Curriculum In The Philippines


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Curriculum In The Philippines

  2. 2. CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT in the PHILIPPINES •With touches of religion, economic, political and social influences and events that took place in the country •Colonial rules in the Philippines tailored the curriculum to serve colonial goals and objectives
  3. 3. The NEED for CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK •What learning objectives are to be included? •What will be the bases for the choice of objectives? •Will the choice be based on the learners’ needs and interest, or rather on the needs of the society? •Will the selection depend on tradition, the nature of knowledge, or the learners’ characteristics? What philosophical and psychological theories regarding the nature of learners as well as the learning process will underpin the organization of the content? •Will the choice of methodology be in line with accepted teaching-learning principles? •Will the evaluation procedure be able to measure the learning that is taking place?
  4. 4. The RESULT of LACK of FRAMEWORK •Sari-sari (Hodgepodge) •Pira-piraso (piemal) •Tagpi-tagpi (patchwork) •Sabog(lack of focus) •Malabo (vague) •Lakas ng kutob (gutfeel) •Hula-hula (hunches) •Gaya-gaya (patterned from an existing model) •Bahala na (by chance) •Patama-tama (non-deliberate)
  5. 5. The AREAS of CONCERN •Cultural Values •Knowledge of Learner •Knowledge of Teaching- Learning Theories and Principles •Body of Knowledge
  6. 6. Cultural Values Visible •Rules •Food •Dress •Language •Music •Dance •Means of Livelihood •Political Behavior •Family •Community Norms Non-Visible •Philosophy •Beliefs •Value System
  7. 7. KNOWLEDGE of the LEARNER •Program for Decentralized Educational Development (PRODED)-Content Based (not on the learner and the learning process) •The Basic Education Curriculum (BEC) and Secondary Education Development Program (SEDP) – addresses the learner and learning process •Problem Based Curriculum •UBD Curriculum
  8. 8. DETERMINANTS of LEARNING in the PHILIPPINES •Use of Electricity •Parental Education •Parent’s perception of academic abilities and interests of the children •Parent’s attitude •Geography (Region) •School Type •Socio Economic status of the family
  9. 9. Historical Context of the Curriculum
  10. 10. Historical Context of the Curriculum
  11. 11. Pre-Spanish Curriculum •The Filipino possessed a culture of their own. •They had contacts with other foreign people --- from Arabia, India, China and Borneo •The inhabitants were civilized people, possessing their systems of writing, laws and moral standards in a well organized government.
  12. 12. Pre-Spanish Curriculum •As stated in the rule of Barangays, their code of laws – the code of kalantiao and Maragtas, their belief in Bathala, and the solidarity of the family were obedience and respect is practiced.
  13. 13. Pre-Spanish Devised Curriculum •The Spanish Missionaries aim to control the Filipinos, both body and soul. •The curriculum then consisted of 3 R’s (Reading, wRiting, and Religion) to attain goals -- the acceptance of Catholicism and acceptance of Spanish rule.
  14. 14. The Spanish Devised Curriculum •The schools were parochial or convent schools •The main readings were mostly catecismo •The method of instruction was mainly individual instruction
  15. 15. American Devised Curriculum •The motive of the Americans was to conquer the Filipinos not only physically but also mentally. •The curriculum was based on the ideals and traditions of America and her hierarchy of values. •English was the medium of instruction •The primary curriculum prescribed for the Filipinos consisted of 3 grades which provides training in two aspects: 1. Body Training – PE 2. Mental Training – English, Nature Study, and Arithmetic
  16. 16. Commonwealth Curriculum •1935-1946 – considered as the period of expansion and reform in the Philippine Curriculum •The educational leaders expanded the curriculum by introducing courses in farming, domestic science, etc. •Commonwealth Act 586, also known as educational Act of 1940, recognized the elementary school system.
  17. 17. Japanese Devised Curriculum •They devised a curriculum for the Filipinos to suit their vested interest. •They introduced many changes in the curriculum by including Nippongo and abolishing English as the medium of instruction and as a subject. •All textbooks were censored and devised •Caused a ‘black out’ in Philippine Education and impeded the educational progress of the Filipinos.
  18. 18. Liberation Period •1945 – steps were taken to improve the curriculum existing before the war, some steps were to restore grade VII, to abolish the double-single session, and most especially to adopt the modern trends in education taken from U.S. •The curriculum remained basically the same as before and was still subject-centered.
  19. 19. Philippine Republic Curriculum •Great experiments in the community school and the use of vernacular in the first two grades of the primary schools as the medium of instruction were some of them. •An experiment worth mentioning that led to a change in the Philippine Educational Philosophy was that of school and community collaboration pioneered by Jose V. Aguilar.
  20. 20. Philippine Republic Curriculum •Schools are increasingly using instructional materials that are Philippine-oriented. •Memorandum No. 30 1966 sets the order of priority in the purchase of books for use in the schools were as follows: •Books which are contributions to Phil. Literature •Books on character education and other library materials; and •Library equipment and permanent features
  21. 21. The K to 12 Program covers kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of junior high school, and two years of senior high school [SHS]) to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education, middle- level skills development, employment, and entrepreneurship
  22. 22. UNIVERSAL KINDERGARTEN EDUCATION Kindergarten has now been integrated into the basic education system to ensure that all grade 1 students are ready for academic learning. MOTHER TONGUE BASED MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION The mother tongue will be the medium of instruction from kindergarten to grade 3. This includes the following: Tagalog, Kapampangan, Pangasinense, Iloko, Bikol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Waray, Tausug, Maguindanaoan, Maranao, and Chabacano. Medium of instruction will be English and Filipino starting grade 4.
  23. 23. CORE ACADEMIC AREAS The core academic areas include Math; Filipino; English; Araling Panlipunan; Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao; and Music, Arts, Physical Education, and Health (MAPEH). These are based on the College Readiness Standards of the Commission on Higher Education and are equivalent to the courses offered under the General Education Curriculum of Higher Education Institutions. Science will be taught in grade 3, but its concepts will be integrated in other subjects like Health (under MAPEH), Math, and Languages in grades 1 and 2. Edukasyong Pangtahanan at Pangkabuhayan will be taught starting in grade 4. Technology and Livelihood Education and technical–vocational specializations, consistent with the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority training regulations, will start in grade 7.
  24. 24. TVET (Technical Vocational Education & Training) NATIONAL CERTIFICATE After finishing Grade 10, a student can obtain Certificates of Competency (COC) or a National Certificate Level I (NC I). After finishing a Technical-Vocational-Livelihood track in Grade 12, a student may obtain a National Certificate Level II (NC II), provided he/she passes the competency-based assessment of the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA). NC I and NC II improves employability of graduates in fields like Agriculture, Electronics, and Trade SPECIALIZATIONS The additional two years (grades 11 and 12) or SHS will allow students to choose among academic, technical–vocational, or sports and arts tracks depending on their interest, the community needs, and the results of their skills assessment. The SHS will allow mastery of core competencies for lifelong learning and preparedness for work, higher education, middle-level skills development, or entrepreneurship..
  25. 25. There are 7 Learning Areas under the Core Curriculum. These are Languages, Literature, Communication, Mathematics, Philosophy, Natural Science, and Social Sciences. Current content from some General Education subjects are embedded in the SHS curriculum. Each student in Senior High School can choose among 3 tracks: Academic; Technical-Vocational-Livelihood; and Sports and Arts. The Academic track includes 3 strands: Business, Accountancy, Management (BAM); Humanities, Education, Social Sciences (HESS); and Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM).
  27. 27. THE END