DEVELOPMENT in the
•With touches of religion,
economic, political and social
influences and events that took
place in the country
•Colonial rules in the Philippines
tailored the curriculum to serve
colonial goals and objectives
The NEED for CURRICULUM
•What learning objectives are to be included?
•What will be the bases for the choice of
•Will the choice be based on the learners’ needs
and interest, or rather on the needs of the
•Will the selection depend on tradition, the
nature of knowledge, or the learners’
characteristics? What philosophical and
psychological theories regarding the nature of
learners as well as the learning process will
underpin the organization of the content?
•Will the choice of methodology be in line with
accepted teaching-learning principles?
•Will the evaluation procedure be able to
measure the learning that is taking place?
The RESULT of LACK of
•Sabog(lack of focus)
•Lakas ng kutob (gutfeel)
•Gaya-gaya (patterned from an
•Bahala na (by chance)
The AREAS of CONCERN
•Knowledge of Learner
•Knowledge of Teaching-
Learning Theories and
•Body of Knowledge
•Means of Livelihood
KNOWLEDGE of the LEARNER
•Program for Decentralized Educational Development
(PRODED)-Content Based (not on the learner and the learning
•The Basic Education Curriculum (BEC) and Secondary
Education Development Program (SEDP) – addresses
the learner and learning process
•Problem Based Curriculum
DETERMINANTS of LEARNING in
•Use of Electricity
•Parent’s perception of academic
abilities and interests of the
•Socio Economic status of the
•The Filipino possessed a culture of their own.
•They had contacts with other foreign people --- from
Arabia, India, China and Borneo
•The inhabitants were civilized people, possessing their
systems of writing, laws and moral standards in a well
•As stated in the rule of Barangays, their code of laws –
the code of kalantiao and Maragtas, their belief in
Bathala, and the solidarity of the family were obedience
and respect is practiced.
•The Spanish Missionaries aim to
control the Filipinos, both body
•The curriculum then consisted
of 3 R’s (Reading, wRiting, and
Religion) to attain goals -- the
acceptance of Catholicism and
acceptance of Spanish rule.
•The schools were parochial or
•The main readings were mostly
•The method of instruction was
mainly individual instruction
American Devised Curriculum
•The motive of the Americans was to
conquer the Filipinos not only
physically but also mentally.
•The curriculum was based on the
ideals and traditions of America and
her hierarchy of values.
•English was the medium of
•The primary curriculum prescribed
for the Filipinos consisted of 3 grades
which provides training in two
1. Body Training – PE
2. Mental Training – English, Nature
Study, and Arithmetic
•1935-1946 – considered as the period of
expansion and reform in the Philippine Curriculum
•The educational leaders expanded the curriculum
by introducing courses in farming, domestic
•Commonwealth Act 586, also known as
educational Act of 1940, recognized the elementary
•They devised a curriculum for the Filipinos to suit
their vested interest.
•They introduced many changes in the curriculum
by including Nippongo and abolishing English as the
medium of instruction and as a subject.
•All textbooks were censored and devised
•Caused a ‘black out’ in Philippine Education and
impeded the educational progress of the Filipinos.
•1945 – steps were taken to improve the curriculum
existing before the war, some steps were to restore
grade VII, to abolish the double-single session, and
most especially to adopt the modern trends in
education taken from U.S.
•The curriculum remained basically the same as
before and was still subject-centered.
•Great experiments in the community school and
the use of vernacular in the first two grades of the
primary schools as the medium of instruction were
some of them.
•An experiment worth mentioning that led to a
change in the Philippine Educational Philosophy
was that of school and community collaboration
pioneered by Jose V. Aguilar.
•Schools are increasingly using instructional materials that
•Memorandum No. 30 1966 sets the order of priority in the
purchase of books for use in the schools were as follows:
•Books which are contributions to Phil. Literature
•Books on character education and other library materials;
•Library equipment and permanent features
The K to 12 Program covers
kindergarten and 12 years
of basic education (six years
of primary education, four
years of junior high school,
and two years of senior high
school [SHS]) to provide
sufficient time for mastery
of concepts and skills,
develop lifelong learners,
and prepare graduates for
tertiary education, middle-
level skills development,
UNIVERSAL KINDERGARTEN EDUCATION
Kindergarten has now been integrated into the basic education system to ensure that all
grade 1 students are ready for academic learning.
MOTHER TONGUE BASED MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION
The mother tongue will be the medium of instruction from kindergarten to grade 3. This
includes the following: Tagalog, Kapampangan, Pangasinense, Iloko, Bikol, Cebuano,
Hiligaynon, Waray, Tausug, Maguindanaoan, Maranao, and Chabacano. Medium of
instruction will be English and Filipino starting grade 4.
CORE ACADEMIC AREAS
The core academic areas include Math;
Filipino; English; Araling Panlipunan;
Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao; and Music,
Arts, Physical Education, and Health
(MAPEH). These are based on the College
Readiness Standards of the Commission on
Higher Education and are equivalent to the
courses offered under the General
Education Curriculum of Higher Education
Science will be taught in grade 3, but its concepts will be integrated in
other subjects like Health (under MAPEH), Math, and Languages in
grades 1 and 2. Edukasyong Pangtahanan at Pangkabuhayan will be
taught starting in grade 4. Technology and Livelihood Education and
technical–vocational specializations, consistent with the Technical
Education and Skills Development Authority training regulations, will
start in grade 7.
TVET (Technical Vocational Education & Training) NATIONAL CERTIFICATE
After finishing Grade 10, a student can obtain Certificates of Competency (COC) or a
National Certificate Level I (NC I). After finishing a Technical-Vocational-Livelihood
track in Grade 12, a student may obtain a National Certificate Level II (NC II), provided
he/she passes the competency-based assessment of the Technical Education and
Skills Development Authority (TESDA).
NC I and NC II improves employability of graduates in fields like Agriculture,
Electronics, and Trade
The additional two years (grades 11 and 12) or SHS will allow students to choose among
academic, technical–vocational, or sports and arts tracks depending on their interest,
the community needs, and the results of their skills assessment. The SHS will allow
mastery of core competencies for lifelong learning and preparedness for work, higher
education, middle-level skills development, or entrepreneurship..
There are 7 Learning Areas under the
Core Curriculum. These are Languages,
Literature, Communication, Mathematics,
Philosophy, Natural Science, and Social
Sciences. Current content from some
General Education subjects are embedded
the SHS curriculum.
Each student in Senior High School can
choose among 3 tracks: Academic;
Sports and Arts. The Academic track
strands: Business, Accountancy,
Management (BAM); Humanities,
Sciences (HESS); and Science, Technology,
Engineering, Mathematics (STEM).