacher will help you
     understand basics of some of these techniques for familiarity and adoption
                                                   35
Session 11

Singing in Public




www.muziclub.com
Singing in Public
                                             Pitch sensitivity
• Most people, even non-musicians, can easily recognize a tune and any errors of singing wrong pitch get
  immediately noticed by everyone.
• Practice the song by singing along several times to feel comfortable that you are singing all notes at the
  correct pitch before your public performance

                                           Follow the Rhythm
• Signing at a consistent Tempo and in correct Rhythm is most significant as the rhythm is most easily
  recognized by the audience and any randomness will be immediately discovered
• If you are singing in a band, it is absolutely important that you keep pace with the band members (or they
  keep pace with you).

                                            Know the Lyrics
• Knowing the correct lyrics of the song will help you focus on singing correct notes expressively rather than
  trying to memorize the lyrics while singing.
• Its generally not a good idea to keep a sheet a piece of paper with lyrics on and it doesn’t sound very
  pleasing when you have to mumble on certain words or even worse stop abruptly somewhere

                                             Body Language
• Reflect Confidence and composure while singing
• It doesn’t matter that much whether you sing good or bad as long as you demonstrate harmony with
  yourself



                                                    37
Session 12
Song Performance

Next Steps




www.muziclub.com
Preparing for Performance
                                            Song Practice




During these sessions, you would have practiced singing your favourite songs and would hopefully now be
roaring to sing in Public to show your newly acquired skills.




                                                  39
Next Steps
                                  Discussion
 • During this session, Muziclub Teacher will be happy to discuss further
   learning Options with you such as

     • Learning Indian Classical Raagas

     • Preparing for Indian Classical Graded Exams

     • Western Operatic Singing

     • Professional Singing

     • Special Singing Techniques

     • Singing in a Band

     • Karaoke Singing

                                     40
Join Muziclub Online Classes




                               4 FREE Sessions




                     41
Warm Wishes for living music



Happy Singing

and

THANK YOU
www.muziclub.com

online@muziclub.com



                               42

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Learn Singing

  • 1. Learn Singing Sessions Overview www.muziclub.com
  • 2. Why Sing Singing - Essential to every Human Being • Human voice is one of the most wonderful musical Instruments capable of producing rich musical tones and endless Pitches… and the best thing is it comes absolutely free. • Singing has strong positive impact on health based on numerous researches • It involves deep breathing, which is good for the nervous system • Great way to work out – singing as aerobic exercise increases oxygen levels in the blood • Improves posture and tones tummy muscles. • Reduces stress levels and blood pressure. • Vocalizing helps in Ear Training and developing overall musicality 2
  • 3. Course Objectives • The course is targeted for people with little or no background in Singing • Includes introduction to fundamental music concepts required for Singing • References and examples are drawn from Indian and Western Styles, largely focussing on common elements • Aimed to instil love for Music, especially Singing 3
  • 4. Contents Session 1 Session 7 Overview of Music Scales and Notes Singing in different Scales Singing Scales and Notes with different Styles Session 2 Session 8 Identifying your Vocal Range Song Structure and Arrangement Identifying favourite Songs suited to Voice Session 3 Session 9 Singing Various Note Patterns - Alankaars Taal Kaherwa Session 4 Session 10 Singing across Octaves Expressive Singing Session 5 Session 11 Singing with Pauses Singing in Public Session 6 Session 12 Preparing for Performance Singing in Rhythm Next Steps 4
  • 5. Session 1 Overview of Music Scales and Notes Preparation to Sing - Breathing Exercises, Omkar Singing Single Note with different Styles Singing all Notes in a Diatonic Scale www.muziclub.com
  • 6. Notes on Musical Scales Overview Indian Western • Musical Note is a sound of constant Pitch / Swars Notes Frequency Sa C5 523 Hz • Musical Scale consists of Notes with defined Ni B Pitch distances • In a commonly used ‘Equal Tempered’ scale, the Dha A 440 Hz Notes are divided into 12 equal steps • Each Step is referred to as a Semitone (S) and 2 Pa G 392 Hz steps as Tone (T) • Notes with Frequency difference of two times Ma F 349 Hz are said to be an Octave apart. S Ga E • Note A above middle C with frequency of 440 Hz is used as Tuning Standard in Western Music Re D Indian Music Western Music T Swar Note Sa Middle C 261.5 Hz (C4) Saptak Octave Music Scale shown over 12 Equal Temperaments Thaat Scale 6
  • 7. Diatonic Music Scale (Bilawal Thaat) Most of the Music systems in the world use Diatonic Scale as the basic framework for musical Compositions which follows same pattern of Pitch distances T T S T T T S 8 C Sa C D E F G A B C S 7 Guitar B Ni T 6 A Dha T Piano 5 G Pa C D E F G A B C T 4 F Ma Staff S Notation 3 E Ga T English Notes C D E F G A B C 2 D Re T Indian Notes Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni Sa 1 C Sa Spanish Notes Do Re Me Fa So La Ti Do Pitch gaps in a Diatonic Scale Diatonic Notes Names in various Music Systems 7
  • 8. Preparation to Sing Breathing Exercises Favourite Song routine • Identify selection of songs that you truly enjoy • Breathing exercises to strengthen singing ability singing almost any time • Find comfortable position • Narrow down to 4-5 songs that you would want to focus on during the Vocals learning • Inhale deeply for a count of 6 programme in early days • Hold breadth for count of 6 • Identify, ideally with the help of a teacher, a song that you would like to practice everyday as • Exhale slowly for a count of 12 a warm up routine. Omkar Routine • Take a deep Breath, Relax • While exhaling slowly from the mouth, sing OM, sounding AUM • Remember to sing at a consistent comfortable pitch and consistent volume Singing Om regularly enhances deep breathing pattern and provides nice warm up for the Vocal Chords 8
  • 9. Sing a single Note with different styles. • Sing at a consistent pitch – ‘Do’ or ‘Sa’ while changing the volume as shown below • Choose a comfortable pitch within your Vocal Range (your teacher will help you in this) • Sing using different sounds – AA, EE, OO, O etc Constant Volume Increasing Volume Decreasing Volume Low High Low Volume High Low High Volume 9
  • 10. Singing Scales • Now you should try singing various notes in a scale by matching your pitch with a keyboard/piano (or any other pitched instrument). • You can use either Indian ( sa, re, ga,…) or western notes (do, re, me,…) for singing • You can also use the practice sound-clips available from Muziclub 10
  • 11. Session 2 Identifying your Vocal Range Identifying favourite Songs suited to Voice www.muziclub.com
  • 12. Identifying your Vocal Range • Every human being or a musical Instrument is capable of producing a limited range of pitches known as Vocal Range. Following diagram shows typical vocal ranges • During this session we will help you identify your vocal range. • For this you need to try singing various notes on a keyboard starting with middle C going up and down to identify the highest and lowest note that you can sing comfortably (your teacher will help you in this) Human Voice Concert Piano Violin Bass Guitar Guitar C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 Octave C8 Middle C 12
  • 13. Identifying favourite songs for Practice • While learning to sing its useful to identify simple favourite songs that suit your voice range and quality for practicing • There are several Voice Characteristics which influence the kind of Songs that you can sing properly and comfortably • Vocal Range: Total span of ‘musically useful’ pitches that can be produced by a person • Male/Female, Age • Voice Quality/ Timber/ Tone • Voice Type. In western music following are the classifications • Soprano: C4 – C6 • Mezzo-soprano: A3 – A5 • Contralto: F3 – F5 • Tenor: C3 – C5 • Baritone: F2 – F4 • Bass: E2 – E4 • Choose few of your favourite songs with following guidelines • Song Notes are within your Vocal Range • Narrow Melodic Range • Medium or slow Temp • Easy memorable lyrics • Your teacher will help you in making the right selections 13
  • 14. Session 3 Singing various Note Patterns (Alankaars) sa, sa, re, re sa, sa, sa, re, re, re sa, re, re, ga, ga, ma sa, re, sa, re, ga, re www.muziclub.com
  • 15. Singing various Note Patterns • During this session, we will focus on singing various combinations of notes in the scale as shown below • These exercises help you to bring ease in singing and make your vocal chords flexible. The more flexibility you get, the faster and clear you can sing. 15
  • 16. Singing various Note Patterns … contd • Its important to sing notes correctly at the right pitch for these exercises • You can sing along either with the teacher or while playing these notes on an Instrument. Alternatively you can use practice sound files on Muziclub website 16
  • 17. Singing various Note Patterns – additional exercises • sa sa sa, re re re, gag a ga, ma ma ma, pa pa pa,dha dha dha, ni ni ni, sa` sa` sa` • sa` sa` sa`, ni ni ni,dha dha dha,pa pa pa,ma ma ma, ga ga ga, re re re, sa sa sa • sa re, re ga, ga ma, ma pa, pa dha, dha ni, ni sa • sa ni, ni dha, dha pa, pa ma, ma ga,ga re, re sa • sa re sa, re ga re, ga ma ga, ma pa ma, pa dha pa,dha ni dha, ni sa`ni, sa` re sa` • sa` re` sa`, ni sa ni,dha ni dha,pa dha pa,ma pa ma,ga ma ga, re ga re,sa re sa • These exercises can be sung using Indian or Western notes (Do, Re, Me etc) • Like previous exercises, its important that you sing at the right pitch. For this, you can sing along either with the teacher or while playing these notes on an Instrument. Alternatively you can use practice sound files on Muziclub website 17
  • 18. Session 4 Singing across Octaves www.muziclub.com
  • 19. Multiple Octaves / Saptaks • In Indian music, a group of seven Swar (notes) is called Saptak. There are three types of Saptak: • Mandra (lower) Saptak • Madhya (middle) Saptak • Taar (Higher) Saptak • Mandra Saptak is represented by a dot below the swar. Taar Saptak is represented by a dot above the swar and Madhya Saptak is represented by writing the swar as it is, without dots … Ga Re Sa Ni Dha Pa Ma Ga Re Sa Ni Dha … Mandra Saptak Madhya Saptak Taar Saptak 19
  • 20. Singing across Octaves / Saptaks • ‘Aaroha’ is a series of notes sung in the ascending order of a pitch. • ‘Avaroha’ is a series of notes sung in the descending order of the pitch • Now we will sing combinations which includes Aaroha and Avaroha together. sa re re sa, re ga ga re, ga ma ma ga, ma pa pa ma pa dha dha pa, dha ni ni dha, ni sa sa ni, sa re re sa • In this exercise we have to start singing a sa from Madhya saptak considering it a root note, then we will start adding mandra saptak swaras one by one and keep coming back on the root note. Now we will keep changing the root notes followed by re, ga etc sa sa ni sa sa ni dha ni sa sa ni dha pa dha ni sa 20
  • 21. Session 5 Singing with Pauses www.muziclub.com
  • 22. Singing with Pauses • Now we will sing Sa ,RE, Ga, Ma putting the coma (,) in different ways. The sign of coma (,) shows a pause. So we will have to take a little pause where we see a coma (,). Sa Re Ga Ma • Sa, Re, Ga, Ma • Sa, Re Ga Ma • Sa Re, Ga Ma • Sa Re Ga, Ma • Sa Re Ga Ma, Pa Dha Ni Sa • Pa, Dha, Ni, Sa` • Pa, Dha Ni Sa` • Pa Dha, Ni Sa` • Pa, Dha Ni Sa` • Pa Dha Ni Sa`, All Notes • Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni, Sa` • Sa Re, Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni Sa • Sa Re Ga Ma, Pa Dha Ni Sa • Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha, Ni Sa • Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni Sa, 22
  • 23. Session 6 Singing in Rhythm Taal Dadra - 6/8 Rhythm Singing Alankar in Taal Dadra www.muziclub.com
  • 24. Rhythm / Taal Overview • Rhythm (Taal in Indian music) is regulated succession of strong and weak elements. Its made up of sounds and silences which are put together to form a pattern of sounds which gets repeated in time • Singing in Rhythm involves singing the right notes/words at the right time for the right duration Tempo Metric Level Western Music Indian Music • Basic Unit of time that can Rhythm Taal • Speed or Pace of a given piece be audible • Can affect the mood and Tempo Laya • Also called Beat level difficulty of a piece. • Repeating series of Bar Khand • Usually expressed in Beats per identical distinct periods minute known as Bar Beat Matra Whole note Half note Quarter note Eighth note 4 Beats 2 Beats 1 Beat 1/2 Beat Beat Level Division Level Multiple Levels 24
  • 25. Taal Dadra - 6/8 Time signature Dadra Taal Structure 6 • Matra – 6 8 • Khand – 2 • Taali – On 1st • Khali – On 4th 6/8 Time Signature 1 2 3 4 5 6 Dha Dhi Na Dha Ti Na X 0 25
  • 26. Singing Scale Patterns/ Alankars in Taal Dadra • In this exercise, we will sing notes on Scale in the given pattern over the beats of Taal Dadra as shown in the figures below. This could be done by playing a track of Dadra Taal or 6/8 Time Signature 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 sa re ga re ga ma ga ma pa ma pa dha X 0 X 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 pa dha ni dha ni sa sa ni dha ni dha pa X 0 X 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 dha pa ma pa ma ga ma ga re ga re sa X 0 X 0 26
  • 27. Session 7 Singing in different Scales Alankaars with Teevra Madhyam www.muziclub.com
  • 28. Structure of Alankaar with Teevra Madhyam Diatonic Scale Indian Swars Western Notes Teevra Madhyam C sa Octave sa B ni (shuddha) Major seventh ni ni (komal) Minor seventh A dha (shuddha) Major sixth dha dha (komal) Minor sixth G pa Perfect fifth pa ma (teevra) Augmented fourth ma (teevra ma) F ma (shuddha) Perfect fourth S E ga (shuddha) Major third ga ga (komal) Minor third D re (shuddha) Major second re T re (komal) Minor second C sa Unison sa 28
  • 29. Singing Alankaars with Teevra Madhyam • These exercises are similar to earlier exercises involving Bilawal That (Diatonic Scale). Only difference is that instead of singing ‘shuddha ma’ you have to sing ‘teevra ma’. ‘Teevra ma’ is shown with a little vertical line over ma - ma • sa, re, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni, sa` • sa`, ni, dha, pa, ma, ga, re, sa • sa sa, re re, ga ga, ma ma, pa pa, dha dha, ni ni, sa` sa` • sa` sa`, ni ni, dha dha, pa pa, ma ma, ga ga, re re, sa sa • sa sa sa, re re re, gag a ga, ma ma ma, pa pa pa,dha dha dha, ni ni ni, sa` sa` sa` • sa` sa` sa`, ni ni ni,dha dha dha,pa pa pa,ma ma ma, ga ga ga, re re re, sa sa sa • sa re, re ga, ga ma, ma pa, pa dha, dha ni, ni sa • sa ni, ni dha, dha pa, pa ma, ma ga,ga re, re sa • sa re sa, re ga re, ga ma ga, ma pa ma, pa dha pa,dha ni dha, ni sa`ni, sa` re sa` • sa` re` sa`, ni sa ni,dha ni dha,pa dha pa,ma pa ma,ga ma ga, re ga re,sa re sa 29
  • 30. Session 8 Song Structure and arrangement Intro and Outro Verse Chorus Middle 8 www.muziclub.com
  • 31. Song structure and arrangements • During this session, we will discuss Structure of a song covering various parts • We will specifically cover these details for the song selected for you • Following is a general overview of key song sections and a typical song arrangement Intro and Outro • Unique section at the beginning (Intro) and end (Outro) of a song Intro • Generally this contains only music and no words Verse Verse Chorus • Main part of the song comprising of poetic stanzas • Song mostly consists of two or more parts with same melody and Verse different lyrics. Each such part is known as a Verse Chorus Chorus Middle 8 • Chorus is part of song that repeats itself both musically and lyrically • Conveys main theme of the song Chorus • This part is of highest musical and emotional intensity in the song Chorus Middle 8 Outro • Section of song with different musical feel then rest of the song • This part is mostly music with little or no words Typical Song • Its usually in the middle of the song and typically has 8 bars Arrangement 31
  • 33. Taal Kaherawa - 4/4 Time signature Taal Kaherawa Structure 4 • Matra – 8 4 • Khand – 2 • Taali – On 1st • Khali – On 5th 4/4 Time Signature 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Dha Ge Na Ti Na Ka Dhi Na X 0 • During this session we will discuss the structure and composition of another popular Taal • We will sing Alankaar in Taal Kaherwa as we did for Taal Dadra 33
  • 34. Session 10 Making Singing more Expressive Enriching Voice Quality www.muziclub.com
  • 35. Expressive Singing Diction • Diction refers to distinctness of pronunciation in singing • Pay attention to each and every word in a song and learn how exactly it is pronounced Dynamics • Dynamics refers to managing loundness while singing various parts of the song • Some vocal exercises as covered in session 1 help in improving Singing Dynamics. Try doing these exercises for different notes in a scale to sing at a certain pitch while increasing or decreasing volume • Use of Dynamics in a Song goes hand in hand with the meaning of the lyrics to enhance emotional expression Phrasing and Articulation • Articulation refers to overemphasizing certain words or parts in a song while Phrasing refers to taking pauses and breaths at correct spots. • There are various techniques to enhance the impact through phrasing and articulation such as - Linger over a long note, Change inflection on some words, use throaty huskiness on certain words etc Emotional connect • Perhaps the most critical element for bringing correct expression in singing is to emotionally connect with the song and bring the emotions out through singing Expressive Singing requires long time of dedicated learning. Most of these techniques are covered in Advanced Singing courses. However in this starter course, the Muziclub teacher will help you understand basics of some of these techniques for familiarity and adoption 35
  • 36. Session 11 Singing in Public www.muziclub.com
  • 37. Singing in Public Pitch sensitivity • Most people, even non-musicians, can easily recognize a tune and any errors of singing wrong pitch get immediately noticed by everyone. • Practice the song by singing along several times to feel comfortable that you are singing all notes at the correct pitch before your public performance Follow the Rhythm • Signing at a consistent Tempo and in correct Rhythm is most significant as the rhythm is most easily recognized by the audience and any randomness will be immediately discovered • If you are singing in a band, it is absolutely important that you keep pace with the band members (or they keep pace with you). Know the Lyrics • Knowing the correct lyrics of the song will help you focus on singing correct notes expressively rather than trying to memorize the lyrics while singing. • Its generally not a good idea to keep a sheet a piece of paper with lyrics on and it doesn’t sound very pleasing when you have to mumble on certain words or even worse stop abruptly somewhere Body Language • Reflect Confidence and composure while singing • It doesn’t matter that much whether you sing good or bad as long as you demonstrate harmony with yourself 37
  • 38. Session 12 Song Performance Next Steps www.muziclub.com
  • 39. Preparing for Performance Song Practice During these sessions, you would have practiced singing your favourite songs and would hopefully now be roaring to sing in Public to show your newly acquired skills. 39
  • 40. Next Steps Discussion • During this session, Muziclub Teacher will be happy to discuss further learning Options with you such as • Learning Indian Classical Raagas • Preparing for Indian Classical Graded Exams • Western Operatic Singing • Professional Singing • Special Singing Techniques • Singing in a Band • Karaoke Singing 40
  • 41. Join Muziclub Online Classes 4 FREE Sessions 41
  • 42. Warm Wishes for living music Happy Singing and THANK YOU www.muziclub.com online@muziclub.com 42