What is Diabetes?
Diabetes is a lifelong condition that occurs when the
blood sugar (glucose) is too high.
Most of the food we eat is changed into glucose.
Your body uses glucose for energy.
Your blood carries glucose to all cells in the body.
Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas.
It is needed to move glucose from the blood into the
body cells where it is used for energy.
Diabetes is a disorder in which
the body cells fail to take up
glucose from the blood.
Wasting of tissues is seen as
glucose-starved cells are
forced to consume their own
Diabetes is the cause of
blindness, kidney failure and
amputation in adults.
Individuals with diabetes lack
the ability to use the hormone
There are two types of diabetes
Diabetes Type 1
In type 1 diabetes your body stops
making insulin because the body's
immune system destroys the
insulin producing cells (called beta
cells) in the pancreas.
People with type 1 diabetes need
to take insulin injections every
Although it can occur at any age,
this type of diabetes occurs more
often in children and young adults.
Diabetes Type 2
Type 2 diabetes occurs when
your body cannot use insulin
properly (called insulin
resistance) or it does not make
This type of diabetes is usually
seen in adults who are
overweight and less active.
Due to obesity and inactivity this
type of diabetes is increasing in
Diabetes – Type 2
As we start eating food, our body
starts producing insulin.
The insulin signal attaches to a
special receptor on the cell surface,
to make the cell turn-on its own
glucose transporting machinery.
It had been observed that type 2
diabetics have normal or even
elevated levels of insulin in their
body with normal insulin receptor,
but due to some unknown reason
the binding of insulin to the cell
receptors does not start the glucose
transporting machinery, which it is
supposed to do.
Diabetes – Type 2
Special proteins called IRS
(insulin receptor substrate) are
inside the cell.
In type 2 diabetes something is
interfering with the action of the
IRS protein and it is also
estimated that about 80% of
those who develop type 2
diabetes are obese.
When insulin attaches to the
receptor protein, the receptor
responds by adding a chemical
called a phosphate group onto
the IRS molecules by which the
IRS molecules turn into action.
Once activated, they start variety
of processes, including an
enzyme that turns on the
glucose transporter machinery.
Consequences of Diabetes
The elevated blood
sugar that occurs in
both types of
diabetes can lead to
Symptoms that occur at
onset of type 1 diabetes
include extreme thirst,
increased hunger, frequent
loss and tiredness.
The onset of type 1 diabetes
appears suddenly, but we
know that insulin-producing
cells are destroyed slowly
over a period of several
Who Gets Type 1 Diabetes?
18.2 million people in the United States (6.3 percent of
the population) have been diagnosed with diabetes.
5 to 10 percent of all people with diabetes have type 1
Type 1 diabetes occurs equally among males and
females. It is more common in whites than in nonwhites.
Although the cause of type 1 diabetes isn't known, it is
likely that genetic and environmental factors work
together to trigger the immune system to destroy the
insulin producing cells.
Relatives of people with type 1 diabetes are at a 10 to 15
percent greater risk for developing the disease.
What Treatments Exist for Type 1
People with type 1 diabetes manage their diabetes by taking
insulin everyday along with healthy eating and physical activity.
The goal is to keep the blood sugar level as close to normal as
An important landmark study called the Diabetes Control and
Complications Trial (DCCT) provided important evidence that
maintaining blood sugars as close to normal as possible can help
to prevent, or minimize, the occurrence of complications in
people with type 1 diabetes.
There have been many advances in the treatment of type 1
Newer types of insulin have been developed to offer more
flexibility in eating patterns and lifestyle. Advances have been
made in how insulin is given such as insulin pumps, and there is
ongoing research to find ways of giving insulin without the need
What is Obesity?
Excess accumulation of fats
resulting in increased weight
Decreased physical activity
resulting in accumulation of
Obesity is a physical, mental
and emotional disorder.
Obesity increases weight, reduces
physical movements, and also brings
in slowness in emotional and mental
Food intake increases.
Obesity can result in frustration.
Laziness increases, reducing overall
Sometimes obesity can create
obstruction to breathing process.
Obesity may result in heart problems,
diabetes or blood pressure.
Obesity Reasons ---- Food Habits
Excess consumption of fats &
proteins in diet
Eating sugar rich foods
Consuming milk, butter, cheese,
oily food, non-vegetarian food, tea,
coffee, bakery products, rice etc.
Not eating raw food, fruits,
vegetables rich in fibers
US Population and Obesity
61% of the U.S. adult population
considered overweight or obese, the
National Heart, Lung, and Blood
Institute has released a new practical
guide to help doctors treat their
It consists of a 10-step plan to help the
nation’s 97 million obese or overweight
adults to lose weight and thereby
reduce their risk of illness or death
from hypertension, diabetes, heart
disease, and other conditions that
have been associated with overweight.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Strong evidence that weight loss produced by lifestyle
modification reduces blood glucose levels and HbA1c in
some patients with type 2 diabetes.
Suggestive evidence that decreases in abdominal fat will
improve glucose tolerance in overweight individuals with
impaired glucose tolerance, although not independent of
Limited evidence that increased cardiorespiratory fitness
improves glucose tolerance in overweight individuals with
impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes, although not
independent of weight loss.
Suggestive evidence that weight loss induced by weight
loss medications does not appear to improve blood glucose
levels any better than weight loss through lifestyle therapy
in overweight people with or without type 2 diabetes.
Dietary therapy -- A low calorie diet -- with a deficit of 500
to 1000 calories/day -- is recommended for weight loss.
Physical activity -- Individuals should start moderate
activity for 30-45 minutes, 3 -- 5 days/week, and aim for at
least 30 minutes or more of moderate physical activity on
most, and preferably all, days.
Behavior therapy -- This is a useful adjunct when
incorporated into treatment for weight loss and weight
Pharmacotherapy -- Using FDA-approved weight loss
medications, in combination with diet and physical activity,
results in weight loss when used for 6 months to a year.
Weight loss surgery is an option for carefully selected
patients with clinically severe obesity when less invasive
methods of weight loss have failed and the patient is at
high risk for obesity-associated illness or death.
Dozens of controlled clinical trials had been
carried out to determine the effect of weight
loss on fasting blood glucose. They found:
Weight loss produced by lifestyle modification
declines blood glucose levels and HbA1c in type 2
Glucose tolerance can be improved in overweight
individuals by decreasing abdominal fat.
Glucose tolerance can also be improved in
overweight individuals with increased cardio
Women’s Fat Cells Are Different
Women have larger fat cells from
estrogen and at-storing enzymes.
Your body changes at midlife.
Years 35 to 55 you're more likely to
gain weight. To compensate for
estrogen loss, your fat cells expand
to boost estrogen production, thus
contributing to middle-age spread .
You also may be prone to upper
body fat deposits. The poundage
goes to the waist specifically and the
Women’s Fat Cells and Menopause
Some jumping into extreme, low-cal
The fat cells fight back by growing
Menopausal women, more than
anyone, should never starve
Women during this period crave
sweets and starches more than
younger or older women, and they
don't even know it.
Study on Middle-Aged Women
A University of Pittsburgh
study confirms this. Over a
4½-year period, middle-aged
women kept their weights
stable through exercise and a
sensible diet. The control
group of non-exercisers
continued to gain an average
of one pound a year.
Energy and Weight
When your stomach is empty and growling, your
body's primary directive is to get you to eat -- to fill
your energy tank and fuel your body.
But if you don't refuel within 30 minutes of those first
biological signals, your blood-glucose level
plummets even more, causing you to get a
headache or heartburn and to feel nauseated or
When you finally do stop to eat, you can't help but
Instead, listen to your appetite signals
and refuel right away. You'll feel
energized immediately. And because
you were hungry but not famished
when you began eating, you are more
easily satisfied with a moderate
amount of food.
How much food does it take to
perfectly fill your stomach? The
answer lies in the palm of your hand.
Less than a handful and you're not
filling your food tank enough; more
than a handful and you're filling it too
Filling the Stomach
Moderate palm-size portions:
Half a sandwich (not a foot-long sub)
10 potato chips (not a 10-ounce bag)
1 cup of cooked pasta (not half a 16-ounce package)
A small hamburger (not a Big Mac or Whopper)
3 heaping tablespoons of ice cream (not a whole pint or
even a cup)
There are certain exceptions to the "hand"
Three handfuls of lettuce leaves equal one serving.
And a "good size" bowl of soup is allowed.
But for most foods, remember this: Your hand is the
measuring cup of your stomach, so use it.
Eat Little, Eat Often
Small, frequent meals that constantly refuel your body
provide big, long-lasting benefits.
A "three balanced meals" approach can cause an
imbalance in our energy level.
Too much time elapses between breakfast, lunch, and
dinner, and we eat too much food in the evening.
So, instead, try eating five small meals a day.
It will double your energy while controlling your weight.
Just be sure you don't make the mistake of eating five
courses at each of those five meals.
Have cereal for breakfast, fruit and yogurt midmorning,
half a sandwich at lunch, the other half midafternoon,
and a modest-size dinner that could fit in your hand.
Skip the Fads
Diet crazes have made us doubt our body's messages.
Don't give in to the "Carbs are hazardous to your health
and your waistline" myth that's all the rage right now.
It's also time to relax restrictions against certain "taboo"
foods, namely anything with fat.
Your body needs fat and probably craves it too.
A study from England found when women cut their fat
intake in half, their dispositions take a nosedive too.
They get angrier, moodier, more hostile.
Focus on the so-called good fat, the monounsaturated
type found in olives, olive oil, canola oil, soybeans,
soybean oil, tofu, nuts, peanut oil, and avocado.)
Sugar causes energy crashes. A simple
carbohydrate, sugar is quickly digested and
absorbed, leading to a dip when that surge of
There is, however, a way to avoid such a roller
coaster: Don't eat sugar by itself. Make sure there's
something else present in your stomach that will
slow digestion and absorption.
Drink a glass of milk with that cookie, nibble a slice
of cheese with that apple, have a little yogurt with
Yoga for Obesity and Diabetes
Yoga has considered all aspects of Obesity and
Diabetes (physical, emotional and mental)
Regular practice of Yoga and controlled life style
reduces obesity (weight is reduced).
Yoga makes human being agile, efficient and slim.
Yoga is suitable for people in any age group.
Yoga helps achieve control over mind and behavior
(one can easily control food habits and change life
style to reduce the obesity.)
Yoga has different effect on obesity, which is
permanent in nature than other techniques for
obesity reduction. Weight loss is permanent but one
needs to practice few important techniques
Yoga and Obesity
Yoga has an important role to play
in the treatment of Obesity.
Yoga techniques affect body,
internal organs, endocrine glands,
brain, mind and other factors
concerning Body – Mind complex.
Various Yoga techniques can be
practiced effectively to reduce the
weight and achieve normal healthy
condition of Body and Mind.
Yoga positions or postures are
especially useful to reduce the fats in
various parts, especially forward
bending, twisting and backward
bending asana help reduce the fats
near abdomen, hips and other areas.
Also the practice of asana improves
functioning of internal organs,
strengthening heart, lungs, kidneys,
excretory & reproductive organs.
Regular practice builds strength in
Asana can be practiced with fast speed
like exercise with good effects, the
practitioner may increase repetitions
instead of maintaining the asana for
Sequence of asana that
tones almost all of the
muscles and also internal
organs are stretched
increasing blood &
oxygen supply to these
Regular practice of sun
salutation with breathing
is good exercise for the
Pranayama controls and extends Prana or Vital energy or
Life force. Pranayama helps in management of this energy.
Various techniques are available in yoga, which give
interesting but good results.
The Pranayama can be classified in 2 types in terms of
Hypo ventilation or vitalizing Pranayama: Deep breathing,
Bhramari, Shitali, Sitkari
Hyper ventilation or relaxing pranayama. Kapalbhati,
Bhasrika and Fast breathing can be classified under
Hyper ventilation (increases Oxygen and reduces carbon
Kapalbhati, Bhasrika & fast breathing can be practiced by
people suffering from obesity with good effects; these
Pranayama techniques increase the lung capacity and help
Regular practice of Pranayama brings balance in the system
in terms of Physical and Mental functions.
Bhramari: the bee breath soothes the nerves
and calms the mind
Inhale through both nostrils, taking a slow
deep breath in. Exhale through both nostrils
using the throat to make a soft "eeee" sound,
like the buzzing of a bee. Do 5-10 rounds,
making the buzzing bee noise louder as you
progress, but do not strain.
SitKari (Sit Cari)
the hissing breath
cools the body
Curl the tongue touching the roof of the
mouth as far back as you can to the soft
pallet. As you inhale clench the teeth together
and slightly part the lips making a hissing
"ssss" sound. Exhale through both nostrils.
Repeat 5-10 times.
the cooling breath
cools the body
Roll the tongue into a tube (as best as you
can) and stick the tip of the tongue out of the
mouth. Inhale through the tongue and hold
the breath in for 4-5 seconds with the chin
pressed against the chest. Exhale using
Ujjayi Pranayama through the nose. Repeat
the breath of fire or the skull shining breath
invigorating, energizing, and purifying
Kapalabhati is a very active, forced exhalation with a
passive inhalation. To exhale, the belly quickly
pumps into the spine forcing the air out of the nose
(like trying to blow out a candle through you nose).
Place a hand on your belly to feel the belly actively
pumping. Play with the tempo (45-60 exhalations/30
seconds), but keep a steady rhythm. Start with 2-3
rounds of 30 exhalations, and gradually increase the
exhalations if comfortable.
Keep the body, neck and head erect. Close
the mouth. Next, inhale and exhale quickly
ten times like the bellows of the blacksmith.
Constantly dilate and contract. When you
practice this Pranayama a hissing sound is
produced. The practitioner should start with
rapid expulsions of breath following one
another in rapid succession.
Yoga for Weight Loss
Studies have shown that yoga can
reduce weight within a month.
Drinking 5-6 glasses of water every
Practicing a lot of asanas and
Pranayama. They enhance your
memory, eyesight, and concentration
and also bring down your excessive
It makes the digestive tract function
smoothly and allows quick digestion of
Chemical in Broccoli
Fights H. Pylori Infection
Infected Japanese patients who ate broccoli sprouts
every day for eight weeks had significantly decreased
levels of urease -- a biomarker of H. pylori infection --
compared with controls who ate alfalfa, Jed Fahey,
Sc.D., of Johns Hopkins, and colleagues reported in the
April issue of Cancer Prevention Research.
In a simultaneous mouse study, the researchers found
that eating broccoli, which contains sulforaphane, was
associated with reduced bacterial colonization.