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Industrial ecology introduction

  1. 1. Pollution Prevention and Industrial Ecology NATIONAL POLLUTION PREVENTION CENTER FOR HIGHER EDUCATION Industrial Ecology: An Introduction By Andy Garner, NPPC Research Assistant; and Gregory A. Keoleian, Ph.D., Assistant Research Scientist, University of Michigan School of Natural Resources and Environment, and NPPC Research ManagerBackground ................................................................. 2 Appendix A: Industrial Symbiosis at Kalundborg .. 28Industrial Ecology: Toward a Definition ................... 3 Appendix B: Selected Definitions ........................... 31 Historical Development......................................... 3 Defining Industrial Ecology ................................... 4 List of Tables Teaching Industrial Ecology .................................. 4 Table 1: Organizational Hierarchies ................................. 2 Industrial Ecology as a Field of Ecology .............. 5 Table 2: Worldwide Atmospheric Emissions ofGoals of Industrial Ecology ........................................ 5 Trace Metals (Thousand Tons/Year) ................... 9 Sustainable Use of Resources ............................. 6 Table 3: Global Flows of Selected Materials .................... 9 Ecological and Human Health .............................. 6 Table 4: Resources Used in Automaking ........................ 10 Environmental Equity............................................ 6 Table 5: General Difficulties and Limitations ofKey Concepts of Industrial Ecology ......................... 6 the LCA Methodology ....................................... 20 Systems Analysis .................................................. 6 Table 7: Issues to Consider When Developing Environmental Requirements ........................... 23 Material & Energy Flows & Transformations ........ 6 Table 8: Strategies for Meeting Environmental Multidisciplinary Approach .................................. 10 Requirements ................................................... 24 Analogies to Natural Systems ............................ 10 Table 9: Definitions of Accounting and Capital Open- vs. Closed-Loop Systems ........................ 11 Budgeting Terms Relevant to LCD ................... 25Strategies for Environmental Impact Reduction: List of FiguresIndustrial Ecology as a Potential Umbrella Figure 1: The Kalundborg Park ....................................... 3for Sustainable Development Strategies ................. 12 Figure 2: World Extraction, Use, and DisposalSystem Tools to Support Industrial Ecology .......... 12 of Lead, 1990 (thousand tons) ......................... 7 Life Cycle Assessment ....................................... 12 Figure 3: Flow of Platinum Through Various Product Components ........................................................ 13 Systems ........................................................... 8 Methodology ........................................................ 13 Figure 4: Arsenic Pathways in U.S., 1975. ...................... 8 Applications ......................................................... 20 Figure 5: System Types ................................................ 11 Difficulties ............................................................ 20 Figure 6: Technical Framework for LCA ........................ 13 Life Cycle Design & Design for Environment ....... 21 Figure 7: The Product Life Cycle System ...................... 14 Needs Analysis .................................................... 21 Figure 9: Flow Diagram Template ................................. 15 Design Requirements ......................................... 21 Figure 8: Process Flow Diagram ................................... 15 Design Strategies ............................................... 24 Figure 10: Checklist of Criteria With Worksheet ............. 16 Design Evaluation ............................................... 25 Figure 11: Detailed System Flow Diagram for Bar Soap .. 18Future Needs ............................................................. 26 Figure 12: Impact Assessment Conceptual Framework .. 19Further Information .................................................. 26 Figure 13: Life Cycle Design ........................................... 22Endnotes .................................................................... 27 Figure 14: Requirements Matrices .................................. 23National Pollution Prevention Center for Higher Education • University of Michigan May be reproduced Introduction • 1Dana Building, 430 East University, Ann Arbor MI 48109-1115 freely for non-commercial November 1995734.764.1412 • fax 734.647.5841 • nppc@umich.edu • www.umich.edu/~nppcpub educational purposes.
  2. 2. This portion of the industrial ecology compendium Environmental problems are systemic and thus requireprovides an overview of the subject and offers guidance a systems approach so that the connections between in-on how one may teach it. Other educational resources dustrial practices/human activities and environmental/are also emerging. Industrial Ecology (Thomas Graedel ecological processes can be more readily recognized.and Braden Allenby; New York: Prentice Hall, 1994), A systems approach provides a holistic view of envi-the first university textbook on the topic, provides a ronmental problems, making them easier to identifywell-organized introduction and overview to industrial and solve; it can highlight the need for and advantagesecology as a field of study. Another good textbook is of achieving sustainability. Table 1 depicts hierarchiesPollution Prevention: Homework and Design Problems for of political, social, industrial, and ecological systems.Engineering Curricula (David T. Allen, N. Bakshani, and Industrial ecology studies the interaction between dif-Kirsten Sinclair Rosselot; Los Angeles: American Insti- ferent industrial systems as well as between industrialtute of Chemical Engineers, American Insttute for Pol- systems and ecological systems. The focus of studylution Prevention, and the Center for Waste Reduction can be at different system levels.Technologies, 1993). Both serve as excellent sources of One goal of industrial ecology is to change the linearboth qualitative and quantitative problems that could nature of our industrial system, where raw materialsbe used to enhance the teaching of industrial ecology are used and products, by-products, and wastes areconcepts. Other sources of information are noted else- produced, to a cyclical system where the wastes arewhere in this introduction and in the accompanying reused as energy or raw materials for another product“Industrial Ecology Resource List.” or process. The Kalundborg, Denmark, eco-industrial park represents an attempt to create a highly integratedBackground industrial system that optimizes the use of byproducts and minimizes the waste that that leaves the system.The development of industrial ecology is an attempt to Figure 1 shows the symbiotic nature of the Kalundborgprovide a new conceptual framework for understanding park (see Appendix A for a more complete description).the impacts of industrial systems on the environment(see the “Overview of Environmental Problems” section Fundamental to industrial ecology is identifying andof this compendium). This new framework serves to tracing flows of energy and materials through variousidentify and then implement strategies to reduce the systems. This concept, sometimes referred to as indus-environmental impacts of products and processes trial metabolism, can be utilized to follow material andassociated with industrial systems, with an ultimate energy flows, transformations, and dissipation in thegoal of sustainable development. industrial system as well as into natural systems.2 The mass balancing of these flows and transformationsIndustrial ecology is the study of the physical, chemical, can help to identify their negative impacts on naturaland biological interactions and interrelationships both ecosystems. By quantifying resource inputs and thewithin and between industrial and ecological systems. generation of residuals and their fate, industry andAdditionally, some researchers feel that industrial ecol- other stakeholders can attempt to minimize the environ-ogy involves identifying and implementing strategies mental burdens and optimize the resource efficiency offor industrial systems to more closely emulate harmo- material and energy use within the industrial system.nious, sustainable, ecological ecosystems. 1TABLE 1: ORGANIZATIONAL HIERARCHIES Political Social Industrial Industrial Ecological Entities Organizations Organizations Systems SystemsUNEP World population ISO Global human material EcosphereU.S. (EPA, DOE) Cultures Trade associations and energy flows BiosphereState of Michigan Communities Corporations Sectors (e.g., transpor- Biogeographical (Michigan DEQ) Product systems Divisions tation or health care) regionWashtenaw County Households Product develop- Corporations/institutions Biome landscapeCity of Ann Arbor Individuals/ ment teams Product systems EcosystemIndividual Voter Consumbers Individuals Life cycle stages/unit steps OrganismSource: Keoleian et al., Life Cycle Design Framework and Demonstration Projects (Cincinnati: U.S. EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Lab, 1995), 17.2 • IntroductionNovember 1995
  3. 3. FIGURE 1: THE KALUNDBORG PARKIndustrial ecology is an emerging field. There is much furthered this work in their seminal book Limits todiscussion and debate over its definition as well as its Growth (New York: Signet, 1972). Using systemspracticality. Questions remain concerning how it over- analysis, they simulated the trends of environmentallaps with and differs from other more established fields degradation in the world, highlighting the unsustainableof study. It is still uncertain whether industrial ecology course of the then-current industrial system.warrants being considered its own field or should beincorporated into other disciplines. This mirrors the In 1989, Robert Ayres developed the concept ofchallenge in teaching it. Industrial ecology can be taught industrial metabolism: the use of materials and energyas a separate, semester-long course or incorporated into by industry and the way these materials flow throughexisting courses. It is foreseeable that more colleges industrial systems and are transformed and thenand universities will begin to initiate educational and dissipated as wastes.3 By tracing material and energyresearch programs in industrial ecology. flows and performing mass balances, one could identify inefficient products and processes that result in indus- trial waste and pollution, as well as determine steps toIndustrial Ecology: Toward a Definition reduce them. Robert Frosch and Nicholas Gallopoulos, in their important article “Strategies for Manufacturing”Historical Development (Scientific American 261; September 1989, 144–152),Industrial ecology is rooted in systems analysis and developed the concept of industrial ecosystems, whichis a higher level systems approach to framing the inter- led to the term industrial ecology. Their ideal industrialaction between industrial systems and natural systems. ecosystem would function as “an analogue” of its bio-This systems approach methodology can be traced to logical counterparts. This metaphor between industrialthe work of Jay Forrester at MIT in the early 1960s and and natural ecosystems is fundamental to industrial70s; he was one of the first to look at the world as a ecology. In an industrial ecosystem, the waste producedseries of interwoven systems (Principles of Systems, by one company would be used as resources by another.1968, and World Dynamics, 1971; Cambridge, Wright- No waste would leave the industrial system or nega-Allen Press). Donella and Dennis Meadows and others tively impact natural systems. Introduction • 3 November 1995
  4. 4. In 1991, the National Academy of Science’s Colloqium There is substantial activity directed at the producton Industrial Ecology constituted a watershed in the level using such tools as life cycle assessment and lifedevelopment of industrial ecology as a field of study. cycle design and utilizing strategies such as pollutionSince the Colloqium, members of industry, academia prevention. Activities at other levels include tracingand government have sought to further characterize the flow of heavy metals through the ecosphere.and apply it. In early 1994, The National Academy ofEngineering published The Greening of Industrial Eco- A cross-section of definitions of industrial ecology issystems (Braden Allenby and Deanna Richards, eds.). provided in Appendix B. Further work needs to beThe book brings together many earlier initiatives and done in developing a unified definition. Issues toefforts to use systems analysis to solve environmental address include the following.problems. It identifies tools of industrial ecology, such • Is an industrial system a natural system?as design for the environment, life cycle design, and Some argue that everything is ultimately natural.environmental accounting. It also discusses the inter-actions between industrial ecology and other disciplines • Is industrial ecology focusing on integrating indus-such as law, economics, and public policy. trial systems into natural systems, or is it primarilyIndustrial ecology is being researched in the U.S. EPA’s attempting to emulate ecological systems? Or both?Futures Division and has been embraced by the AT&T • Current definitions rely heavily on technical, engi-Corporation. The National Pollution Prevention Center neered solutions to environmental problems. Somefor Higher Education (NPPC) promotes the systems authors believe that changing industrial systems willapproach in developing pollution prevention (P2) edu- also require changes in human behavior and socialcational materials. The NPPC’s research on industrial patterns. What balance between behavioral changesecology is a natural outgrowth of our work in P2. and technological changes is appropriate?Defining Industrial Ecology • Is systems analysis and material and energy accounting the core of industrial ecology?There is still no single definition of industrial ecologythat is generally accepted. However, most definitions Teaching Industrial Ecologycomprise similar attributes with different emphases.These attributes include the following: Industrial ecology can be taught as a separate course• a systems view of the interactions between or incorporated into existing courses in schools of engi- industrial and ecological systems neering, business, public health and natural resources. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of environmental• the study of material and energy flows and problems, the course can also be a multidisciplinary of- transformations fering; the sample syllabi offered in this compendium• a multidisciplinary approach illustrate this idea. Degrees in industrial ecology might be awarded by universities in the future.4• an orientation toward the future• a change from linear (open) processes to Chauncey Starr has written of the need for schools of cyclical (closed) processes, so the waste from engineering to lead the way in integrating an interdis- one industry is used as an input for another ciplinary approach to environmental problems in the future. This would entail educating engineers so that• an effort to reduce the industrial systems’ they could incorporate social, political, environmental environmental impacts on ecological systems and economic factors into their decisions about the uses• an emphasis on harmoniously integrating of technology. 5 Current research in environmental industrial activity into ecological systems education attempts to integrate pollution prevention, sustainable development, and other concepts and• the idea of making industrial systems emulate strategies into the curriculum. Examples include more efficient and sustainable natural systems environmental accounting, strategic environmental• the identification and comparison of industrial and management, and environmental law. natural systems hierarchies, which indicate areas of potential study and action (see Table 1).4 • IntroductionNovember 1995
  5. 5. Industrial Ecology as a Field of Ecology The Institute of Social Ecology’s definition of social ecology states that:The term “Industrial Ecology” implies a relationship tothe field(s) of ecology. A basic understanding of ecology Social ecology integrates the study of humanis useful in understanding and promoting industrial and natural ecosystems through understanding the interrelationships of culture and nature. Itecology, which draws on many ecological concepts. advances a critical, holistic world view and sug- gests that creative human enterprise can constructEcology has been defined by the Ecological Society of an alternative future, reharmonizing people’s re-America (1993) as: lationship to the natural world by reharmonizing their relationship with each other.7 The scientific discipline that is concerned with the relationships between organisms and Ecology can be broadly defined as the study of the in- their past, present, and future environments. teractions between the abiotic and the biotic compo- These relationships include physiological re- sponses of individuals, structure and dynamics nents of a system. Industrial ecology is the study of the of populations, interactions among species, interactions between industrial and ecological systems; organization of biological communities, and consequently, it addresses the environmental effects on processing of energy and matter in ecosystems. both the abiotic and biotic components of the ecosphere. Additional work needs to be done to designate indus-Further, Eugene Odum has written that: trial ecology’s place in the field of ecology. This will ... the word ecology is derived from the occur concurrently with efforts to better define the Greek oikos, meaning “household,” combined discipline and its terminology. with the root logy, meaning “the study of.” Thus, ecology is, literally the study of house- There are many textbooks that introduce ecological holds including the plants, animals, microbes, concepts and principles. Examples include Robert and people that live together as interdependent beings on Spaceship Earth. As already, the Ricklefs’ Fundamentals of Ecology (3rd edition; New York: environmental house within which we place W. H. Freeman and Company, 1990), Eugene Odum’s our human-made structures and operate our Ecology and Our Endangered Life-Support Systems, and machines provides most of our vital biological Ecology: Individuals, Populations and Communities by necessities; hence we can think of ecology as Michael Begens, John Harper, and Colin Townsend the study of the earth’s life-support systems.6 (London: Blackwell Press, 1991).In industrial ecology, one focus (or object) of study isthe interrelationships among firms, as well as among Goals of Industrial Ecologytheir products and processes, at the local, regional,national, and global system levels (see Table 1). These The primary goal of industrial ecology is to promotelayers of overlapping connections resemble the food sustainable development at the global, regional, andweb that characterizes the interrelatedness of organisms local levels. 8 Sustainable development has beenin natural ecological systems. defined by the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development as “meeting the needsIndustrial ecology perhaps has the closest relationship of the present generation without sacrificing the needswith applied ecology and social ecology. According to of future generations.”9 Key principles inherent tothe Journal of Applied Ecology, applied ecology is: sustainable development include: the sustainable use . . . application of ecological ideas, theories of resources, preserving ecological and human health and methods to the use of biological resources (e.g. the maintenance of the structure and function in the widest sense. It is concerned with the of ecosystems), and the promotion of environmental ecological principles underlying the manage- equity (both intergenerational and intersocietal).10 ment, control, and development of biological resources for agriculture, forestry, aquaculture, nature conservation, wildlife and game manage- ment, leisure activities, and the ecological effects of biotechnology. Introduction • 5 November 1995
  6. 6. Sustainable Use of Resources Key Concepts of Industrial EcologyIndustrial ecology should promote the sustainableuse of renewable resources and minimal use of non- Systems Analysisrenewable ones. Industrial activity is dependent on a Critical to industrial ecology is the systems view ofsteady supply of resources and thus should operate as the relationship between human activities and environ-efficiently as possible. Although in the past mankind mental problems. As stated earlier, industrial ecologyhas found alternatives to diminished raw materials, is a higher order systems approach to framing theit can not be assumed that substitutes will continue to interaction between industrial and ecological systems.be found as supplies of certain raw materials decrease There are various system levels that may be chosen asor are degraded. 11 Besides solar energy, the supply of the focus of study (see Table 1). For example, whenresources is finite. Thus, depletion of nonrenewables focusing at the product system level, it is important toand degradation of renewables must be minimized in examine relationships to higher-level corporate or insti-order for industrial activity to be sustainable in the tutional systems as well as at lower levels, such as thelong term. individual product life cycle stages. One could also look at how the product system affects various ecologicalEcological and Human Health systems ranging from entire ecosystems to individual organisms. A systems view enables manufacturers toHuman beings are only one component in a complex develop products in a sustainable fashion. Central toweb of ecological interactions: their activities cannot the systems approach is an inherent recognition of thebe separated from the functioning of the entire system. interrelationships between industrial and natural systems.Because human health is dependent on the health ofthe other components of the ecosystem, ecosystem In using systems analysis, one must be careful to avoidstructure and function should be a focus of industrial the pitfall that Kenneth Boulding has described:ecology. It is important that industrial activities do not seeking to establish a single, self-containedcause catastrophic disruptions to ecosystems or slowly ‘general theory of practically everything’ whichdegrade their structure and function, jeopardizing the will replace all the special theories of particularplanet’s life support system. disciplines. Such a theory would be almost without content, for we always pay for general-Environmental Equity ity by sacrificing content, and all we can say about practically everything is almost nothing. 13A primary challenge of sustainable development is The same is true for industrial ecology. If the scope ofachieving intergenerational as well as intersocietal a study is too broad the results become less meaningful;equity. Depleting natural resources and degrading when too narrow they may be less useful. Refer toecological health in order to meet short-term objectives Boulding’s World as a Complete System (London: Sage,can endanger the ability of future generations to meet 1985) for more about systems theory; see Meadows ettheir needs. Intersocietal inequities also exist, as evi- al.’s Limits to Growth (New York: Signet, 1972) anddenced by the large imbalance of resource use between Beyond the Limits (Post Mills, VT: Chelsea Green, 1992)developing and developed countries. Developed for good examples of how systems theory can be usedcountries currently use a disproportionate amount of to analyze environmental problems on a global scale.resources in comparison with developing countries.Inequities also exist between social and economicgroups within the U.S.A. Several studies have shown Material and Energy Flowsthat low income and ethnic communities in the U.S., and Transformationsfor instance, are often subject to much higher levels A primary concept of industrial ecology is the studyof human health risk associated with certain toxic of material and energy flows and their transformationpollutants. 12 into products, byproducts, and wastes throughout industrial systems. The consumption of resources is inventoried along with environmental releases to air, water, land, and biota. Figures 2, 3, and 4 are examples of such material flow diagrams.6 • IntroductionNovember 1995
  7. 7. One strategy of industrial ecology is to lessen the uses found for the scrap to decrease this waste. Effortsamount of waste material and waste energy that is to utilize waste as a material input or energy source forproduced and that leaves the industrial system, sub- some other entity within the industrial system can poten-sequently impacting ecological systems adversely. For tially improve the overall efficiency of the industrialinstance, in Figure 3, which shows the flow of platinum system and reduce negative environmental impacts.through various products, 88% of the material in auto- The challenge of industrial ecology is to reduce themotive catalytic converters leaves this product system overall environmental burden of an industrial systemas scrap. Recycling efforts could be intensified or other that provides some service to society. RECYCLED 2600 BATTERIES 3700 TOTAL ANNUAL WASTE and CONSUMPTION DISCARDED BATTERIES 5800 1300 ± 200 REFINED LEAD Solder and Miscellaneous 400 3300 Cable Sheathing 300 Rolled and Extruded Products 500 Shot and Ammo 150 PIGMENTS 750 Lead in Gasoline ~ 100 Refining Waste ~ 50 Mining Waste ?FIGURE 2: WORLD EXTRACTION, USE, AND DISPOSAL OF LEAD, 1990 (THOUSAND TONS)R. Socolow, C. Andews, F. Berkhout, and V. Thomas, eds., Industrial Ecology and Global Change (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994).Reprinted with permission from the publisher. Data from International Lead and Zinc Study Group, 1992. Introduction • 7 November 1995
  8. 8. Ore, 20 Billion Tons 100% Metal 100% Metal 100% of Plant ¨ Fabrication ¨ Products ¨ Waste 60% Mining and Refining Platinum 40% Chemical Group Conversion for 85% Automotive Automotive Metals, ¨ Catalysis and ¨ ¨ Catalytic Catalyst Waste 143 tons Other Uses Manufacture Converters 11% 4% ¨ Chemical Petroleum 88% Catalysts and Catalysts Chemicals 12% 85% 97% RecycledFIGURE 3: FLOW OF PLATINUM THROUGH VARIOUS PRODUCT SYSTEMSSource: R. A. Frosch and N. E. Gallopoulos, “Strategies for Manufacturing” Scientific American 261 (September 1989), p. 150. ATMOSPHEREFrom Air Vulcanism LAND Ores 9,750 INDUSTRIAL ECONOMY Airborne OCEAN Pesticides 2,500 9,300 100 Other 1,200 Pesticides Copper Copper Fossil Fuel Herbicides Mining Smelting Combustion Fertilizers etc. Waterborne Leach Liquor Flue Dust 10,600 Fly Ash Pesticides 11,600 Wastes 100 9,700 Slag 3,700 2,000 Other 5,400 Detergents 120 Other 40 Coal and Weathering of Rock 2,000 43,000 Oil In Soil Extraction BIOSHPERE SEDIMENTS Land Vegetation Land Animals Marine Vegatation Marine AnimalsFIGURE 4: SIMPLIFIED REPRESENTATION OF ARSENIC PATHWAYS IN THE U.S. (METRIC TONS), 1975.Source: Ayres et al. (1988).8 • IntroductionNovember 1995
  9. 9. TABLE 2: WORLDWIDE ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS OF TRACE METALS (THOUSAND TONNES/YEAR) Smelting, Commercial uses, Total Total Energy refining, Manufacturing incineration, anthropogenic contributions byElement production and mining processes and transit contributions natural activitiesAntimony 1.3 1.5 – 0.7 3.5 2.6Arsenic 2.2 12.4 2.0 2.3 19.0 12.0Cadmium 0.8 5.4 0.6 0.8 7.6 1.4Chromium 12.7 – 17.0 0.8 31.0 43.0Copper 8.0 23.6 2.0 1.6 35.0 28.0Lead 12.7 49.1 15.7 254.9 332.0 12.0Manganese 12.1 3.2 14.7 8.3 38.0 317.0Mercury 2.3 0.1 – 1.2 3.6 2.5Nickel 42.0 4.8 4.5 0.4 52.0 29.0Selenium 3.9 2.3 – 0.1 6.3 10.0Thallium 1.1 – 4.0 – 5.1 –Tin 3.3 1.1 – 0.8 5.1 –Vanadium 84.0 0.1 0.7 1.2 86.0 28.0Zinc 16.8 72.5 33.4 9.2 132.0 45.0Source: J.O. Nriagu, “Global Metal Pollution: Poisoning the Biosphere?” Nature 338 (1989): 47–49. Reproduced with permission of Haldref Publications.TABLE 3: GLOBAL FLOWS OF SELECTED MATERIALS* * Data sources include UN Statistical Yearbooks Material Flow Per-capita flow** (various years), Minerals Yearbooks (U.S. Depart- (Million metric tons/yr) ment of the Interior, 1985), and World Resources 1990–1991 (World Resources Institute, 1990). ** Per-capita figures are based on a population of Minerals 1.2 *** five billion people and include materials in addition Phosphate 120 to those highlighted in this table. Salt 190 *** Does not include the amount of overburden Mica 280 and mine waste involved in mineral production; Cement 890 neglects sand, gravel, and similar material but includes cement. Metals 0.3 Al 097.0 Source: Thomas E. Graedel and Braden Allenby, Cu 8.5 Industrial Ecology. Chapter III: Table III.2.1 (New York: Prentice Hall, 1993; pre-publication copy). Pb 3.4 Ni 0.8 Sn 0.2 Zn 7.0 Steel 780 Fossil Fuels 1.6 Coal 3,200 Lignite 1,200 Oil 2,800 Gas 920 Water 41,000,000 8,200.0 Introduction • 9 November 1995
  10. 10. TABLE 4: RESOURCES USED IN AUTOMOBILE MANUFACTURINGPlastics Used in Cars, Vans, and Small Trucks— Other Resources—as percentage of Millions of Pounds (1989) total U.S. consumption (1988) Material U.S. Auto All U.S. Percent of Total Material Percent of Total Nylon 141 595 23.7 Lead 67.3 Polyacetal 25 141 17.7 Alloy Steel 10.7 ABS 197 1,243 15.8 Stainless Steel 12.3 Polyurethane 509 3,245 15.7 Total Steel 12.2 Unsat PE 192 1,325 14.5 Aluminum 18.3 Polycarbonate 50 622 8.0 Copper and Copper Alloys 10.2 Acrylic 31 739 4.2 Malleable Iron 63.8 Polypropylene 298 7,246 4.1 Platinum 39.1 PVC 187 8,307 2.3 Natural Rubber 76.6 TP PE 46 2,101 2.2 Synthetic Rubber 50.1 Polyethylene 130 18,751 0.7 Zinc 23.0 Phenolic 19 3,162 0.6Source: Draft Report, Design and the Environment—The U.S. Automobile.The authors obtained this information from the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association 1990 Annual Data Book.To identify areas to target for reduction, one must Multidisciplinary Approachunderstand the dissipation of materials and energy(in the form of pollutants) — how these flows intersect, Since industrial ecology is based on a holistic, systemsinteract, and affect natural systems. Distinguishing view, it needs input and participation from manybetween natural material and energy flows and anthro- different disciplines. Furthermore, the complexity ofpogenic flows can be useful in identifying the scope of most environmental problems requires expertise fromhuman-induced impacts and changes. As is apparent a variety of fields — law, economics, business, publicin Table 2, the anthropogenic sources of some materials health, natural resources, ecology, engineering — toin natural ecosystems are much greater than natural contribute to the development of industrial ecologysources. Tables 3 and 4 provide a good example of and the resolution of environmental problems causedhow various materials flow through one product by industry. Along with the design and implementa-system, that of the automobile. tion of appropriate technologies, changes in public policy and law, as well as in individual behavior, willIndustrial ecology seeks to transform industrial activities be necessary in order to rectify environmental impacts.into a more closed system by decreasing the dissipationor dispersal of materials from anthropogenic sources, Current definitions of industrial ecology rely heavilyin the form of pollutants or wastes, into natural systems. on engineered, technological solutions to environmentalIn the automobile example, it is useful to further trace problems. How industrial ecology should balance thewhat happens to these materials at the end of the need for technological change with changes in consumerproducts’ lives in order to mitigate possible adverse behavior is still subject to debate. Some see it as havingenvironmental impacts. a narrow focused on industrial activity; to others, it is a way to view the entire global economic system.Some educational courses may wish to concentrate ondeveloping skills to do mass balances and to trace the Analogies to Natural Systemsflows of certain energy or material forms in processesand products. Refer to Chapters 3 and 4 in Graedel There are several useful analogies between industrialand Allenby’s Industrial Ecology for exercises in this and natural ecosystems.14 The natural system hassubject area. evolved over many millions of years from a linear (open) system to a cyclical (closed) system in which there is a dynamic equilibrium between organisms, plants, and10 • IntroductionNovember 1995
  11. 11. the various biological, physical, and chemical processes Linear (Open) Versusin nature. Virtually nothing leaves the system, because Cyclical (Closed) Loop Systemswastes are used as substrates for other organisms. Thisnatural system is characterized by high degrees of inte- The evolution of the industrial system from a lineargration and interconnectedness. There is a food web system, where resources are consumed and damagingby which all organisms feed and pass on waste or are wastes are dissipated into the environment, to a moreeaten as a food source by other members of the web. closed system, like that of ecological systems, is a cen-In nature, there is a complex system of feedback mech- tral concept to industrial ecology. Braden Allenby hasanisms that induce reactions should certain limits be described this change as the evolution from a Type I toreached. (See Odum or Ricklefs for a more complete a Type III system, as shown in Figure 5.description of ecological principles.) A Type I system is depicted as a linear process in whichIndustrial ecology draws the analogy between indus- materials and energy enter one part of the system andtrial and natural systems and suggests that a goal is to then leave either as products or by-products/wastes.stimulate the evolution of the industrial system so that Because wastes and by-products are not recycled orit shares the same characteristics as described above reused, this system relies on a large, constant supplyconcerning natural systems. A goal of industrial ecology of raw materials. Unless the supply of materials andwould be to reach this dynamicequilibrium and high degree ofinterconnectedness and integra-tion that exists in nature. Type I SystemBoth natural and industrialsystem have cycles of energyand nutrients or materials. Thecarbon, hydrogen, and nitrogencycles are integral to the func-tioning and equilibrium of theentire natural system; materialand energy flows through vari-ous products and processes areintegral to the functioning of theindustrial system. These flowscan affect the global environment. Type II SystemFor example, the accumulation ofgreenhouse gases could induceglobal climate change.There is a well-known eco-industrial park in Kalundborg,Denmark. It represents anattempt to model an industrialpark after an ecological system.The companies in the park arehighly integrated and utilize thewaste products from one firm asan energy or raw material source Type III Systemfor another. (This park is illus-trated in Figure 1 and described FIGURE 5: SYSTEM TYPESin Appendix A.) Source: Braden R. Allenby, “Industrial Ecology: The Materials Scientist in an Environmentally Constrained World,” MRS Bulletin 17, no. 3 (March 1992): 46–51. Reprinted with the permission of the Materials Research Society. Introduction • 11 November 1995
  12. 12. energy is infinite, this system is unsustainable; further, Total quality environmental management (TQEM) is usedthe ability for natural systems to assimilate wastes to monitor, control, and improve a firm’s environmental(known as “sinks”) is also finite. In a Type II system, performance within individual firms. Based on well-which characterizes much of our present-day industrial established principles from Total Quality Management,system, some wastes are recycled or reused within the TQEM integrates environmental considerations intosystem while others still leave it. all aspects of a firm’s decision-making, processes, op- erations, and products. All employees are responsibleA Type III system represents the dynamic equilibrium for implementing TQEM principles. It is a holisticof ecological systems, where energy and wastes are approach, albeit at level of the individual firm.constantly recycled and reused by other organisms andprocesses within the system. This is a highly integrated, Many additional terms address strategies for sustain-closed system. In a totally closed industrial system, able development. Cleaner production, a term coined byonly solar energy would come from outside, while all UNEP in 1989, is widely used in Europe. Its meaningbyproducts would be constantly reused and recycled is similar to pollution prevention. In Clean Productionwithin. A Type III system represents a sustainable Strategies, Tim Jackson writes that clean production isstate and is an ideal goal of industrial ecology. . . . an operational approach to the development of the system of production and consumption,Strategies for Environmental Impact which incorporates a preventive approach to environmental protection. It is characterized byReduction: Industrial Ecology as three principles: precaution, prevention, and integration. 18a Potential Umbrella for SustainableDevelopment Strategies These strategies represent approaches that individual firms can take to reduce the environmental impactsVarious strategies are used by individuals, firms, and of their activities. Along with environmental impactgovernments to reduce the environmental impacts of reduction, motivations can include cost savings, regu-industry. Each activity takes place at a specific systems latory or consumer pressure, and health and safetylevel. Some feel that industrial ecology could serve as concerns. What industrial ecology potentially offers isan umbrella for such strategies, while others are wary an organizing umbrella that can relate these individualof placing well-established strategies under the rubris activities to the industrial system as a whole. Whereasof a new idea like industrial ecology. Strategies related strategies such as pollution prevention, TQEM, andto industrial ecology are briefly noted below. cleaner production concentrate on firms’ individualPollution prevention is defined by the U.S. EPA as actions to reduce individual environmental impacts,“the use of materials, processes, or practices that re- industrial ecology is concerned about the activities ofduce or eliminate the creation of pollutants at the all entities within the industrial system.source.” Pollution prevention refers to specific actions The goal of industrial ecology is to reduce the overall,by individual firms, rather than the collective activities collective environmental impacts caused by the totalityof the industrial system (or the collective reduction of of elements within the industrial system.environmental impacts) as a whole. 15 The documentin this compendium entitled “Pollution PreventionConcepts and Principles” provides a detailed examina- System Tools to Support Industrial Ecologytion of this topic with definitions and examples.Waste minimization is defined by the U.S. EPA as “the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)reduction, to the extent feasible, of hazardous waste Life cycle assessment (LCA), along with “ecobalances”that is generated or subsequently treated, sorted, or and resource environmental profile analysis, is adisposed of.” 16 Source reduction is any practice that method of evaluating the environmental consequencesreduces the amount of any hazardous substance, of a product or process “from cradle to grave.”19 20 21pollutant or contaminant entering any waste stream The Society for Environmental Toxicology & Chemistryor otherwise released into the environmental prior to (SETAC) defines LCA as “a process used to evaluaterecycling, treatment or disposal. 1712 • IntroductionNovember 1995
  13. 13. the environmental burdens associated with a product, 3. improvement analysis — evaluation and implementa-process, or activity.”22 The U.S. EPA has stated that an tion of opportunities to reduce environmental burdenLCA “is a tool to evaluate the environmental conse- Some life cycle assessment practitioners have defined aquences of a product or activity holistically, across its fourth component, the scoping and goal definition orentire life.” 23 In the United States, SETAC, the U.S. EPA initiation step, which serves to tailor the analysis to itsand consulting firms are active in developing LCAs. intended use. 24 Other efforts have also focused on de- veloping streamlined tools that are not as rigorous asCOMPONENTS OF AN LCA LCA (e.g., Canadian Standards Association.)LCA methodology is still evolving. However, the threedistinct components defined by SETAC and the U.S. METHODOLOGYEPA (see Figure 6) are the most widely recognized: A Life Cycle Assessment focuses on the product life1. inventory analysis — identification and quantification cycle system as shown in Figure 7. Most research ef- of energy and resource use and environmental forts have been focused on the inventory stage. For an releases to air, water, and land inventory analysis, a process flow diagram is constructed and material and energy inputs and outputs for the2. impact analysis — technical qualitative and quantitative product system are identified and quantified as depicted characterization and assessment of the consequences in Figure 8. A template for constructing a detailed on the environment flow diagram for each subsystem is shown in Figure 9. Impact Assessment Goal - Ecological Health Definition Improvement - Human Health and Assessment - Resource Depletion Scoping Inventory Analysis - Materials and Energy Acquisition - Manufacturing - Use - Waste Management FIGURE 6: TECHNICAL FRAMEWORK FOR LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT Reprinted with permission from Guidelines for Life-Cycle Assessment: A “Code of Practice,” F. Consoli et al., eds. Proceedings from the SETAC Workshop held in Sesimbra, Portugal, 31 March–3 April 1993. Copyright 1993 Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Pensacola, Florida, and Brussels, Belgium. Introduction • 13 November 1995
  14. 14. Checklists such as those in Figure 10 may then be used illustrating how, even for a relatively simple product,in order to further define the study, set the system the inventory stage can quickly become complicated,boundaries, and gather the appropriate information especially as products increase in number of compo-concerning inputs and outputs. Figure 11 shows the nents and in complexity.many stages involved in the life cycle of a bar of soap, Remanufacturing Closed-loop Recycling Manufacture recycling & Assembly Engineered & Use & Speciality Service Materials Reuse Bulk Retirement Processing Open-loop recycling Material downcycling into another product system Raw Material Treatment Acquisition Disposal The Earth and Biosphere Fugitive and untreated residuals Airborne, waterborne, and solid residuals Material, energy, and labor inputs for Process and Management Transfer of materials between stages for Product; includes transportation and packaging (Distribution)Source: Gregory A. Keoleian and Dan Menerey, Life Cycle Design Guidance Manual (Cincinnati: U.S. EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Lab, 1993), 14. FIGURE 7: THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE SYSTEM14 • IntroductionNovember 1995
  15. 15. Source: B. W. Vigon et al., “Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Principles” (Cincinnati:U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, 1993), 17. FIGURE 8: PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMSource: Franklin Associates, cited in B. W. Vigon et al., “Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Principles”(Cincinnati: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, 1993), 41. FIGURE 9: FLOW DIAGRAM TEMPLATE Introduction • 15 November 1995
  16. 16. LIFE-CYCLE INVENTORY CHECKLIST PART I—SCOPE AND PROCEDURES INVENTORY OF: __________________________________________________ Purpose of Inventory: (check all that apply) Private Sector Use Public Sector Use Internal Evaluation and Decision-Making Evaluation and Policy-Making Comparison of Materials, Products or Activities Support information for Policy and Regulatory Evalution Resource Use and Release Comparison With Other Information Gap Identification Manufacturer’s Data Help Evaluate Statements of Reductions in Resource Personnel Training for Product and Process Design Use and Releases Baseline Information for Full LCA Public Education External Evaluation and Decision-Making Develop Support Materials for Public Education Provide Information on Resource Use and Releases Assist in Curriculum Design Substantiate Statements of Reductions in Resource Use and Releases Systems Analyzed List the prodoct/process systems analyzed in this inventory: __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Key Assumptions: (list and describe) __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Define the Boundaries For each system analyzed, define the boundaries by life-cycle stage, geographic scope, primary processes, and ancillary inputs included in the system boundaries. Postconsumer Solid Waste Management Options: Mark and describe the options analyzed for each system. Landfill ___________________________________ Open-loop Recycling ______________________________________ Combustion _______________________________ Closed-loop Recycling _____________________________________ Composting _______________________________ Other __________________________________________________ Basis for Comparison This is not a comparative study. This is a comparative study. State basis for comparison between systems: (Example: 1,000 units, 1,000 uses) ___________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ If products or processes are not normally used on a one-to-one basis, state how equivalent function was established. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Computational Model Construction System calculations are made using computer spreadsheets that relate each system component to the total system. System calculations are made using another technique. Describe: __________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Describe how inputs to and outputs from postconsumer solid waste management are handled. _________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Quality Assurance: (state specific activities and initials of reviewer) Review performed on: Data-Gathering Techniques ______________ Input Data ________________________________ Coproduct Allocation ____________________ Model Calculations and Formulas ______________ Results and Reporting _______________________ Peer Review: (state specific activities and initials of reviewer) Review performed on: Scope and Boundary ____________________ Input Data ________________________________ Data-Gathering Techniques ______________ Model Calculations and Formulas ______________ Coproduct Allocation ____________________ Results and Reporting _______________________ Results Presentation Report may need more detail for additional use beyond Methodology is fully described defined purpose. Individual pollutants are reported Sensitivity analyses are included in the report. Emissions are reported as aggregated totals only. List: ________________________________________ Explain why. ______________________________________ Sensitivity analyses have been performed but are not _________________________________________________ included in the report. List: ______________________ Report is sufficiently detailed for its defined purpose. ____________________________________________FIGURE 10: TYPICAL CRITERIA CHECKLIST WITH WORKSHEET FOR PERFORMING LIFE-CYCLE INVENTORY16 • IntroductionNovember 1995
  17. 17. LIFE-CYCLE INVENTORY CHECKLIST PART II—MODULE WORKSHEET Inventory of: ____________________________________ Preparer: _______________________________ Life-Cycle Stage Description: ________________________________________________________________ Date: ___________________________ Quality Assurance Approval: _______________________________ MODULE DESCRIPTION: __________________________________________________________________ Data Value(a) Type(b) Data(c) Age/Scope Quality Measures(d) MODULE INPUTS Materials Process Other(e) Energy Process Precombustion Water Usage Process Fuel-Related MODULE OUTPUTS Product Coproducts(f) Air Emissions Process Fuel-Related Water Effluents Process Fuel-Related Solid Waste Process Fuel-Related Capital Repl. Transportation Personnel (a) Include units. (b) Indicate whether data are actual measurements, engineering estimates, or theoretical or published values and whether the numbers are from a specific manufacturer or facility, or whether they represent industry-average values. List a specific source if pertinent, e.g., “obtained from Atlanta facility wastewater permit monitoring data.” (c) Indicate whether emissions are all available, regulated only, or selected. Designate data as to geographic specificity, e.g., North America, and indicate the period covered, e.g., average of monthly for 1991. (d) List measures of data quality available for the data item, e.g., accuracy, precision, representativeness, consistency-checked, other, or none. (e) Include nontraditional inputs, e.g., land use, when appropriate and necessary. (f) If coproduct allocation method was applied, indicate basis in quality measures column, e.g. weightSource: Vigon et al., “Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Principles” (Cincinnati: U.S. EPA, Risk Reduction Engineering Lab, 1993), 24–25. Introduction • 17 November 1995
  18. 18. FIGURE 11: DETAILED SYSTEM DIAGRAM FOR BAR SOAPSource: Vigon et al., “Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Principles” (Cincinnati: U.S. EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory), 42.18 • IntroductionNovember 1995
  19. 19. FIGURE 12: IMPACT ASSESSMENT CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKSource: Keoleian et al., Life Cycle Design Framework and Demonstration Projects (Cincinnati: U.S. EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Lab, 1995), 55.Once the environmental burdens haven been identified Efforts to develop methodologies for impact assessmentin the inventory analysis, the impacts must be character- are relatively new and remain incomplete. It is difficultized and assessed. The impact assessment stage seeks to determine an endpoint. There are a range of conver-to determine the severity of the impacts and rank them sion models, but many of them remain incomplete.as indicated by Figure 12. As the figure shows, the Furthermore, different conversion models for translatingimpact assessment involves three stages: classification, inventory items into impacts are required for eachcharacterization, and valuation. In the classification impact, and these models vary widely in complexity,stage, impacts are placed in one of four categories: uncertainty, and sophistication. This stage also suffersresource depletion, ecological health, human health, from a lack of sufficient data, model parameters andand social welfare. Assessment endpoints must then conversion models.be determined. Next, conversion models are usedto quantify the environmental burden. Finally, the The final stage of a LCA, the improvement analysis,impacts are assigned a value and/or are ranked. should respond to the results of the inventory and/or impact assessment by designing strategies to reduce the Introduction • 19 November 1995
  20. 20. identified environmental impacts. Proctor and Gamble native products, processes, materials, or activities andis one company that has used life cycle inventory studies to support marketing claims. LCA can also supportto guide environmental improvement for several prod- public policy and eco-labeling programs.ucts. 25 One of its case studies on hard surface cleanersrevealed that heating water for use with the product DIFFICULTIES WITH LCAresulted in a significant percentage of total energy useand air emissions related to cleaning.26 Based on this As shown in Table 5, many methodological problemsinformation, opportunities for reducing impacts were and difficulties inhibit use of LCAs, particularly foridentified, such as designing cold-water and no-rinse smaller companies. For example, the amount of dataformulas and educating consumers to use cold water. and the staff time required by LCAs can make them very expensive, and it isn’t always easy to obtain all ofAPPLICATIONS OF LCA the necessary data. Further, it is hard to properly define system boundaries and appropriately allocate inputsLife cycle assessments can be used both internally and outputs between product systems and stages. It is(within an organization) and externally (by the public often very difficult to assess the data collected becauseand private sectors).27 Internally, LCAs can be used to of the complexity of certain environmental impacts.establish a comprehensive baseline (i.e., requirements) Conversion models for transforming inventory resultsthat product design teams should meet, identify the into environmental impacts remain inadequate. Inmajor impacts of a product’s life cycle, and guide the many cases there is a lack of fundamental understand-improvement of new product systems toward a net ing and knowledge about the actual cause of certainreduction of resource requirements and emissions in environmental problems and the degree of threat thatthe industrial system as a whole. Externally, LCAs can they pose to ecological and human health.be used to compare the environmental profiles of alter-TABLE 5: GENERAL DIFFICULTIES AND LIMITATIONS OF THE LCA METHODOLOGYSource: Gregory A. Keoleian, “The Application of Life Cycle Assessment to Design,” Journal of Cleaner Production 1, no. 3–4 (1994): 143–149.Goal Definition and Scoping Costs to conduct an LCA may be prohibitive to small firms. Time required to conduct LCA may exceed product development constraints, especially for short development cycles. Temporal and spatial dimensions of a dynamic product system are difficult to address. Definition of functional units for comparison of design alternatives can be problematic. Allocation methods used in defining system boundaries have inherent weaknesses. Complex products (e.g., automobiles) require tremendous resources to analyze.Data Collection Data availability and access can be limiting (e.g., proprietary data). Data quality concerns such as bias, accuracy, precision, and completeness are often not well-addressed.Data Evaluation Sophisticated models and model parameters for evaluating resource depletion and human and ecosystem health may not be available, or their ability to represent the product system may be grossly inaccurate. Uncertainty analyses of the results are often not conducted.Information Transfer Design decisionmakers often lack knowledge about environmental effects. Aggregation and simplification techniques may distort results. Synthesis of environmental effect categories is limited because they are incommensurable.20 • IntroductionNovember 1995
  21. 21. In the absence of an accepted methodology, results Life cycle design seeks to minimize the environmentalof LCAs can differ. Order-of-magnitude differences consequences of each product system component:are not uncommon. Discrepancies can be attributed product, process, distribution and management.31to differences in assumptions and system boundaries. Figure 13 indicates the complex set of issues and deci-Regardless of the current limitations, LCAs offer a sions required in LCD. When sustainable developmentpromising tool to identify and then implement strate- is the goal, the design process can be affected by bothgies to reduce the environmental impacts of specific internal and external factors.products and processes as well as to compare the rela-tive merits of product and process options. However, Internal factors include corporate policies and the com-much work needs to be done to develop, utilize, evalu- panies’ mission, product performance measures, andate, and refine the LCA framework. product strategies as well as the resources available to the company during the design process. For instance, a company’s corporate environmental managementLife Cycle Design (LCD) and system, if it exists at all, greatly affects the designer’sDesign For the Environment (DfE) ability to utilize LCD principles.The design of products shapes the environmental per- External factors such as government policies and regu-formance of the goods and services that are produced lations, consumer demands and preferences, the stateto satisfy our individual and societal needs.28 Environ- of the economy, and competition also affect the designmental concerns need to be more effectively addressed process, as do current scientific understanding andin the design process to reduce the environmental im- public perception of risks associated with the product.pacts associated with a product over its life cycle. LifeCycle Design, Design for Environment, and other simi- THE NEEDS ANALYSISlar initiatives based on the product life cycle are beingdeveloped to systematically incorporate these environ- As shown in the figure, a typical design project beginsmental concerns into the design process. with a needs analysis. During this phase, the purpose and scope of the project is defined, and customer needsLife Cycle Design (LCD) is a systems-oriented approach and market demand are clearly identified.32 The systemfor designing more ecologically and economically sus- boundaries (the scope of the project) can cover the fulltainable product systems. Coupling the product devel- life cycle system, a partial system, or individual stagesopment cycle used in business with a product’s physical of the life cycle. Understandably, the more compre-life cycle, LCD integrates environmental requirements hensive the system of study, the greater the number ofinto each design stage so total impacts caused by the opportunities identified for reducing environmentalproduct system can be reduced. 29 impact. Finally, benchmarking of competitors can iden-Design for Environment (DfE) is another design strategy tify opportunities to improve environmental perfor-that can be used to design products with reduced envi- mance. This involves comparing a company’s productsronmental burden. DfE and LCD can be difficult to and activities with another company who is considereddistinguish. They have similar goals but evolved from to be a leader in the field or “best in class.”different sources. DfE evolved from the “Design for X”approach, where X can represent manufacturability, DESIGN REQUIREMENTStestability, reliability, or other “downstream” design Once the projects needs have been established, they areconsiderations. 30 Braden Allenby has developed a DfE used in formulating design criteria. This step is oftenframework to address the entire product life cycle. considered to be the most important phase in the designLike LCD, DfE uses a series of matrices in an attempt to process. Incorporating key environmental requirementsdevelop and then incorporate environmental require- into the design process as early as possible can preventments into the design process. DfE is based on the the need for costly, time-consuming adjustments later.product life cycle framework and focuses on integrating A primary objective of LCD is to incorporate environ-environmental issues into products and process design. mental requirements into the design criteria along with the more traditional considerations of performance, cost, cultural, and legal requirements. Introduction • 21 November 1995
  22. 22. Life Cycle Goal Sustainable Development Internal Factors Life Cycle Design Management External Factors • Policy • Multi-stakeholders • Government policy • Performance Measures • Concurrent Design and regulations • Strategy • Team Coordination • Market demand • Resources • Infrastructure Needs Analysis Research & Development State of Environment • Significant needs • Scope & purpose • Baseline Requirements • Environmental • Performance • Cost • Cultural • Legal Evaluation Design • Analysis Tools Strategies environmental cost • Tradeoff Analysis Design Solution Implement • Production • Use & service • Retirement Continuous Assessment Continuous ImprovementFIGURE 13: LIFE CYCLE DESIGNSource: Keoleian and Menerey, Life Cycle Design Guidance Manual (Cincinnati: U.S. EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, January 1993), 23.22 • IntroductionNovember 1995
  23. 23. Design checklists comprised of a series of questions are being overly time-consuming or disruptive to the crea-sometimes used to assist designers in systematically tive process. Another more comprehensive approachaddressing environmental issues. Care must be taken is to use requirement matrices such as the one shownto prevent checklists, such as the one in Table 7, from in Figure 14.TABLE 7: ISSUES TO CONSIDER WHEN DEVELOPING ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTSMaterials and Energy Residuals Ecological Health Human Health and SafetyAmount & Type Type Stressors Population at Risk• renewable • solid waste • physical • workers• nonrenewable • air emissions • biological • users • waterborne • chemical • communityCharacter• virgin Characterization Impact Categories Exposure Routes• reused/recycled • constituents • diversity • inhalation, contact, ingestion• reusable/ recyclable • amount • sustainability • duration & frequency • concentration • resilienceResource Base Accidents • toxicity • system structure• location • type • hazardous content • system function• local vs. other • frequency) • radioactivity• availability Scale Toxic Character• quality Environmental Fate • local • acute effects• management • containment • regional • chronic effects• restoration practices • bioaccumulation • global • morbidity/mortality • degradabilityImpacts From • mobility/transport Nuisance EffectsExtraction and Use • ecologial impacts • noise• material/energy use • human health • odors• residuals impacts • visibility• ecosystem health• human healthSource: Keoleian et al., LIfe Cycle Design Framework and Demonstration Projects (Cincinnati: U.S. EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Lab, July 1995), 45. Legal Cultural Cost Performance Environmental Raw Bulk Engineered Assembly & Use & Treatment Material Processing Materials Manufacture Processing Service Retirement & Disposal Acquisition Product • Inputs • Outputs Process • Inputs • Outputs Distribution • Inputs • Outputs Management • Inputs • OutputsFIGURE 14: REQUIREMENTS MATRICESSource: Keoleian and Menerey, Life Cycle Design Guidance Manual (Cincinnati: U.S. EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Lab, January 1993), 44. Introduction • 23 November 1995

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