Gre 0809 practice_book


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Gre 0809 practice_book

  1. 1. ®GRE General TestPractice BookThis practice book contains:Ⅲ one full-length paper-based GRE® General TestⅢ test-taking strategiesⅢ sample verbal and quantitative questions with explanationsⅢ sample analytical writing topics, scored sample essays and reader commentaryNOTE: The test-taking strategies in this publication are appropriate for the paper-based General Test.The strategies in the GRE® POWERPREP® software are appropriate for the computer-based General Test.This book is provided FREE with test registration by the Graduate Record Examinations Board.For additional test preparation information, visit
  2. 2. IMPORTANTThe Verbal and Quantitative sections in the GRE General Test in this publication contain questionswritten and administered prior to 1995. For this reason, some of the material covered in the questionsmay be dated. For example, a question may refer to a rapidly changing technology in a way thatwas correct in the 1980s and early 1990s, but not now. In addition, ETS® has revised and updatedits standards and guidelines for test questions so some questions may not meet current standards.Questions that do not meet current ETS standards, and would not appear in GRE tests administeredtoday, are marked with an asterisk (see pages 35 and 44). Note to Test Takers: Keep this practice book until you receive your score report. This book contains important information about scoring. Copyright © 2008 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. ® ETS, the ETS logos, LISTENING. LEARNING. LEADING., GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATIONS, GRE, POWERPREP, and e-rater are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service (ETS) in the United States of America and other countries throughout the world. ScoreItNow! is a trademark of Educational Testing Service.
  3. 3. Table of Contents Purpose of the GREPurpose of the GRE General Test....................... 3 General TestStructure of the GRE General Test .................... 3 The GRE General Test is designed to help graduateScores Reported .................................................. 4 school admission committees and fellowship sponsors assess the qualifications of applicants to their pro-Preparing for the GRE General Test .................. 4 grams. It measures verbal reasoning, quantitativeTest-Taking Strategies ......................................... 5 reasoning, and critical thinking and analyticalReview of the Verbal Section writing skills that you have acquired over a long Overview ................................................................ 6 period of time. How the Verbal Section is Scored.......................... 6 Any accredited graduate or professional school, or Antonyms ............................................................... 6 any department or division within a school, may Analogies ................................................................ 6 require or recommend that its applicants take the Sentence Completions ........................................... 7 GRE General Test. The scores can be used by admis- Reading Comprehension Questions ....................... 7 sions or fellowship panels to supplement undergradu- ate records and other qualifications for graduateReview of the Quantitative Section study. The scores provide common measures for Overview ................................................................ 9 comparing the qualifications of applicants and aid in How the Quantitative Section is Scored ............. 10 the evaluation of grades and recommendations. Quantitative Comparison Questions ................... 10 Problem Solving — Discrete Quantitative Questions .................................... 10 Problem Solving — Data Structure of the GRE Interpretation Questions ................................... 11 General TestReview of the Analytical Writing Section The paper-based GRE General Test contains five Overview .............................................................. 12 sections. In addition, one unidentified pretest section How the Analytical Writing Section is Scored ... 12 may be included and this section can appear in any Present Your Perspective on an Issue Task ........... 13 position in the test after the Analytical Writing Analyze an Argument Task .................................. 20 section. Questions in the pretest section are beingTaking the Practice GRE General Test ............ 27 pretested for possible use in future tests and answers will not count toward your scores.Evaluating Your Performance ........................... 27 Total testing time is up to 33/4 hours. The direc- Verbal and Quantitative Sections ........................ 27 tions at the beginning of each section specify the Analytical Writing Section .................................. 27 total number of questions in the section and the time Additional Preparation......................................... 28 allowed for the section. The Analytical Writing sectionPractice GRE General Test ............................... 29 will always be first. The Verbal and Quantitative sections may appear in any order, including an unidenti-Appendices fied Verbal or Quantitative pretest section. Treat each A – Analytical Writing Scoring Guides and section presented during your test as if it counts. Score Level Descriptions ............................... 51 B – Verbal and Quantitative Interpretive Tables ........................................ 54 C – Analytical Writing Topics, Sample Scored Essay Responses at Selected Score Points, and Reader Commentary .............................. 56Answer Sheets .................................................. 63 3
  4. 4. Typical Paper-Based GRE General Test The administrative procedures include registra- Sections tion, date, time, test center location, cost, score- reporting procedures, and availability of special Section Number of Questions Time testing arrangements. You can find out about the 1 Issue task* 45 min. administrative procedures for the paper-based Analytical Writing 1 Argument task* 30 min. General Test at, or by contacting GRE at Verbal 1-609-771-7670 or 1-866-473-4373 (toll free for test 38 per section 30 min. per section takers in the U.S., U.S. Territories*, and Canada). (2 sections) Before taking the practice General Test, it is Quantitative 30 per section 30 min. per section important to become familiar with the content of (2 sections) each of the sections of the test. You can become Pretest** Varies 30 min. familiar with the Verbal and Quantitative sections by * For the Issue task, two essay topics will be presented and you will choose one. The Argument task does not present a choice of topics; instead, one topic will be presented. reading about the skills the sections measure, how the ** An unidentified Verbal or Quantitative pretest section may be included and may appear in any order after the Analytical Writing section. sections are scored, reviewing the strategies for each of the question types, and reviewing the sample questions with explanations. Determine which Scores Reported strategies work best for you. Remember—you can do very well on the test without answering every ques- Three scores are reported on the General Test: tion in each section correctly. 1. a verbal score reported on a 200–800 score scale, Everyone—even the most practiced and confident in 10-point increments, of writers—should spend some time preparing for the 2. a quantitative score reported on a 200–800 score Analytical Writing section before arriving at the test scale, in 10-point increments, and center. It is important to review the skills measured, 3. an analytical writing score reported on a 0–6 how the section is scored, scoring guides and score score scale, in half-point increments. level descriptions, sample topics, scored sample essay If you answer no questions at all in a section (verbal, responses, and reader commentary. quantitative, or analytical writing), that section will To help you prepare for the Analytical Writing be reported as a No Score (NS). section of the General Test, the GRE Program has Descriptions of the analytical writing abilities published the entire pool of topics from which your characteristic of particular score levels are available test topics will be selected. You might find it helpful in the interpretive leaflet enclosed with your score to review the Issue and Argument pools. You can view report, in the Guide to the Use of GRE Scores, and at the published pools at or obtain a copy by writing to GRE Program, PO Box 6000, Princeton, NJ 08541-6000. The topics in the Analytical Writing section relate Preparing for the GRE to a broad range of subjects—from the fine arts and General Test humanities to the social and physical sciences—but no topic requires specific content knowledge. In fact, Preparation for the test will depend on the amount each topic has been field-tested to ensure that it of time you have available and your personal prefer- possesses several important characteristics, including ences for how to prepare. At a minimum, before you the following: take the GRE General Test, you should know what to • GRE test takers, regardless of their field of study expect from the test, including the administrative or special interests, understood the topic and procedures, types of questions and directions, the could easily discuss it. approximate number of questions, and the amount of • The topic elicited the kinds of complex think- time for each section. ing and persuasive writing that university faculty consider important for success in graduate school. • The responses were varied in content and in the way the writers developed their ideas. * Includes American Samoa, Guam, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands4
  5. 5. Test-Taking Strategies Test, you may work only on the section the test center supervisor designates and only for the time IMPORTANT NOTE: Test-taking strategies allowed. You may not go back to an earlier section of appropriate for the Verbal and Quantitative the test after the supervisor announces, “Please stop sections of the paper-based General Test are work” for that section. The supervisor is authorized to different from those that are appropriate for dismiss you from the center for doing so. All answers taking the Verbal and Quantitative sections of the must be recorded on your answer sheet. Answers computer-based General Test. Be sure to follow recorded in your test booklet will not be counted. the appropriate strategies for the testing format in Given the time constraints, you should avoid waiting which you will be testing. Paper-based testing until the last five minutes of a test administration to strategies should not be used if you take the record answers on your answer sheet. computer-based test. Some questions on the General Test have only four response options (A through D). All GRE answer sheets for the paper-based test contain response positions for five responses (A through E).Verbal and Quantitative Sections Therefore, if an E response is marked for a four-When taking a Verbal or Quantitative section of the option question, it will be ignored. An E responsepaper-based General Test, you are free, within any for a four-option question is treated the same as nosection, to skip questions that you might have response (omitted).difficulty answering and to come back to them laterduring the time provided to work on that section. Analytical Writing SectionYou may also change the answer to any question you In the paper-based General Test, the topics in therecorded on the answer sheet by erasing it completely Analytical Writing section will be presented in the testand filling in the oval corresponding to your desired book and you will handwrite your essay responses onanswer for that question. the answer sheets provided. Make sure you use the Each of your scores will be determined by the correct answer sheet for each task.number of questions for which you select the best It is important to budget your time. Within theanswer from the choices given. Questions for which 45-minute time limit for the Issue task, you will needyou mark no answer or more than one answer are not to allow sufficient time to choose one of the twocounted in scoring. Nothing is subtracted from a topics, think about the issue you’ve chosen, plan ascore if you answer a question incorrectly. Therefore, response, and compose your essay. Within the 30-to maximize your scores on the Verbal and Quantita- minute time limit for the Argument task, you willtive sections of the paper-based test, it is better for need to allow sufficient time to analyze the argument,you to answer each and every question and not to plan a critique, and compose your response. Althoughleave any questions unanswered. GRE readers understand the time constraints under Work as rapidly as you can without being careless. which you write and will consider your response aThis includes checking frequently to make sure you “first draft,” you still want it to be the best possibleare marking your answers in the appropriate rows on example of your writing that you can produce underyour answer sheet. Since no question carries greater the testing circumstances.weight than any other, do not waste time pondering Save a few minutes at the end of each timed taskindividual questions you find extremely difficult or to check for obvious errors. Although an occasionalunfamiliar. spelling or grammatical error will not affect your You may want to work through a Verbal or Quanti- score, severe and persistent errors will detract fromtative section of the General Test quite rapidly, first the overall effectiveness of your writing and thusanswering only the questions about which you feel lower your score.confident, then going back and answering questions During the actual administration of the Generalthat require more thought, and concluding with the Test, you may work only on the particular writingmost difficult questions if there is time. task the test center supervisor designates and only for During the actual administration of the General the time allowed. You may not go back to an earlier 5
  6. 6. section of the test after the supervisor announces, Directions* “Please stop work,” for that task. The supervisor is Each question below consists of a word printed in authorized to dismiss you from the center for doing capital letters followed by five lettered words or so. Following the Analytical Writing section, you will phrases. Choose the lettered word or phrase that is have the opportunity to take a 10-minute break. most nearly opposite in meaning to the word in capital letters. Since some of the questions require you to distinguish fine shades of meaning, be sure Review of the Verbal Section to consider all the choices before deciding which one is best. Overview Sample Question The Verbal section measures your ability to analyze and evaluate written material and synthesize infor- DIFFUSE: mation obtained from it, to analyze relationships (A) concentrate among component parts of sentences, to recognize (B) contend relationships between words and concepts, and to (C) imply reason with words in solving problems. There is a (D) pretend balance of passages across different subject matter (E) rebel areas: humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. Strategies for Answering The Verbal section contains the following • Remember that antonyms are generally confined question types: to nouns, verbs, and adjectives. • Antonyms • Look for the word that is most nearly opposite to • Analogies the given word. • Sentence Completions • Try to define words precisely. • Reading Comprehension Questions • Make up a sentence using the given word to How the Verbal Section is Scored help establish its meaning. • Look for possible second meanings before Scoring of the Verbal section of the paper-based choosing an answer. General Test is essentially a two-step process. First, a • Use your knowledge of prefixes and suffixes to raw score is computed. The raw score is the number help define words you don’t know. of questions for which the best answer choice was given. The raw score is then converted to a scaled Answer score through a process known as equating. The The best answer is (A). Diffuse means to permit or equating process accounts for differences in difficulty cause to spread out; only (A) presents an idea that is among the different test editions; thus, a given scaled in any way opposite to diffuse. score reflects approximately the same level of ability regardless of the edition of the test that was taken. Analogies Analogies measure your ability to recognize Antonyms • relationships among words and concepts they Antonyms measure your represent • vocabulary • parallel relationships • ability to reason from a given concept to its Directions* opposite In each of the following questions, a related pair of words or phrases is followed by five lettered pairs of words or phrases. Select the lettered pair that best expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair. * The directions are presented as they appear on the actual test.6
  7. 7. Sample Question Sample QuestionCOLOR : SPECTRUM : Early ________ of hearing loss is ________ by the(A) tone : scale fact that the other senses are able to compensate for(B) sound : waves moderate amounts of loss, so that people frequently(C) verse : poem do not know that their hearing is imperfect.(D) dimension : space (A) discovery . . indicated(E) cell : organism (B) development . . preventedStrategies for Answering (C) detection . . complicated (D) treatment . . facilitated • Establish a relationship between the given pair (E) incidence . . corrected before reading the answer choices. • Consider relationships of kind, size, spatial Strategies for Answering contiguity, or degree. • Read the incomplete sentence carefully. • Read all of the options. If more than one seems • Look for key words or phrases. correct, try to state the relationship more • Complete the blank(s) with your own words; see precisely. if any options are like yours. • Check to see that you haven’t overlooked a • Pay attention to grammatical cues. possible second meaning for one of the words. • If there are two blanks, be sure that both parts of • Never decide on the best answer without reading your answer choice fit logically and stylistically all of the answer choices. into the sentence.Answer • After choosing an answer, read the sentence through again to see if it makes sense.The relationship between color and spectrum is notmerely that of part to whole, in which case (E) or Answereven (C) might be defended as correct. A spectrum is The statement that the other senses compensatemade up of a progressive, graduated series of colors, as for partial loss of hearing indicates that the hearinga scale is of a progressive, graduated sequence of tones. loss is not prevented or corrected; therefore, choicesThus, (A) is the correct answer choice. In this (B) and (E) can be eliminated. Furthermore, theinstance, the best answer must be selected from a ability to compensate for hearing loss certainly doesgroup of fairly close choices. not facilitate the early treatment (D) or the early discovery (A) of hearing loss. It is reasonable, how-Sentence Completions ever, that early detection of hearing loss is complicatedSentence completions measure your ability to recognize by the ability to compensate for it. The best answerwords or phrases that both logically and stylistically is (C).complete the meaning of a sentence. Reading Comprehension QuestionsDirections* Reading comprehension questions measure yourEach sentence below has one or two blanks, each ability toblank indicating that something has been omitted. • read with understanding, insight, andBeneath the sentence are five lettered words or sets discriminationof words. Choose the word or set of words for each • analyze a written passage from severalblank that best fits the meaning of the sentence as perspectivesa whole. Passages are taken from the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. Directions* The passage is followed by questions based on its content. After reading the passage, choose the best answer to each question. Answer all questions* following the passage on the basis of what is stated or The directions are presented as they appear on the actual test. implied in the passage. 7
  8. 8. Sample Question According to the passage, the two antithetical ideals Picture-taking is a technique both for annexing the of photography differ primarily in the objective world and for expressing the singular self. (A) value that each places on the beauty of the Photographs depict objective realities that already exist, finished product though only the camera can disclose them. And they (B) emphasis that each places on the emotional (5) depict an individual photographer’s temperament, dis- covering itself through the camera’s cropping of reality. impact of the finished product That is, photography has two antithetical ideals: in the (C) degree of technical knowledge that each requires first, photography is about the world, and the photogra- of the photographer pher is a mere observer who counts for little; but in the (D) extent of the power that each requires of the (10) second, photography is the instrument of intrepid, photographer’s equipment questing subjectivity and the photographer is all. These conflicting ideals arise from a fundamental (E) way in which each defines the role of the uneasiness on the part of both photographers and view- photographer ers of photographs toward the aggressive component in (15) “taking” a picture. Accordingly, the ideal of a photogra- Strategies for Answering pher as observer is attractive because it implicitly denies • Read the passage closely, then proceed to the that picture-taking is an aggressive act. The issue, of questions. course, is not so clear-cut. What photographers do can- not be characterized as simply predatory or as simply, or (20) and essentially, benevolent. As a consequence, one ideal of Skim the passage, then reread the passage picture-taking or the other is always being rediscovered closely as you answer the questions. You may and championed. want to try it both ways with sample questions An important result of the coexistence of these two ideals is a recurrent ambivalence toward photography’s to see what works best for you. (25) means. Whatever the claims that photography might • Answer questions based on the content of the make to be a form of personal expression on a par with passage. painting, its originality is inextricably linked to the pow- • Separate main ideas from supporting ideas. ers of a machine. The steady growth of these powers has • Separate the author’s own ideas from informa- made possible the extraordinary informativeness and (30) imaginative formal beauty of many photographs, like tion being presented. Harold Edgerton’s high-speed photographs of a bullet • Ask yourself... hitting its target or of the swirls and eddies of a tennis – What is this about? stroke. But as cameras become more sophisticated, more – What are the key points? automated, some photographers are tempted to disarm (35) themselves or to suggest that they are not really armed, – How does the main idea relate to other ideas preferring to submit themselves to the limits imposed by in the passage? premodern camera technology because a cruder, less – What words define relationships among ideas? high-powered machine is thought to give more interest- ing or emotive results, to leave more room for creative Answer (40) accident. For example, it has been virtually a point of The best answer to this question is (E). Photography’s honor for many photographers, including Walker Evans and Cartier-Bresson, to refuse to use modern equipment. two ideals are presented in lines 7–11. The main These photographers have come to doubt the value of the emphasis in the description of these two ideals is on camera as an instrument of “fast seeing.” Cartier-Bresson, the relationship of the photographer to the enterprise (45) in fact, claims that the modern camera may see too fast. of photography, with the photographer described in This ambivalence toward photographic means deter- the one as a passive observer and in the other as an mines trends in taste. The cult of the future (of faster and faster seeing) alternates over time with the wish to return active questioner. (E) identifies this key feature in the to a purer past — when images had a handmade quality. description of the two ideals—the way in which each (50) This nostalgia for some pristine state of the photographic ideal conceives or defines the role of the photogra- enterprise is currently widespread and underlies the pher in photography. (A) through (D) present aspects present-day enthusiasm for daguerreotypes and the work of forgotten nineteenth-century provincial photographers. of photography that are mentioned in the passage, Photographers and viewers of photographs, it seems, need but none of these choices represents a primary (55) periodically to resist their own knowingness. difference between the two ideals of photography.8
  9. 9. Review of the Quantitative Math Symbols and Other Information The following information applies to all questions inSection the quantitative sections. • These common math symbols may be used:Overview x < y (x is less than y)The Quantitative section measures your basic math- x‫ס‬y (x is not equal to y)ematical skills, your understanding of elementary (the nonnegative square root of x,mathematical concepts, and your ability to reason where x ≥ 0)quantitatively and solve problems in a quantitative |x| (the absolute value of x, where x is asetting. There is a balance of questions requiring real number)arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and data analysis. n! (n factorial: the product of the first nThese are content areas usually studied in high positive integers)school. m ࿣ n (line m is parallel to line n) m n (line m is perpendicular to line n)Arithmetic AQuestions may involve arithmetic operations, powers, B C (∠ABC is a right angle)operations on radical expressions, estimation, per-cent, absolute value, properties of integers (e.g., • Numbers: all numbers used are real numbers.divisibility, factoring, prime numbers, odd and even • Figures:integers), and the number line. – the positions of points, angles, regions, etc., can be assumed to be in the order shown;Algebra angle measures are positiveQuestions may involve rules of exponents, factoring – a line shown as straight can be assumed to beand simplifying algebraic expressions, understanding straightconcepts of relations and functions, equations and – figures lie in a plane unless otherwiseinequalities, solving linear and quadratic equations indicatedand inequalities, solving simultaneous equations, – do not assume figures are drawn to scalesetting up equations to solve word problems, coordi- unless statednate geometry, including slope, intercepts, and graphs It is important to familiarize yourself with the basicof equations and inequalities, and applying basic mathematical concepts in the GRE General Test.algebra skills to solve problems. The publication Math Review, which is available atGeometry, provides detailed information onQuestions may involve parallel lines, circles, triangles the content of the Quantitative section.(including isosceles, equilateral, and 30°–60°–90° The Quantitative section contains the followingtriangles), rectangles, other polygons, area, perimeter, question types:volume, the Pythagorean Theorem, and angle • Quantitative Comparison Questionsmeasure in degrees. The ability to construct proofs is • Problem Solving – Discrete Quantitativenot measured. Questions • Problem Solving – Data InterpretationData Analysis QuestionsQuestions may involve elementary probability, basic Questions emphasize understanding basic principlesdescriptive statistics (mean, median, mode, range, and reasoning within the context of givenstandard deviation, percentiles), and interpretation of in graphs and tables (line graphs, bar graphs,circle graphs, frequency distributions). 9
  10. 10. How the Quantitative Section is Strategies for Answering Scored • Avoid extensive computation if possible. Try to The Quantitative section of the paper-based General estimate the answer. Test is scored the same way as the Verbal section. • Consider all kinds of numbers before deciding. First, a raw score is computed. The raw score is the If under some conditions Column A is greater number of questions for which the best answer choice than Column B and for others, Column B is was given. The raw score is then converted to a greater than Column A, choose “the relation- scaled score through a process known as equating. ship cannot be determined from the information The equating process accounts for differences in given,” and go to the next question. difficulty among the different test editions; thus a • Geometric figures may not be drawn to scale. given scaled score reflects approximately the same Comparisons should be made based on the given level of ability regardless of the edition of the test information, together with your knowledge of that was taken. mathematics, rather than on exact appearance. Answer to Question 1 Quantitative Comparison Questions denotes 10, the positive square root of 100. (For Quantitative comparison questions measure your any positive number x, denotes the positive number ability to: whose square is x.) Since 10 is greater than 9.8, the • reason quickly and accurately about the relative best answer is (B). It is important not to confuse this sizes of two quantities question with a comparison of 9.8 and x where • perceive that not enough information is pro- x2‫ .001ס‬The latter comparison would yield (D) as vided to make such a decision the correct answer because x2‫ 001ס‬implies that Directions* either x‫ 01ס‬or x‫ ,01מס‬and there would be no way Each of the sample questions consists of two quanti- to determine which value x would actually have. ties, one in Column A and one in Column B. There Answer to Question 2 may be additional information, centered above the Since (‫ 4)6מ‬is the product of four negative factors, two columns, that concerns one or both of the and the product of an even number of negative quantities. A symbol that appears in both columns numbers is positive, (‫ 4)6מ‬is positive. Since the represents the same thing in Column A as it does in product of an odd number of negative numbers Column B. is negative, (‫ 5)6מ‬is negative. Therefore, (‫4)6מ‬ You are to compare the quantity in Column A is greater than (‫ 5)6מ‬since any positive number with the quantity in Column B and decide whether: is greater than any negative number. The best (A) The quantity in Column A is greater. answer is (A). It is not necessary to calculate that (B) The quantity in Column B is greater. (‫ 692,1ס 4)6מ‬and that (‫ 677,7מס 5)6מ‬in order to (C) The two quantities are equal. make the comparison. (D) The relationship cannot be determined from the information given. Problem Solving — Discrete Note: Since there are only four choices, NEVER Quantitative Questions MARK (E).** Discrete quantitative questions measure Sample Questions • basic mathematical knowledge Column A Column B • your ability to read, understand, and solve a problem that involves either an actual or an 1. 9.8 abstract situation 2. (‫4)6מ‬ (‫5)6מ‬ Directions* Each of the following questions has five answer choices. For each of these questions, select the best of the answer choices given. * The directions are presented as they appear on the actual test. ** The answer sheet contains five choices for the Verbal and Quantitative sections.10
  11. 11. Sample Question Sample QuestionWhen walking, a certain person takes 16 completesteps in 10 seconds. At this rate, how many complete Number of Graduate Student Applicantssteps does the person take in 72 seconds? at University X, 1982–1991(A) 45(B) 78 1,400(C) 86(D) 90 1,200(E) 115Strategies for Answering 1,000 • Determine what is given and what is being 800 asked. • Scan all answer choices before answering a 600 question. • When approximation is required, scan 400 answer choices to determine the degree of approximation. 200 • Avoid long computations. Use reasoning instead, when possible. 0Answer 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 199172 seconds represents 7 ten-second intervals plus 2/10of such an interval. Therefore, the person who takes In which of the following years did the number of16 steps in 10 seconds will take (7.2)(16) steps in 72 graduate student applicants increase the most fromseconds. that of the previous year? (7.2)(16) ‫)61()2.0( ם )61()7( ס‬ (A) 1985 ‫2.3 ם 211 ס‬ (B) 1986 ‫2.511 ס‬ (C) 1988 Since the question asks for the number of com- (D) 1990plete steps, the best answer choice is (E). (E) 1991 Strategies for AnsweringProblem Solving — Data • Scan the set of data to see what it is about.Interpretation Questions • Try to make visual comparisons and estimateData interpretation questions measure your ability products and quotients rather than perform • to synthesize information and select appropriate computations. data for answering a question • Answer questions only on the basis of data • to determine that sufficient information for given. answering a question is not provided AnswerThe data interpretation questions usually appear in This question can be answered directly by visuallysets and are based on data presented in tables, graphs, comparing the heights of the bars in the graph. Theor other diagrams. greatest increase in height between two adjacent barsDirections* occurs for the years 1985 and 1986. The best answerEach of the following questions has five answer is (B).choices. For each of these questions, select the best ofthe answer choices given.* The directions are presented as they appear on the actual test. 11
  12. 12. Review of the Analytical organization or poor organization, for example, will be part of the readers’ overall impression of the Writing Section response and will therefore contribute to the score, but organization, as a distinct feature, has no specific Overview weight. The Analytical Writing section tests your critical In general, GRE readers are college and university thinking and analytical writing skills. It assesses your faculty experienced in teaching courses in which ability to articulate and support complex ideas, writing and critical thinking skills are important. All analyze an argument, and sustain a focused and GRE readers have undergone careful training, passed coherent discussion. It does not assess specific con- stringent GRE qualifying tests, and demonstrated tent knowledge. that they are able to maintain scoring accuracy. The Analytical Writing section consists of two To ensure fairness and objectivity in scoring separately-timed analytical writing tasks: • responses are randomly distributed to the readers • a 45-minute “Present Your Perspective on an • all identifying information about the test takers Issue” task is concealed from the readers • a 30-minute “Analyze an Argument” task • each response is scored by two readers • readers do not know what other scores a re- You will be given a choice between two Issue topics. sponse may have received Each states an opinion on an issue of broad interest and • the scoring procedure requires that each re- asks you to discuss the issue from any perspective(s) sponse receive identical or adjacent scores from you wish, as long as you provide relevant reasons and two readers; any other score combination is examples to explain and support your views. adjudicated by a third GRE reader You will not have a choice of Argument topics. The Argument task presents a different challenge The scores given for the two tasks are then averaged from that of the Issue task: it requires you to critique for a final reported score. The score level descriptions, a given argument by discussing how well reasoned presented in Appendix A on page 53, provide infor- you find it. You will need to consider the logical mation on how to interpret the total score on the soundness of the argument rather than to agree or Analytical Writing section. The primary emphasis in disagree with the position it presents. scoring the Analytical Writing section is on critical The two tasks are complementary in that one thinking and analytical writing skills. requires you to construct your own argument by Your essay responses on the Analytical Writing taking a position and providing evidence supporting section will be reviewed by ETS® essay-similarity- your views on the issue, whereas the other requires detection software and by experienced essay readers you to critique someone else’s argument by assessing during the scoring process. In light of the high value its claims and evaluating the evidence it provides. placed on independent intellectual activity within United States graduate schools and universities, ETS How the Analytical Writing Section reserves the right to cancel test scores of any test is Scored taker when there is substantial evidence that an essay response includes, but is not limited to, any of the Each response is holistically scored on a 6-point scale following: according to the criteria published in the GRE • text that is similar to that found in one or more analytical writing scoring guides (see Appendix A on other GRE essay responses; pages 51–52). Holistic scoring means that each • quoting or paraphrasing, without attribution, response is judged as a whole: readers do not separate language that appears in published or unpub- the response into component parts and award a lished sources; certain number of points for a particular criterion or • unacknowledged use of work that has been element such as ideas, organization, sentence struc- produced through collaboration with others ture, or language. Instead, readers assign scores based without citation of the contribution of others; on the overall quality of the response, considering all • essays that are submitted as work of the exam- of its characteristics in an integrated way. Excellent inee when the words have, in fact, been borrowed from elsewhere or prepared by another person.12
  13. 13. When one or more of these circumstances occurs, correct position to take. Instead, the readers areyour essay text, in ETS’s professional judgement, does evaluating the skill with which you articulate andnot reflect the independent, analytical writing skills develop an argument to support your position onthat this test seeks to measure. Therefore, ETS must the issue.cancel the essay score as invalid and cannot report Understanding the Context for Writing:the GRE General Test scores of which the essay score Purpose and Audienceis an indispensable part. Test takers whose scores are canceled will forfeit The Issue task is an exercise in critical thinking andtheir test fees and must pay to take the entire GRE persuasive writing. The purpose of this task is toGeneral Test again at a future administration. No determine how well you can develop a compellingrecord of score cancellations, or the reason for argument supporting your own perspective on ancancellation, will appear on their future score reports issue and to effectively communicate that argumentsent to colleges and universities. in writing to an academic audience. Your audience consists of college and university faculty who arePresent Your Perspective on an trained as GRE readers to apply the scoring criteriaIssue Task identified in the scoring guide for “Present Your Perspective on an Issue” (see page 51).The “Present Your Perspective on an Issue” task To get a clearer idea of how GRE readers apply theassesses your ability to think critically about a topic of Issue scoring criteria to actual responses, you shouldgeneral interest and to clearly express your thoughts review scored sample Issue essay responses and readers’about it in writing. Each topic, presented in quota- commentaries. The sample responses, particularly attion marks, makes a claim about an issue that test the 5 and 6 score levels, will show you a variety oftakers can discuss from various perspectives and apply successful strategies for organizing, developing, andto many different situations or conditions. Your task is communicating a persuasive argument. The readers’to present a compelling case for your own position on commentaries discuss specific aspects of analysis andthe issue. Be sure to read the claim carefully and writing, such as the use of examples, developmentthink about it from several points of view, consid- and support, organization, language fluency, and wordering the complexity of ideas associated with those choice. For each response, the commentary points outperspectives. Then, make notes about the position aspects that are particularly persuasive as well as anyyou want to develop and list the main reasons and that detract from the overall effectiveness of the essay.examples that you could use to support that position. The Issue task allows considerable latitude in the Preparing for the Issue Taskway you respond to the claim. Although it is impor- Because the Issue task is meant to assess the persua-tant that you address the central issue, you are free to sive writing skills that you have developed through-take any approach you wish. For example, you might out your education, it has been designed neither to • agree absolutely with the claim, disagree com- require any particular course of study nor to advan- pletely, or agree with some parts and not others tage students with a particular type of training. • question the assumptions the statement seems to Many college textbooks on composition offer be making advice on persuasive writing that you might find • qualify any of its terms, especially if the way you useful, but even this advice might be more technical define or apply a term is important to developing and specialized than you need for the Issue task. You your perspective on the issue will not be expected to know specific critical think- • point out why the claim is valid in some situa- ing or writing terms or strategies; instead, you should tions but not in others be able to use reasons, evidence, and examples • evaluate points of view that contrast with your to support your position on an issue. Suppose, for own perspective instance, that an Issue topic asks you to consider • develop your position with reasons that are whether it is important for government to provide supported by several relevant examples or by a financial support for art museums. If your position is single extended example that government should fund art museums, you mightThe GRE readers scoring your response are not support your position by discussing the reasons artlooking for a “right” answer—in fact, there is no is important and explain that museums are public 13
  14. 14. places where art is available to anyone. On the other • Do I need to explain how I interpret certain hand, if your position is that government should not terms or concepts used in the claim? support museums, you might point out that, given • If I take a certain position on the issue, what limited governmental funds, art museums are not as reasons support my position? deserving of governmental funding as are other, more • What examples—either real or hypothetical— socially important, institutions. Or, if you are in favor could I use to illustrate those reasons and of government funding for art museums only under advance my point of view? Which examples are certain conditions, you might focus on the artistic most compelling? criteria, cultural concerns, or political conditions that Once you have decided on a position to defend, you think should determine how—or whether—art consider the perspective of others who might not museums receive government funds. It is not your agree with your position. Ask yourself: position that matters so much as the critical thinking • What reasons might someone use to refute or skills you display in developing your position. undermine my position? An excellent way to prepare for the Issue task is • How should I acknowledge or defend against to practice writing on some of the published topics. those views in my essay? There is no “best” approach: some people prefer to start practicing without regard to the 45-minute time To plan your response, you might want to summarize limit; others prefer to take a “timed test” first and your position and make brief notes about how you practice within the time limit. No matter which will support the position you’re going to take. When approach you take when you practice the Issue task, you’ve done this, look over your notes and decide you should review the task directions, then how you will organize your response. Then write a • carefully read the claim made in the topic and response developing your position on the issue. Even make sure you understand the issue involved; if if you don’t write a full response, you should find it it seems unclear, discuss it with a friend or helpful to practice with a few of the Issue topics and teacher to sketch out your possible responses. After you • think about the issue in relation to your own have practiced with some of the topics, try writing ideas and experiences, to events you have read responses to some of the topics within the 45-minute about or observed, and to people you have time limit so that you have a good idea of how to use known; this is the knowledge base from which your time in the actual test. you will develop compelling reasons and ex- Next, compare your response to the scoring guide. amples in your argument that reinforce, negate, Focus on seeing how your paper meets or misses the or qualify the claim in some way performance standards and what you therefore need • decide what position on the issue you want to to do in order to improve. take and defend—remember you are free to Deciding Which Issue Topic to Choose agree or disagree completely or to agree with Remember that the General Test will contain two some parts or some applications but not others Issue topics from the published pool; you must choose • decide what compelling evidence (reasons and one of these two. Because the 45-minute timing examples) you can use to support your position begins when you first see the two topics, you should Remember that this is a task in critical thinking and not spend too much time making a decision. Instead, persuasive writing. Therefore, you might find it try to choose fairly quickly the issue that you feel helpful to explore the complexity of a claim in one of better prepared to discuss. the topics by asking yourself the following questions: Before making a choice, read each topic carefully. • What, precisely, is the central issue? Then decide on which topic you could develop a • Do I agree with all or with any part of the claim? more effective and well-reasoned argument. In Why or why not? making this decision, you might ask yourself: • Does the claim make certain assumptions? If so, • Which topic do I find more interesting or are they reasonable? engaging? • Is the claim valid only under certain conditions? • Which topic more closely relates to my own If so, what are they? academic studies or other experiences?14
  15. 15. • On which topic can I more clearly explain and Strategies for this Topic defend my perspective? This claim raises several related questions: What does • On which topic can I more readily think of strong it mean to be a generalist or a specialist, and what reasons and examples to support my position? value do they have for society? Does society actuallyYour answers to these questions should help you make need more generalists, and are specialists, in fact,your choice. “highly overrated”?The Form of Your Response There are several basic positions you could take on this issue: Yes, society needs more generalists andYou are free to organize and develop your response in places too high a value on specialists. No, the oppo-any way that you think will effectively communicate site is true. Or, it depends on various factors. Or, bothyour ideas about the issue. Your response may, but groups are important in today’s culture; neither isneed not, incorporate particular writing strategies overvalued. Your analysis might draw examples fromlearned in English composition or writing-intensive a particular society or country, from one or more areascollege courses. GRE readers will not be looking for a of society, or from various situations. It might focusparticular developmental strategy or mode of writing; on the role of generalists and specialists in relation toin fact, when GRE readers are trained, they review communications, transportation, politics, informa-hundreds of Issue responses that, although highly tion, or technology. Any of these approaches is valid,diverse in content and form, display similar levels of as long as you use relevant reasons and examples tocritical thinking and persuasive writing. Readers will support your position.see, for example, some Issue responses at the 6 score Before you stake out a position, take a few mo-level that begin by briefly summarizing the writer’s ments to reread the claim. To analyze it, considerposition on the issue and then explicitly announcing questions such as these:the main points to be argued. They will see others • What are the main differences between special-that lead into the writer’s position by making a ists and generalists? What are the strong pointsprediction, asking a series of questions, describing of each?a scenario, or defining critical terms in the quota- • Do these differences always hold in varioustion. The readers know that a writer can earn a high professions or situations? Could there be somescore by giving multiple examples or by presenting a specialists, for example, who also need to havesingle, extended example. Look at the sample Issue very broad knowledge and general abilities toresponses, particularly at the 5 and 6 score levels, to perform their work well?see how other writers have successfully developed • How do generalists and specialists function inand organized their arguments. your field? You should use as many or as few paragraphs as • What value do you think society places onyou consider appropriate for your argument—for specialists and generalists? Are specialistsexample, you will probably need to create a new overvalued in some situations, and notparagraph whenever your discussion shifts to a new in others?cluster of ideas. What matters is not the number of • Does society really need more generalists than itexamples, the number of paragraphs, or the form your has? If so, what needs would they serve?argument takes but, rather, the cogency of your ideasabout the issue and the clarity and skill with which Now you can organize your thoughts into two groups:you communicate those ideas to academic readers. • Reasons and examples to support the claim • Reasons and examples to support an opposingDirections* point of viewPresent your perspective on the issue below, using rel- If you find one view clearly more persuasive than theevant reasons and/or examples to support your views. other, consider developing an argument from thatSample Topic perspective. As you build your argument, keep in“In our time, specialists of all kinds are highly over- mind the other points, which you could argue against.rated. We need more generalists—people who can If both groups have compelling points, considerprovide broad perspectives.” developing a position supporting, not the stated claim, but a more limited or more complex claim.* The directions are presented as they appear on the actual test. 15
  16. 16. Then you can use reasons and examples from both Not only may over-specialization be dangerous in sides to justify your position. terms of the truth, purity and cohesion of knowledge, Essay Response* – Score 6 but it can also serve to drown moral or universall issues. Generalists and only generalists can see a broad enough In this era of rapid social and technological change picture to realize and introduce to the world the leading to increasing life complexity and psychologi- problems of the environment. With specialization, each cal displacement, both positive and negative effects person focusses on their research and their goals. Thus, among persons in Western society call for a balance industrialization, expansion, and new technologies are in which there are both specialists and generalists. driven ahead. Meanwhile no individual can see the Specialists are necessary in order to allow society wholisitc view of our global existence in which true as a whole to properly and usefully assimilate the advancement may mean stifling individual specialists masses of new information and knowledge that have for the greater good of all. come out of research and have been widely dissemi- Finally, over-specialization in a people’s daily lives nated through mass global media. As the head of and jobs has meant personal and psychological Pharmacology at my university once said (and I compartmentalization. People are forced into pigeon paraphrase): “I can only research what I do because holes early in life (at least by university) and must there are so many who have come before me to conciously attempt to consume external forms of whom I can turn for basic knowledge. It is only stimuli and information in order not to be lost in because of each of the narrowly focussed individuals their small and isolated universe. Not only does this at each step that a full and true understanding of the make for narrowly focussed and generally pooprly- complexities of life can be had. Each person can only educated individuals, but it guarantees a sense of loss hold enough knowledge to add one small rung to the of community, often followed by a feeling of psycho- ladder, but together we can climb to the moon.” This logical displacement and personal dissatisfaction. illustrates the point that our societies level of knowl- Without generalists, society becomes inward- edge and technology is at a stage in which there looking and eventually inefficient. Without a society simply must be specialists in order for our society to that recongnizes the impotance of braod-mindedness take advantage of the information available to us. and fora for sharing generalities, individuals become Simply put, without specialists, our society would isolated. Thus, while our form of society necessitates find itself bogged down in the Sargasso sea of infor- specialists, generalists are equally important. Specialists mation overload. While it was fine for early physicists drive us forward in a series of thrusts while generalists to learn and understand the few laws and ideas that make sure we are still on the jousting field and know existed during their times, now, no one individual what the stakes are. can possibly digest and assimilate all of the knowl- edge in any given area. Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 6 On the other hand, Over specialization means This is an outstanding analysis of the issue—insight- narrow focii in which people can lose the larger ful, well reasoned, and highly effective in its use of picture.No one can hope to understand the human language. The introductory paragraph announces the body by only inspecting one’s own toe-nails. What we writer’s position on the issue and provides the context learn from a narrow focus may be internally logically within which the writer will develop that position: coherent but may be irrelevant or fallacious within “In this era of rapid social and technological the framework of a broader perspective. Further, if we change leading to increasing life complexity and inspect only our toe-nails, we may conclude that the psychological displacement . . . .” whole body is hard and white. Useful conclusions and The argument itself has two parts. The first part thus perhaps useful inventions must come by sharing presents a compelling case for specialization, primar- among specialists. Simply throwing out various ily in the field of medicine. The second part presents discovieries means we have a pile of useless discover- an equally compelling, well-organized case against ies, it is only when one can make with them a mosaic overspecialization based on three main reasons: that we can see that they may form a picture. • logical (narrowly trained specialists often fail to understand the whole) * All responses in this publication are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any.16
  17. 17. • moral (usually generalists understand what is ments. This is an excellent example of how a needed for “the greater good”) generalied person may not be equipped enough to • personal (specializing/pigeonholing too early can handle something as well as a specialized one can. be psychologically damaging) Another example of a specialist who is neededThe argument’s careful line of reasoning is further instead of a generalist involves teaching. In grammarstrengthened by the skillful use of expert testimony school, children learn all the basic principles of(quotation from a prominent medical researcher) and reading, writing, and arithematic. But as children getvivid metaphor (to inspect only one’s toenails is to older and progress in school, they gain a betterignore the whole body). understanding of the language and mathematical It is not only the reasoning that distinguishes this processes. As the years in school increase, they needresponse. The language is precise and often figurative to learn more and more specifics and details about(“bogged down in a Sargasso sea of information various subjects. They start out by learning basicoverload,” “a pile of useless discoveries,” and “specialists math concepts such as addition, subtraction, division,drive us forward in a series of thrusts, while and multiplication. A few years later, they are readygeneralists make sure we are still on the jousting to begin algebraic concepts, geometry, and calculus.field”). The reader is constantly guided through the They are also ready to learn more advanced vocabu-argument by transitional phrases and ideas that help lary, the principles of how all life is composed andorganize the ideas and move the argument forward. how it functions. One teacher or professor can notThis is an exceptionally fine response to the topic. provide as much in depth discussion on all of these topics as well as one who has learned the specificsEssay Response – Score 5 and studied mainly to know everything that isSpecialists are not overrated today. More generalists currently known about one of these subjects. Gener-may be needed, but not to overshadow the specialists. alized teachers are required to begin molding studentsGeneralists can provide a great deal of information at a very early age so they can get ready for the futureon many topics of interest with a broad range of ahead of them in gaining more facts about the basicideas. People who look at the overall view of things subjects and finding out new facts on the old ones.can help with some of the large problems our society These are only two examples of why specialists arefaces today. But specialists are necessary to gain a not highly overrated and more generalists are notbetter understanding of more in depth methods to necessary to the point of overshadowing them.solve problems or fixing things. Generalists are needed to give the public a broad One good example of why specialists are not understanding of some things. But , specialists areoverrated is in the medical field. Doctors are neces- important to help maintain the status, health, andsary for people to live healthy lives. When a person is safety of our society. Specialists are very necessary.sick, he may go to a general practitioner to find out Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 5the cause of his problems. Usually, this kind of“generalized” doctor can help most ailments with This writer presents a well-developed analysis of thesimple and effective treatments. Sometimes, though, complexities of the issue by discussing the need fora sickness may go beyond a family doctor’s knowledge both the generalist and the specialist.or the prescribed treatments don’t work the way they The argument is rooted in two extended ex-should. When a sickness progresses or becomes amples, both well chosen. The first (paragraph 2)diagnosed as a disease that requires more care than a begins with a discussion of the necessity for medicalfamily doctor can provide, he may be referred to a generalists (the general practitioner) as well asspecialist. For instance, a person with constant specialists and moves into an example within thebreathing problems that require hospitalization may example (breathing problems and the need for anbe suggested to visit an asthma specialist. Since a asthma specialist). This extension from the generalfamily doctor has a great deal of knowledge of medi- to the specific characterizes the example in the nextcine, he can decide when his methods are not effec- paragraph as well. There, the discussion centers ontive and the patient needs to see someone who knows education from elementary to high school, from basicmore about the specific problem; someone who arithmetic to calculus.knows how it begins, progresses, and specified treat- 17
  18. 18. The smooth development is aided by the use of special ed teacher is also trained to work on the appropriate transitions: “but,” “usually,” and “for child’s self-esteem, which has a big part in how suc- instance,” among others. The essay ends by revisiting cessful this child will be. Every child in the United the writer’s thesis. States of America has the right to an equal educa- While the writer handles language and syntax tion. How can a child with a learning disability well, several lapses in clarity keep this otherwise well- receive the same equal education as a general ed argued response out of the 6 category. The problems student if there was no specialist there to help both vary from the lack of a pronoun referent (“When teacher and child? a sickness progresses or becomes diagnosed, . . . he may Another thing to consider is how a committee is be referred to a specialist”) to an error in parallel supposed to work together. Each person has a special structure (“how it begins, progresses and specified task to accomplish and when these people all come treatments”), to loose syntax and imprecise language together, with their tasks finished, every aspect of the (“Generalized teachers are required to begin molding community’s work is completely covered. Nothing is students at a very early age so they can get ready for left undone. In this case there are many different the future ahead of them in gaining more facts about specialists to meet the general goal of the committee. the basic subjects.”) When you take into account that a specialist Essay Response – Score 4 contributes only a small part of the generalist aspect, it seems ridiculous to say that specialists are overrated. Specialists are just what their name says: people who The generalists looks to the specialists any time they specialize in one part of a very general scheme of need help or clarification on their broad aspect. things. A person can’t know everything there is to Specialists and generalists are part of the same system, know about everything. This is why specialists are so if a specialist is overrated, then so is a generalist. helpful. You can take one general concept and divide it up three ways and have three fully developed Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 4 different concepts instead of one general concept that This is an adequate analysis of the issue. After a no one really knows about. Isn’t it better to really somewhat confusing attempt to define “specialists” know something well, than to know everything in the introductory paragraph, the writer presents a half-way. pertinent example (the special education teacher) to Take a special ed teacher compared to a general ed illustrate the importance of specialists. The example teacher. The general ed teacher knows how to deal dominates the response and contributes positively to with most students. She knows how to teach a the overall score of 4. subject to a student that is on a normal level. But The second example, how a committee works, is what would happen to the child in the back of the less persuasive. However, it does seem to help clarify room with dyslexia? She would be so lost in that the writer’s definition of “general” as an umbrella general ed classroom that she would not only not term meaning the total collection of what specialists learn, but be frustrated and quite possibly, have low know about a topic. self-esteem and hate school. If there is a special ed Although the writer’s views about the relationship teacher there who specializes in children with between “generalist” and “specialist” are unusual, learning disabilities, she can teach the general ed they do become clear in the conclusion of the essay. teacher how to cope with this student as well as Yet, these ideas are not developed in sufficient depth modify the curriculum so that the student can learn or with enough logical control to earn a score higher along with the others. The special ed teacher can also than 4. take that child for a few hours each day and work The writing is generally error free. There are few with her on her reading difficulty one-on-one, which problems in sentence structure, grammar, and usage, a general ed teacher never would have time to do. although the phrasing is at times imprecise and A general ed teacher can’t know what a special ed wordy. Overall, this response displays clearly adequate teacher knows and a special ed teacher can’t know control of the elements of written English. what a general ed teacher knows. But the two of Essay Response – Score 3 them working together and specializing in their own things can really get a lot more accomplished. The To quote the saying, “Jack of all trades, master of none,” would be my position on the statement. I feel specialists18
  19. 19. in all areas of knowledge lead to a higher standard of obscured. The main reasons for the score of 3 areliving for everyone. Specializing in different areas allows the lack of sufficient development and inappropriateus to use each others talents to the highest level and use of examples.maximize potential. As an example, if a person required Essay Response – Score 2brain surgery, would they rather have a brain surgeonor a general practitioner doing the work? Clearly a spe- In the situation of health I feel that specialists arecialist would do the better job and give the patient a very important. For example if a person has heartchance at a better life. problems, choose a heart specialist over a genral A university education starts by laying the medicine Dr. However if a person is having a widegroundwork for general knowledge but then narrows range of syptoms, perhaps choose a Dr. with a widedown to a specific field. General knowledge and a range of experience might be more helpful.broad prospective are important, but if there was no It also depends on the type of problem you arefocus on specific areas, our overall knowledge as a having. For example I would not suggest taking apopulation would be seriously lessened. troubled child to a theorpist who specializes in Another example of specialists not being overated marriage problems. In some cases have a specialistswould be international trade. Not every nation can helps to insure that you are getting the best possiblyprovide for themselves. They need to get products treatment. On the other hand dealing with a personand ideas from other parts of the world because they who has a wide range of experience may be able toare better at providing them. This allows for a find different ways of dealing with a particulargrowing economy if two different nations can provide problem.each other with two different products. If one country Since the quotation did not state exactely whatcan produce oranges better than another, it should type of specialist we are dealing with it is also hardtrade the oranges for the fish that it can not produce. to determine the importance of having a special-If generalizing was the normal thing to do and both ist is. For example the could be health or problemscountries tried to produce all kinds of products, the with a car, or basically anything else. I feel that thiscountries would probably survive, but not have the information should not have been left out. I guess thestandard of living they presently have. bottom line is that I feel sometimes a specialist is very important.Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 3 Reader Commentary for Essay Response – Score 2The writer’s position is clear: specialists are importantand necessary. However, the position is not adequately This is a seriously flawed analysis of the issue. Thesupported with reasons or logical examples. response argues in favor of specialists, but neither the Paragraph 1 presents an appropriate example of reasons nor the examples are persuasive. The examplethe brain surgeon versus the general practitioner. of not taking “a troubled child to see a therapist whoHowever, the example of an increasingly narrow specializes in marriage problems” is both simplisticuniversity education in paragraph 2, contains only and off the mark since it differentiates between twotwo sentences and is seriously undeveloped. It does specialists, not between a generalist and a specialist.little to advance the writer’s position. The sentences are so poorly formed and phrased Paragraph 3 offers yet another example, the most that the argument is at times hard to follow. Never-developed of all. Unfortunately, this example is not theless, this is not a 1 essay: the writer presents aclearly logical. The writer tries to argue that the position on the issue, develops that position with“specialist” country (one that is a better producer of some very weak analysis, and communicates someoranges) is superior to the “generalist” country (pre- ideas clearly.sumably one that produces oranges as well as other Essay Response – Score 1products). This generalist country, the writer tells us, I disagree with the statement about specialists, wewould be inferior to the other. This conclusion does need specialists who take individual areas andnot emerge logically from the writer’s argument, and specialize. A generalists can pinpoint a problem. Heit seems to be at odds with everyday reality. or she cannot determine the magnitude of the Although language is used with some imprecision problem. A specialist can find the root of the prob-throughout the essay, the writer’s meaning is not lem. When he or she has years working in that 19