Experimental Analytical Survey Historical
Designed to access the effects of particular
variable on phenomenon by keeping the other
variable constant or controlled.
Determines whether and in what manner
variables are related to each other.
The factors which is influenced by other
factors is dependent variable.
And other factors, which influence it are
known as independent variable.
Daily wage workers’ salary-
Hours Rupees per hour Wages
9 200 1800
9 250 2250
Relationship between independent variable
and dependent variable is perceived and
stated in the form of casual hypothesis.
Rupees per hour Wages
Rupees per hour Wages
Should be amendable for experimentation
Dependent & independent variable should be
Types of experimental design,
After only design
One group before-after design
After only design - The effects on dependent
variable is assessed by measuring it in both
experimental and control group.
Dependent variable – Movie budget
Independent variable- ticket value
Experimental group – Multiplex & Single theater
Ticket value Persons Movie budget Total
Multiplex 500 10 5000
Single theater 100 10 1000
Difference : Rupees 4000
The difference is attributed to price of ticket.
2. One group before-after design
Researcher wants to evaluate the effectiveness
of a film in changing attitude towards drinking
Target group Y1 Y2
It applies to quantitative data
It may consist of a system of mathematical
model or statistical techniques applicable to
Aims at testing hypothesis and, specifying
and interpreting relationships.
Used in business and other fields in which
quantitative numerical data are generated.
Data published by RBI, NABARD,UNCTAD,WB,IMF
on economic development used by many
researchers to find out relationship among PCI,
GDP, Employment, FDI, Industrial growth & etc.
Study of past records
To reconstruct the origin and development of
an institution or movement or system and
discovering trends in the past.
Draw explanation and generalization from the
past trends in order to understand the
present and to anticipate the future.
It’s a fact finding study
Collection of data directly
It requires expert and imaginative planning,
careful analysis and rational interpretation of
Selection of problem
Operationalisation of concept
Construction of tools
Field work and collection of data
Processing of data
Analysis of data
Social survey –
Social environmental of people
People’s opinion and attitude
Economic survey –
Economic condition of people