What Is a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)


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What Is a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)

  1. 1. Brands of PLC’c A lle n B r a d le y S ie m e n s M it s u b is h i T a t a H o n e y w e ll A B B A L S T O M F E S T O F u j i E le c t r ic R e lia n c e B & R T o s h ib a C u t le r H a m m e r A n s h u m a n S c h n e id e r K o y o S ig m a t e k M e s s u n g O m r o n F a n u c M o d ic o n
  2. 2. P.L.C.Programmable Logic Controller• CPU - Decision Making Unit• Inputs-Digital/Analog/High Speed• Outputs - Digital / Analog• Power Supply - 24 VDC / 110VAC / 220VAC / +/- 12V• Timers / Counters / Flags / Registers / Memory• Communication - Serial - RS232C / Equivalent• Programming - Through PC /
  3. 3. Why to use PLC’s ?• COST :- PLC can scan Digital & Analog Inputs through relevant S . It can execute the Logic w.r.t. the Scanned Inputs, take necessary decision and send it to Digital / Analog Outputs. It can also perform PID control Functions. The cost of all this is much less than a conventional DATA Logger !!• Versatility :- The ability to combine discrete (Digital) & Analog logic is a powerful tool for the Control Engineers. Control of critical start-up parameters, such as temperature and pressure, can be precisely pre-programmed for each start-up step.
  4. 4. Why to use PLC’s ?• Expandability :- As a process matures, it is inevitable that enhancements will be needed. These usually require more outputs. For hard-wire Relays system this usually necessitates extensive panel changes, which generally are problematic. A PLC easily accommodates the additional I/O’s without requiring changes in the existing wiring. If a PID loop is to be added, no panel rework is necessary; only the wiring of new points and some re- programming to incorporate them is required.
  5. 5. Why to use PLC’s ?• Flexibility :- As a process goes ONLINE and Refined, the Control Equipment should be easily reconfigured to accommodate such modifications. Bottling Plant Control, Traffic Light Control, Process Control of Temp., Pressure, Level, Flow etc., Car Parking Control etc. are all within the Capabilities of PLC’s.• As one common device (PLC) performs multiple functions in a Plant, fewer spare parts are needed .• The Digital nature and self- Diagnostic capabilities are strong
  6. 6. Advantages of PLC overElectro-mechanical Relays• Ability to interface / communicate with Computers• Simple Programming• Field Programming possible (HHT)• High Reliability (Better MTBF)• Easy Maintenance• Rugged Construction - Can operate in Extremely harsh field conditions• Smaller Size• Easy Expandability (Due to Modular Design)
  7. 7. Differences between -PLC & PC / Computers• Real Time Operation - PLC’s are designed to operate in a REAL-TIME control Environment. Most PLC’s have internal clocks and built-in “Watch-Dog Timers”.
  8. 8. PLC’s Vs PC’s• Environmental Conditions PLC’s are designed to operate near the equipment they are meant to control. This means that they function in hot, humid, dirty, noisy and dusty industrial environments. PLC’s can operate in 60 Deg C as well as 0 Deg C, with tolerable relative Humidities ranging from 0% to 95% non-condensing.
  9. 9. PLC Vs PC• Programming Languages & Techniques -• PLC - Ladder Diagram format is read & understood world- wide by maintenance technicians as well as by engineers.• Unlike Computer Programming, PLC Programming does not require extensive special training.• Programme operation are performed by the PLC in the order they were programmed . This allows easy programming of Shift Registers
  10. 10. PLC Vs PC• Maintenance & Trouble-shooting• As PLC is a Plant Floor Controller it has to be maintained / serviced by plant electrician or the Instrument Technician.• It would be highly impractical to require computer type maintenance service.• Most PLC Components are modular and simple to isolate, remove-and-place (system
  11. 11. Digital I/O Devices• Digital Input Field Devices• Pushbuttons,• Thumbwheel Swiches• Limit Switches• Selector Switches• Proximity Sensors• Photoelectric Sensors• Digital Output Field Devices• Discrete Outputs - Relays, Solenoids, Contactors, Motors starters, Annunciator Windows, Pilot Lights etc.• Register Outputs - Displays,
  12. 12. Various Types of Transmitters T r a n s m itte r s T e m p e ra tu re T ra n s m itte rs P re s s u re T ra n s m itte rs F lo w T ra n s m itte rs L e v e l T ra n s m itte rs
  13. 13. Analog I/O Devices• Analog Outputs – 4 to 20mA / 0 to 5V DC – Can drive signals to variable speed drives etc., Control Temperature, Pressure, Level, Flow, pH, Conductivity etc.• Analog I/P -• 4 to 20 mA / 0 to 5V DC• 12 Bit or better ADC• 32 Bit Storage (For SCADA)• Thermocouples T/C / RTD’s• Flow Transmitters• Temperature Transmitters• Level Transmitters• Pressure Transmitters• Strain Guage
  14. 14. Digital / Analog I/O’s• Digital Inputs - 1-4096 / more• (Useful for sensing of entry of CAR)• (To Sense COIN in vending machine)• (To sense if Door Bell is pressed)• Digital Outputs – 1-4096 / more• (To indicate Traffic Light Signals)• (To display Alarm indication)• (To display CAR is exiting parking)• Analog Inputs - 1-4096 or more• (To continuously Scan the Temp.)• (To continuously Scan Level / Flow)• Analog Outputs - 1-4096 / more
  15. 15. Digital I/O Voltages• DC Input Modules - 24 V DC 48 V DC 10-60 V DC 120 V DC 230 V DC 5-50 V DC Sink /Source 5 V DC TTL Level 5/12 V DC TTL Level• AC Input Modules – 24 V AC 48 V AC 120 V AC / Isolated 240 V AC / Isolated 24 V AC / DC
  16. 16. Analog I/O VoltagesVoltage Range Decimal Equivalent -10 V to + 10V - 32768 to + 32767 0 to + 10V 0 to + 32767 0 to +5V 0 to + 16384 1V to + 5V 3277 to + 16384Current Range Decimal Equivalent-20mA to +20mA -16384 to +16384 0 to +20mA 0 to +16384 4 to +20mA 3277 to +16384
  17. 17. PLC Programming Languages• Ladder Diagram Programming• Function Block Diagram• Sequential Function Chart• Statement / Instruction List• Structured Text
  18. 18. PLC Programming[1] Edit / Write a Ladder Programme[2] Simulate Programme using Simulator[3] Change the Programme if necessary[4] Download the Programme PC to PLC[5] Execute the Programme in PLC[6] Change Inputs to see effects on Outputs[7] Modify the Programme for different field conditions & repeat steps 4,5,6.
  20. 20. Other Applications of PLC’s[1] Control of SPM’s (Special Purpose Machines - Like Drilling M/c or Grinding M/c or Lathes etc.[2] Packing Machines Like - Capsule Packing Machines Tablet Packing Machines; Milk Pouches Packing M/c.
  21. 21. While Chosing PLC for anApplication, following pointsshould be taken intoconsideration• Maintenance• Spare Parts• Operation• Modifications• Losses (Production, Equipment, Personnel)• Information Technology• Space & Weight• Flexibility• Expandability• Operability• Cost of Control & Instrumentation
  22. 22. Aspects ofControl & Instrumentation• Standardisation• Speed of Response• Hardware Variety• Software Portability• User Interface• Memory• Compactness• Power Requirement• System Integrity (Reliability, Availability, Security)• Control & Logic Algorithms
  23. 23. A Control Unit Should havefollowing capabilities as Standard• Continuous Control• Batch Control• Logic• Advanced Control• Simulation• Neural Network & Knowledge based Systems• A PC-Oriented Programming Language• Dual or Triple Redundancy• High Scan rates (1 to 10 mS)• High Resolution Time Stamping (1 mS)• A Communication Processor that can handle popular protocols
  24. 24. Safety Considerations• The most important safety feature, which is often neglected is PLC system design. This feature must be included whenever a hardwired device is used in order to ensure operator protection against the unwanted application of power.• Emergency STOP function should be completely hardwired. Software functions should not be relied upon to shut-off the process or the machine.
  25. 25. NOISE• Electro-Magnetic Interference / NOISE / Unwanted Electrical Signals can generate problems for all solid state circuits, particularly Micro- processors. Each PLC manufacturer suggests methods for designing a noise-immune system.• I/O system are isolated from the field, but voltage spikes can still appear within the low-voltage environment of the PLC if Proper Grounding practices are not followed. Often it is necessary to keep AC and DC wiring bundles apart, particularly when high-voltage AC is used at the same time that low-level analog signals are present.
  26. 26. TemperatureConsiderations• Installing any solid state device requires paying attention to –• Ambient Temperature• Radiant Heat Bombardment• And the Heat generated by the Device itself.• PLC’s are typically designed for operation over a broad range of Temperatures, usually from 0 to 60 Deg.C• For Cooling, blowing filtered air through the enclosure can resolve minor difficulties.
  27. 27. Enclosures• Enclosure of PLC protects PLC’s from moisture, Oil, Dust Particles and unwanted tampering.• Most Manufaturers recommend NEMA 12 Enclosure for the Standard Industrial Environment.• PLC’s are designed to be located close to the machine or the process under control. This keeps the wiring runs short and aids in the trouble- shooting procedure.• It is not advisable to place a PLC near a Virating Machine, Electrical NOISE Interference or Excessive Heat Environment conditions.
  28. 28. KEY-WORDS of PLC• PLC - Programmable Logic Controller• PID – Proportional + Integral + Derivative Control Function.• DCS – Distributed Control System• SCADA – Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition System• RTOS- Real Time Operating System
  29. 29. KEY-WORDS of PLC• RTC - Real Time Clock• RTU – Remote Terminal Unit• Timers – On-Delay Off-Delay Monoshot / Monostable Pulse Flasher Astable Bistable• Counters – Up / Down
  30. 30. KEY-WORDS of PLC• Flags / Registers / Latches / Memory Set-Reset / Retentive – Non-Retentive• HHT – Hand Held Terminal• HHP – Hand Held Programmmer It is used for PLC Programming at the Installation site.• MMI – Man-Machine Interface• HMI – Human Machine Interface Useful for ease of operation of PLC by operator/s.
  31. 31. H.H.T./ H.H.P.- Advantages• Easy transfer of PLC Program to HHT / HHP for editing or troubleshooting.• Easy transport of a program to the field to update a current machines program.• Rugged and industrially hardened for the factory environment.• Low cost, cheaper than a notebook computer.• Easy to use & easy to learn, no software required.• Compact Size (pocket size)• Easy storage of Program• Monitor resident PLC Program for trouble shooting.
  32. 32. H.H.T./ H.H.P.– Disadvantages• Not supported by some PLC’s.• An HHP can hold only one program at a time – whereas a Laptop / PC can hold many programs on its HDD.• HHP’s usually require more keystrokes to enter and get the same information as compared to a laptop / PC.• Limited capability to display ladder rungs due to screen size• Documentation not displayed• Different HHPs are needed for different PLC manufacturers if more than 1 PLC’s are in field.• If the Battery of the HHP discharges, a program stored
  33. 33. KEY-WORDS of PLC• Memory Cartridge / Module Consists of either – RAM ---- Random Access Memory. (Volatile) EPROM -- Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. EEPROM -- Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. FLASH --- Non-Volatile
  34. 34. Softwired Vs Harwired components of PLC• Soft-wired Components – Timers Counters Logic Circuits Latches• Hard-wired Components - 24 V DC Lamps Relays Contactors Solenoid Valves
  35. 35. Scan-Time / Scan-Cycle• Scan Time of PLC – It is the time between an Input being sensed & the corresponding output.• Single Scan Cycle – Single Scan Cycle function enables the circuit diagram to run for one processing cycle and then stop. This is useful in analyzing the circuit diagram and observing how it works.
  36. 36. PLC Scan• Input Scan – PLC scans all Inputs• Logic / Process Scan PLC goes through the ladder program / logic• Output Scan – PLC sends Outputs as per various Inputs and the corresponding
  37. 37. Input Scan• During the Input Scan the CPU scans each Input module for the ON / OFF states of each of the associated input points.• The ON / OFF input states are stored in the input status file.
  38. 38. Program Scan• After the inputs are read and stored in the input status file, the processor will use this information to solve the user ladder program.• The processor scans the user program starting at rung zero at the left power rail, working left to right and evaluating one instruction at a time until the output instruction is reached.• The Output status is the logical resultant of the solved input logic for that rung. The logical one or zero output status is placed in the output status file.• After completing rung zero, the processor goes on to rung 1,2,3… and so on, sequentially, to the last rung except in case of Master Control Relay (MCR)• At the end of the program, an END- Rung is automatically inserted which alerts the CPU the it has reached the
  39. 39. PLC – Concepts• Forcing Inputs / Outputs• RS232C / RS422 Ports• Source-Sink Concept in PLC• How to select a PLC for a particular project ?• PLC Types –
  40. 40. PLC – Concepts• Online (Run) / Offline Mode of operation.• Uploading/ Downloading of Programmes from - PLC to PC & PC to PLC• Display – LEDs / LCDs / VFD – Vacuum Florescent Display.
  41. 41. PLC – Concepts•MCR – Master Control Relay Function• File Handling / Addressing System•PLC Simulator Software
  42. 42. Key-Words of PLC• WDT - Watch-Dog-Timer – In case of PLC control loss due to EMI / NOISE, WDT brings back control of CPU to a Known State. This Timer Circuit usually resides on the CPU card itself. It works like a MONOSHOT PULSE GENERATOR of width greater than MAXIMUM SCAN TIME.
  43. 43. WDT - Watch-Dog-Timer• In order to insure system predictability a WDT is used to insure that the processor completes each scan in a timely manner.• WDT is a hardware timer incorporated into the CPU’s circuitry that monitors the cyclical process / scan of the CPU.• WDT is a safeguard that verifies the processor does not become stuck while scanning the user program or for some other reason, become unable to complete the current scan.
  44. 44. WDT - Watch-Dog-Timer• The WDT is reset at the end os each Scan Cycle by the CPU when the scan time is less than WDT’s preset time.• In case of one or more sub- routines, program scan time can exceed WDT time value. In some cases increasing the WDT’s preset value can solve the problem.• Some PLC’s have WDT with fixed time intervals, while others are adjustable within specific limits.• A typical default time of 100 / 200 mS is standard for many PLC’s with either fixed or
  45. 45. SLC-500 - Processor operating modes• Program Mode• Run Mode• Remote Run Mode• Remote Program Mode• Test Mode• Single-Step Test Mode• Single – Scan Test Mode• Continuous Scan Test Mode• Test Mode – Test Program execution before allowing the PLC to operate the actual Hardware.
  46. 46. GE – 90-70 CPU -Processor operating modes• Run with Outputs Enabled• Run with Outputs disabled• Stop Mode• Stop & I/O Scan Mode• Run Mode Store Function.
  47. 47. Key-Words of PLC• CCU - Central Control Unit - It consists of a CPU + PALS- GALS + RTOS + EPROM / RAM / EEPROM• Process / Ladder Logic Memory It could be integrated with CPU or in a separate DATA / MEMORY CARTRIDGE / MODULE. Usually it is a replaceable Cartridge.• Optoisolation - Analog I/O’s should be isolated otherwise induction / pickup can lead to malfunctioning of PLC
  48. 48. Digital Electronics• Boolean Algebra• Binary / Hexadecimal nos.• Logic Gates & Truth Tables• AND• OR• NAND• NOR• Ex-OR• Ex-NOR• NOT
  49. 49. L o g ic F u n c t io n s A N D O R N A N D N O R N O T E x - O R E x - N O R T I M E R C A S C A D E T I M E R S R F L I P - F lo p C O U N T E R
  50. 50. PLC ProgrammingAND Timers APPLICATIONS AstableOR Monostable Traffic Light Control Process Control BistableNOT Tank Level Control Bottling PlantNAND Counters Digital LockNOR Flags Microwave Oven RetentiveEx-OR Non-Reten Washing Machine Door Bell & AlarmEx-NOR Registers Sequential Control Retentive Silo Control
  51. 51. Functioning ofTimers / Counters / Flags / Registers PLC T IM E R S CO UNTERS FLAG S R E G IS T E R S0 t o 2 5 6 in A n s h u m a n 0 t o 2 5 6 n o s in A n s h u m a n 0 t o 2 5 6 n o s in A n s h u m a n 0 t o 2 5 6 n o s in A n s h u m a n M o n o s t a b le U p C o u n te r R e t e n t iv e R e t e n t iv e A s t a b le D o w n C o u n te r N o n - R e t e n t iv e N o n - R e t e n t iv e
  52. 52. DCS / SCADA•D.C.S. :-Distributed Control Systems•S.C.A.D.A.:- Supervisory ControlAnd Data AcquisitionSystem. (Through NetworkData Acquisition,Data Display,Data Processing,Data Storage,Data Analysis etc.)
  53. 53. DCS Vs SCADA• Generally supplied by • Normally supplied by a single Vendor with Multiple / Competing dedicated H/W & Vendors S/W. • Competitive cost due to Multi-Vendor products.• Costly due to • Can be applied to redundent design very low cost applications• Application Areas - • Comm’n - Can cover Large Mfg. Facilities larger geographical area by use of modems and T/p lines• Comm’n - Confined to factory premises (LAN for H/W) • Small to medium Analog I/O’s with / without PID.• Analog Processing - Large Analog I/O’s • Programming - PLC by using PID’s relay Ladder Diagram or STL and SCADA using built-in graphics• Programming - by editor and drivers. creating drawing like charts called as configuration diagram • Suppliers - PLC’s - Siemens, Allen Bradley, Omron etc.• Suppliers - Honeywell, SCADA - Intellution, NI-Lookout / Labview
  54. 54. Following Displays are available inmost Control Systems• Overview• Area• Group• Details• Trends• Configuration• Diagnostics• Alarm Summary• System Status (LAN)• Scratch Pad
  55. 55. Solid State O/P Switching• Advantages – [1] Fast Switching Speeds [2] High Reliability & almost infinite life [3] Low Power required to energize [4] No Contact Arcing [5] Little / nil Switching noise [6] +ve switching, no contact bounce [7] Can be hermetically sealed – good for hostile environments.• Disadvantages – [1] May be destroyed by overload [2] Tend to fail in ON state [3] Heat dissipation [4] Expensive to purchase [5] Possibility of false trips from electrical noise.
  56. 56. Relay O/P Switching• Advantages –[1] Contacts forgiving to a temporary overload[2] Immune to false trips from elec noise[3] Little voltage drop across contacts[4] No restrictions when connecting in series or parallel configurations[5] Difinite ON / OFF state, with contacts physically open.[6] No Leakage[7] Contacts generate little heat[8] Inexpensive to purchase• Disadvantages –[1] Mechanical switching is slow[2] Mechnical life is limited by demands of the load and the contacts.[3] Require 50mA or more to energize[4] Subject to contact arcing or welding[5] Subject to contact bounce
  57. 57. PLC – Reference Books• Programmable Logic Controllers. – By – John Web• Programmable Controllers – By – Richard Cox.• Introduction to Programmable Logic Controllers – By – Gary Dunning
  58. 58. Other Terms related to Control Systems• UCP - Unified Control Panel• UCS - Unified Control System• UCN - Universal Control Network• UOC - Unit Operation Controller• TDC - Totally Distributed• Control System• SOE - Sequence Of Events• SP --- Set-Point• SFC - Sequential Function Chart• SAT - Site Acceptance Test• SAS - Safety & Automation Systems
  59. 59. Other Terms Used in Control SystemsRTU - Remote Terminal UnitROC - Rate of ChangePV --- Process VariablePS --- Process StationPSD - Process Shut-DownPIU - Plant Interface UnitPIN - Plant Interface NetworkPCS - Process Control SystemPFD - Process Flow DiagramPCN - Process Control Network
  60. 60. Other Terms Used in Control SystemsOBT - Optical Bus TerminalOLE - Object Linking & EmbeddingOLM - Optical Link ModuleNIU - Network Interface UnitMC---- Multifunction ControllerMTU - Master Terminal UnitMCS - Master Control StationMAS - Manufacturing Automation SystemMAP - Manufacturing Automation Proto’lMTBF - Mean Time Between FailureMTTR - Mean Time To Repair
  61. 61. Other Terms Used in Control Systems• LLPIU - Low-Level Process Control Station• LCN --- Local Control Network• LCR --- Local Control Room• LAN --- Local Area Network• ISA - Instrument Society of America• ISO - International Standards Organization• HSE ---- High Speed Ethernet• HIPPS -- High Level Process Protection System• HAZOP - Hazard & Operability Study
  62. 62. Other Terms Used in Control Systems• FAT- Factory Acceptance Test• EUC - Equipment Under Control• ESD - Emergency Shut-Down System• EC --- Extended Controller• DPS - Dynamic Positioning System• AC --- Adaptive Control• CFC - Continuous Function Chart• C & I - Control & Instrumentation• CCR -- Central Control Room
  63. 63. • Other Terms Used in Control Systems• BCL -- Batch Control Language• BC --- Basic Controller• AEC - Advanced Extended Controller• AMC - Advanced Multifunc’n Controller• CAD - Computer Aided Design• CADAS - Computer Aided Design Analysis & Application
  64. 64. FF-Bus -Foundation Field Bus• FF-Bus is a Digital Comm’n System• A Summary of improvements, which FF-Bus will offer as it becomes more widely applied are – * Higher Communication Speed - 10 to 100 M Baud * Higher nos. of modes per branch to reduce cabaling & termination effort• More efficient Communication• Better diagnostics & predictive maintenance in field
  65. 65. FF-Bus• More reliable Control System because of better maintenance & Higher distribution control.• Faster Control System Response.• Saving in Hardware (Cabling, I/O cards, Cabinets)• Higher Accuracy because Process Parameters are Sampled Locally & Transmitted Digitally to local / remote Control Units.• Major Improvements in System
  66. 66. FF-Bus• Reduction in Documentation (No. of Loop Diagrams, Termination Schedules etc.)• Possibilities od using Multifunction Instruments - Where one Transmitter measures multiple variables (e.g. A Corolis meter can measure - flow, Density & Temperature )• A High Degree of Inter- operability among system Computers & Instruments from different Vendors.
  67. 67. • DPS - Dynamic Positioning System• Availability = MTBF / (MTBF + MTTR)• Categories of Consequences Definitions• Catastrophic ---- Multiple Loss of Life• Critical -------- Loss of a Single Life• Marginal ------- Major injuries to one or more persons.• Negligible ------ Minor injuries at worst
  68. 68. Catagories of LikelihoodCategories Definition Failuresof Likelihood (in System Life) Per YearFrequent Many Times > 10-3 -4Probable 10 to Several Times -3 10 -5Occasional One Time 10 to -4 10 -6Remote Unlikely 10 to -5 10 -7Impossible Very 10 to -6 Unlikely 10Incredible Cannot believe < 10-7 it could happen
  69. 69. * Analog Input :- DC models of Pico are provided with two analog inputs I7 and I8. The permissible input voltages are between 0 V and 10 V. The measured data is evaluated by an integrated Analog Value Comparator relay.* Circuit Connection: Each line in the circuit diagram display is a circuit connection.
  70. 70. Circuit Diagram Elements:The circuit diagram is madeup of circuit diagram elementsfrom conventional wiringpractice. These include input,output and auxiliary relays aswell as function relays and Pbuttons.Contact/Coil Monitor:The Contact/Coil Monitor isa dialog for displaying andforcing the logic states ofselected relays (contacts /coils).
  71. 71. Device Test :-The device test shows in plaintext the results of comparisonbetween the selected Picodevice and the circuit diagram.All contact/coil elements thatare not available on the deviceused will be listed, and thenumber of circuit connectionsused will be checked. If thePico device cannot properlyprocess the circuit diagram, adevice will be suggested onwhich the circuit diagram canbe used successfully.
  72. 72. Function Relay :-Function relays are used forcomplex switching tasks. Picodevices are provided with thefollowing function relays:Timing relays (T), Timeswitches (H), Counters (C),Analog value comparators (A),Text relays (D).Impulse Relay :-An impulse relay is one thatchanges and then retains thisstate if a voltage ismomentarily applied to it.
  73. 73. Input :-External contacts areconnected to the inputs of thedevice. Inputs are evaluated inthe circuit diagram via theswitching contacts I1 to I12and R1 to R12. The 24 V DCPico models can also receiveadditional analog data viainputs I7 and I8.Input Debounce :-Input signals can be evaluatedby the device with a delay inorder to compensate for thecontact bounce of switchesand pushbuttons.
  74. 74. Interface :-The device interface allowscircuit diagrams to beexchanged and stored on amemory card or PC. A memorycard saves both the circuitdiagram and device settings.PicoSoft PC software allowsyou to control the device fromthe PC. The PC is connected toPico via the "1760-CBL-PM02"cable.
  75. 75. I/Q Window :-The I/Q window contains theinput simulator and the displayfor Q and S coils. The inputsimulator or I window is usedas a central tool in circuitdiagram simulation. It enablesyou to create dynamic inputsignal states for the simulatedcircuit diagram. For this youcan also assign differentfunctions to the I and Rbuttons.
  76. 76. I/R Function :-The I/R Function determinesthe switching function of theelements I1 to I16 and R1 toR16. These can be latchingmake contacts, latching breakcontacts, momentary makecontacts or momentary breakcontacts.
  77. 77. Operator Buttons :-The device features 8operator buttons by which youcan select the menu functionsand also enter the circuitdiagram directly via the Picodisplay. The centrally arrangedcursor buttons are used tomove the cursor in the Picodisplay. DEL, ALT, ESC and OKare also provided withadditional functions.
  78. 78. Output :-The outputs are used to switchloads such as contactors, lampsor motors. The outputs arecontrolled in the circuitdiagram via the output relaycoils Q1 to Q8 and S1 to S8.Parameters :-Function relays are assignedparticular parameters by theuser. Set values may include,for example, switching timesor counter setpoints. Theseare set in the Contact/Coil
  79. 79. P Buttons :-The P buttons allow you fouradditional inputs that areswitched via the cursorbuttons on Pico instead ofexternal contacts. Theswitching contacts of the Pbuttons are wired in thecircuit diagram.
  80. 80. Retention :-This function allows data to beretained in the device evenafter its power supply hasbeen switched off. Retentivedata consists of: Device circuitdiagram, parameters,setpoints, text, systemsettings, password, actualvalues of auxiliary relays(markers), timing relays,counters.
  81. 81. Signal Diagram :-The Signal Diagram allows you todisplay the behavior up to eightselected relays along a timeaxis. The diagram produced canalso be printed out fordocumentation purposes.Single Cycle :-The Single Cycle function enablesyour circuit diagram to run forone processing cycle and thenstop. This helps you in analysingthe circuit diagram and observinghow it works. This function isonly available during Simulation.
  82. 82. Startup Behavior :-The startup behavior is animportant help duringcommissioning. The circuitdiagram may not be completelywired when it is transferred toPico, or the system/machine tobe controlled is in a state inwhich it cannot be controlled byPico. If Pico is then switched on,it may therefore be desirablefor the outputs to remaininactive. For this set the startupbehavior to STOP. If thestartup behavior is set to RUN,Pico will start processing thecircuit diagram as soon as it isswitched on.
  83. 83. Stop Point :-In order to analyse yourcircuit diagram effectively,you need a tool to interruptprocessing selectively, evaluatethe state of selected contactsor coils and continueprocessing. The Stop Pointfunction makes this possible.It is only available duringSimulation.
  84. 84. Wiring via the KeyboardPicoSoft also enables you towire up your circuit diagramvia keyboard commands.Selecting Make/BreakContact Behavior :-Entering letters in lower caseselects make contacts, andentering letters in upper caseselects break contacts.
  85. 85. Adding / Deleting Contacts :-Position the cursor on the contactfield required and enter the contactvia the keyboard. Use the followingshortcuts for contacts & f’n relays:i, I Controller Inputsp, P Soft Inputs - Keypadq, Q Controller Outputsm, MInternal Marker Bitsc, C Counterst, T Timersh, H Time Switch Relaya, A Analog Setpoint Compared, D Text Displayr, R Expansion Inputss, S Expansion Outputs or InternalMarker BitsTo delete the contact, press the Del key
  86. 86. Adding / Deleting CoilsPosition the cursor on the coilfield required and enter thecoil via the keyboard. Use thefollowing shortcuts for coilsand coil functions:q Controller Outputsm Internal Marker Bitst Timer "Trigger" coilc Counter "Trigger" coild Text Display "contactor" functions Internal Marker"contactor" function
  87. 87. To select the coil functionrequired, press the Shift keyand select the appropriate coilfunction letter below:Shift + E Impulse relayShift + S Latching (Set)Shift + R Unlatching(Reset)Shift + D Direction coil forcounterThe default setting is for thecontactor function. To revertto the simple contactorfunction of the coil, press theletter for the coil concerned.
  88. 88. To delete the coil,press the Del key.Connecting Inputs and OutputsUse Shift+Cursor key to makethe connection between theindividual contacts and coils.Adding Empty LinesPosition the cursor on thecircuit connection in front ofwhich you wish to add theempty circuit connection. PressCtrl+I to add the empty circuitconnection.
  89. 89. Deleting Circuit ConnectionsPosition the cursor on the circuitconnection you wish to delete.Press Ctrl+D to delete the entirecircuit connection.Deleting ConnectionsPosition the cursor on theconnection you wish to delete.To delete the connection,press the Del key.If the circuit connection containsbranches, the selectedconnection will only be deleted upto the next node.