Total Quality Management (TQM) -- Reinforcement Theory, Conflict Mgt, Bureaucracy and Behavioral Theory


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(MST) Advanced Administration and Supervision in Educational Practices
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  • For something deservingSet value for rewardsThe extra mile is a good basis
  • Total Quality Management (TQM) -- Reinforcement Theory, Conflict Mgt, Bureaucracy and Behavioral Theory

    2. 2. REINFORCEMENT THEORY Yenna Monica D. P THIS THEORY FOCUSES TOTALLY ON WHAT HAPPENS TO INDIVIDUALS WHEN TAKING SOME ACTION IT IS BASED ON THORNDIKE’S “LAW OF EFFECT”–behavior which is reinforced tends to be repeated (i.e. strengthened); behavior which is not reinforced tends to die out-or be extinguished (i.e. weakened).
    3. 3. REINFORCEMENT THEORY Yenna Monica D. P FOUR ASPECTS 1. POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT 2. NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT 3. PUNISHMENT REINFORCEMENT 4. EXTINCTION REINFORCEMENT Rewards are used to reinforce the behavior you want and punishments are used to prevent the behavior you do not want Extinction is a means to stop someone from performing a learned behavior. The technical term for these processes is called operant conditioning.
    4. 4. REINFORCEMENT THEORY Yenna Monica D. P POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT BY MEANS OF REWARD OR A MOTIVATION… I.E. WHEN EMPLOYEES WORK HARD OR HAVE DONE OUTSTANDING WORK, THE COMPANY REWARDS THEM FOR A JOB WELL DONE Positive reinforcement occurs when the consequence resulting in the behavior you are attempting to produce increases the probability that the desired behavior will continue. For example, if a salesman performs well, he may receive a bonus, which reinforces his desire to make sales because of the positive consequence of doing so.
    5. 5. REINFORCEMENT THEORY Yenna Monica D. P NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT BY MEANS OF REMOVING AN UNPLEASANT REINFORCER; THIS MAY STRENGTHEN BEHAVIOR BECAUSE IT STOPS OR REMOVES AN UNPLEASANT EXPERIENCE Negative reinforcement occurs when a negative consequence is withheld if the behavior you desire is demonstrated, which will increase the probability that the behavior you are seeking will continue. For example, let's say that your company is opening a new office in Alaska. No one wants to move there. The company decides to let the top ten salespeople in the office pick if they go to Alaska or stay at the old office. You work very hard to be in the top ten so you can avoid the negative consequence of relocating to Alaska. You will continue to perform your best to avoid the negative consequence.
    6. 6. POSITVEANDNEGATIVEREINFORCEMENT Example scenarios of Positive and Negative Reinforcement
    7. 7. REINFORCEMENT THEORY Yenna Monica D. P EXTINCTION REINFORCEMENT IMPOSING A NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCE TO REDUCE AN UNDESIRABLE BEHAVIOR Punishment is defined as the opposite of reinforcement since it is designed to weaken or eliminate a response rather than increase it. While negative reinforcement involves withholding a negative consequence to encourage a desirable behavior, punishment is imposing a negative consequence to discourage an unwanted behavior. For example, getting a write-up for being late to work is a punishment that is imposed on late workers to discourage workers from being late - an undesirable behavior OR deducting someone’s pocket money to punish undesirable behavior. Note: It is not always easy to distinguish between punishment and negative reinforcement.
    8. 8. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT Yenna Monica D. P CONFLICT MANAGEMENT RECOGNIZING AND RESOLVING CONFLICT AMONGST PEOPLE, SO THAT CONFLICT DOES NOT BECOME SO SERIOUS THAT OPERATION IS IMPOSSIBLE All members of any organization need to have ways of keeping conflict to a minimum - and of solving problems caused by conflict, before conflict becomes a major obstacle to work/tasks. Conflict management is the process of planning to avoid conflict where possible and organizing to resolve conflict where it does happen, as rapidly and smoothly as possible.
    9. 9. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT Yenna Monica D. P CONFLICT MANAGEMENT The differences between "competition" and "conflict" "Competition" usually brings out the best in people, as they strive to be top in their field, whether in sport, community affairs, politics or work. In fact, fair and friendly competition often leads to new sporting achievements, scientific inventions or outstanding effort in solving a community problem. When competition becomes unfriendly or bitter, though, conflict can begin - and this can bring out the worst in people. COMMON CAUSES OF CONFLICT Causes or sources of organizational conflict can be many and varied. The most common causes are the following: •scarcity of resources (finance, equipment, facilities, etc) •different attitudes, values or perceptions •disagreements about needs, goals, priorities and interests •poor communication •poor or inadequate organizational structure •lack of teamwork •lack of clarity in roles and responsibilities
    10. 10. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT Yenna Monica D. P CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLES When trying to solve conflict, there are several conflict management styles to choose from, including avoidance, accommodation, competition, compromise, and collaboration. The avoidance conflict management style attempts to ignore the disagreement altogether but is useful when people need time to cool off and think about the issue. The accommodation conflict management style is used when one party tries to end the conflict by giving in to the wishes of others. Accommodation is typically used by people who seek the approval of others or when the conflict is of little importance to the person accommodating. The competition conflict management style occurs when the objective is to win and to make the other lose, no matter the expense. Competition is mostly about power or the ability to influence the other party to accept their point of view as the best position. The compromise conflict management style attempts to resolve a conflict by finding a middle ground. The compromise is considered a lose-lose strategy because for each party to get something that they want, they have to sacrifice something that they would prefer not to give up. The collaborative conflict management style is the win-win conflict management style that works to find a solution that both parties are satisfied with without feeling a sense of sacrifice.
    11. 11. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT Yenna Monica D. P The aim of conflict management is to enhance learning and group outcomes, including effectiveness or performance in organizational setting Properly managed conflict can improve group outcomes
    12. 12. BUREAUCRATIC THEORY Yenna Monica D. P What is Bureaucracy? Bureaucracy refers to the management of large organizations characterized by hierarchy, fixed rules, impersonal relationships, rigid adherence to procedures, and a highly specialized division of labor. Characteristics Of Bureaucratic Organizations The basic characteristics of a bureaucracy are: Rules and job responsibilities are written down and clearly stated Clear hierarchy of power is concentrated among a few high-ranking managers Appointments and promotions of officers are formal, because these officers will be held accountable Employees are hired based on their skills and knowledge, not because of favoritism or luck Salaries are tied to a pay-grade system Bureaucracies are unable or unwilling to adapt to changing conditions quickly Micro-managing is common
    13. 13. BUREAUCRATIC THEORY Yenna Monica D. P Weber’s Ideal Bureaucracy •Job Specialisation •Authority Hierarchy •Formal Selection •Formal Rules and Regulations •Impersonality •Career Orientation PRINCIPLES: (1) specification of jobs with detailed rights, obligations, responsibilities and scope of authority, (2) system of supervision and subordination, (3) unity of command, (4) (extensive use of written documents, (5) training in job requirements and skills, (6) application of consistent and complete rules (7) assign work and hire personnel based on experience.Weber's bureaucracy is based on logic and rationality which are supported by trained and qualified specialists
    14. 14. BUREAUCRATIC THEORY Yenna Monica D. P Limitations in Bureaucratic Theory 1. Informal Relation is not considered. 2. Outdated System 3. Inadequate means
    15. 15. BEHAVIORAL THEORY Yenna Monica D. P Behavioral management theory was developed in response to the need to account for employee behavior and motivation. The shift moved management from a production-orientation (classical leadership theory) to a leadership style focused on the workers' human need for work-related satisfaction and good working conditions. Behavior is defined as the way a person conducts themselves towards others. When workers are treated as humans rather than machines, they respond to their particular work situation in a positive way - by increasing individual productivity. While salary is important, it is not the only important consideration. Workers had more intrinsic motives for working, like: •Self-fulfillment •Autonomy and empowerment •Social status •Personal relationships with co-workers
    16. 16. BEHAVIORAL THEORY Yenna Monica D. P Motivation is the internal process that directs enduring behavior. this means workers are often inspired from within, not always as a result of external factors, to work. Motivation comes from many factors: •Position in the company •Pay and stability •Benefits •Incentives and rewards •Interesting work assignments •Common beliefs and values An incentive program for example… Incentive programs can lead to a more satisfied set of workers. These factors, in combination with things like: •Positive feedback and appraisals •Good communication •Good working conditions •Involvement with decision-making •Common goal setting •Group processes •Good leader-worker relations •led to a more productive and satisfied set of workers because behavioral management theory relies so heavily on behavioral and motivational factors.