Architectural Professional Practice - Construction Documents

14,941 views

Published on

Published in: Design, Business, Technology
9 Comments
73 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
14,941
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3,989
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
9
Likes
73
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Architectural Professional Practice - Construction Documents

  1. 1. Construction Documents 3.81 Textbook pages: 703-733 old – 282 -302 new Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5
  2. 2. Construction Documents 3.81 Part 1
  3. 4. Owner Consultant Consultant Consultant Trade Contractor Trade Contractor Trade Contractor Architect Contractor
  4. 5. Project Team Owner Architect General Contractor
  5. 9. Introduction <ul><li>Describe what is to be built </li></ul><ul><li>How contractors are to be selected </li></ul><ul><li>How the contracts for construction will be written and administered </li></ul><ul><li>Architect prepares drawings and specifications. </li></ul><ul><li>Architect assists the owner in preparing bidding and contractual information for construction. </li></ul>
  6. 10. Organization and Content <ul><li>Construction documents are: </li></ul><ul><li>written and graphic documentation </li></ul><ul><li>prepared or assembled by the architect </li></ul><ul><li>communicating the design and administering the project </li></ul><ul><li>reflect the needs of the project </li></ul>
  7. 11. Organization and Content <ul><li>Construction documents include: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Drawings : architectural, structural, mechanical, electrical, civil, landscape, and interior design. </li></ul>
  8. 12. Organization and Content <ul><li>Construction documents include: </li></ul><ul><li>2. Specifications and BoQ’s : quality and standards to be met </li></ul>
  9. 13. Organization and Content <ul><li>Construction documents include: </li></ul><ul><li>3. Contract forms and conditions : agreements between owner and contractor, bonds and certificates, general conditions, rights, responsibilities and duties of owner, contractor, architect, etc. </li></ul>
  10. 14. Organization and Content <ul><li>Construction documents include: </li></ul><ul><li>4. Biding requirements : information and forms for bidding </li></ul>
  11. 15. Organization and Content <ul><li>Construction documents include: </li></ul><ul><li>5. Addenda : Issued by the architect during the bidding or negotiation process to any of the construction documents. </li></ul>
  12. 16. Organization and Content <ul><li>Construction documents include: </li></ul><ul><li>6. Contract modifications : Issued after the owner-contractor agreement is signed in the form of construction change directives and change orders. </li></ul>
  13. 17. Types of Construction Documents <ul><li>Biding requirements </li></ul>Drawings Contract forms and conditions Addenda Contract modifications Specifications and BoQ’s
  14. 18. Construction Documents 3.81 Part 2
  15. 19. Purpose <ul><li>Communicate to the owner in detail what the project involves </li></ul><ul><li>Establish the contractual obligations the owner and contractor owe each other during the project </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibilities of the architect or any other party administering or managing construction contracts for the owner. </li></ul>
  16. 20. Purpose <ul><li>Basis for obtaining regulatory and financial approvals needed to proceed with construction. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate quantities and qualities and configuration of the work required to construct the project. </li></ul><ul><li>Contractor use it to solicit bids or quotations from subcontractors and suppliers. </li></ul>
  17. 21. Purpose <ul><li>Responsibilities of Contractor include : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>construction means </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>site safety precautions </li></ul></ul>
  18. 22. Purpose <ul><li>Responsibilities of Contractor include : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>assignment of work to specific trade and subcontractors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>manages logistical matters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sequence of operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>scheduling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>design of temporary supports and facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>selection of appropriate equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>project safety </li></ul></ul>
  19. 23. Types of Information <ul><li>Construction documents include 3 basic types of information : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal and contractual information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedural and administrative information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architectural and construction information </li></ul></ul>
  20. 24. 1. Legal and contractual information <ul><li>For large projects </li></ul><ul><li>Separate the contract form (the agreement between owner and contractor) from the contract conditions (rights, duties, and responsibilities of owner and contractor as well as other parties - architect, subcontractor, construction manager, owner's representative, etc.) to allow contractor to disclose the contract conditions to subcontractors and suppliers without revealing the contract sum or other items in the agreement that may be privately held between the owner, architect, and contractor. </li></ul>
  21. 25. 1. Legal and contractual information <ul><li>For small projects </li></ul><ul><li>Contract conditions may be integrated into the owner-contractor agreement. </li></ul>
  22. 26. 1. Legal and contractual information <ul><li>The architect's responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Assist the owner in the preparation of the necessary bidding information, bidding forms, the conditions of the contract, and the form of agreement between the owner and the contractor. </li></ul><ul><li>Not required to prepare legal and contractual information, only to assist in its preparation. </li></ul><ul><li>Not professionally qualified to give the owner legal or insurance counsel. </li></ul><ul><li>Assemble the bidding and contractual documents, providing them for review and approval by the owner. </li></ul>
  23. 27. 1. Legal and contractual information <ul><li>The owner's responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Furnish (provide) the necessary legal, accounting, and insurance services to accomplish the project </li></ul><ul><li>Approves the bidding requirements, contract forms, and conditions </li></ul>
  24. 28. 2. Procedural and administrative information <ul><li>Found in 3 places: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Conditions of the contract </li></ul><ul><li>2. Division 1 of the specifications </li></ul><ul><li>3. Opening articles (Part 1) of divisions 2 through 16 of the specifications </li></ul>
  25. 29. 2. Procedural and administrative information 2.1. Conditions of the contract <ul><li>The general conditions of the contract for construction contain provisions common to the majority of projects. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><li>submission of shop drawings and samples </li></ul><ul><li>contractor payment requests </li></ul><ul><li>changes in the work </li></ul><ul><li>procedures for uncovering or recommending that work be stopped </li></ul><ul><li>contractor's responsibility for job-site safety </li></ul><ul><li>final contract closeout </li></ul>
  26. 30. 2. Procedural and administrative information 2.2. Division 1 of the specifications <ul><li>Division 1 of the specifications expands on information in the general conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Standard office procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Required format for shop drawing submittals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbers of sets of submittals required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures for certification of substantial completion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Procedures required by Owner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>forms for payment requests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>waivers of lien حق الحجز </li></ul></ul>
  27. 31. 2. Procedural and administrative information 2.2. Division 1 of the specifications <ul><li>Division 1 of the specifications expands on information in the general conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures that govern the specific project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>applicable codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>requirements for record documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>temporary facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>testing laboratory methods </li></ul></ul>
  28. 32. <ul><li>Construction Specification Institute CSI's 16-division MasterFormat™ </li></ul>
  29. 35. 2. Procedural and administrative information 2.3. Opening articles (Part 1) of divisions 2 to 16 of specs. <ul><li>Opening articles (Part 1) of divisions 2 through 16 of the specifications presents specific administrative and procedural information relating to the trade covered in that section. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>definitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>references </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allowance and unit price items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>alternates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>submittal requirements </li></ul></ul>
  30. 36. 2. Procedural and administrative information 2.3. Opening articles (Part 1) of divisions 2 to 16 of specs. <ul><li>(Continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>quality-assurance requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>delivery, storage and handling requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>site condition requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>warranty requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maintenance requirements </li></ul></ul>
  31. 37. 2. Procedural and administrative information 2.4. Architectural and construction information <ul><li>Quantities, qualities and relationships of the work required for the project. </li></ul><ul><li>Quantities and relationships  Drawings </li></ul><ul><li>Qualities and standards of workmanship  Specifications </li></ul>
  32. 38. Bill of Quantities
  33. 39. Construction Documents 3.81 Part 3
  34. 40. <ul><li>The Level of Detail </li></ul><ul><li>The level of detail provided in the drawings and specifications responds to the needs of the project and of those who will own, regulate, and build it. </li></ul>2. Procedural and administrative information 2.4. Architectural and construction information
  35. 41. <ul><li>The Level of Detail </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive and detailed documents are needed for competitively bid public projects . </li></ul><ul><li>Any unclear or incomplete items will have to be negotiated as contract modifications with contractors who are, at the time of bidding, unknown. </li></ul>2. Procedural and administrative information 2.4. Architectural and construction information
  36. 42. <ul><li>The Level of Detail </li></ul><ul><li>Less detailed drawings and specifications are provided for projects where the parties (owner-architect-contractor) know and agree on how the design is to be &quot; completed &quot; in the construction process. </li></ul><ul><li>There are regional and global variations. </li></ul>2. Procedural and administrative information 2.4. Architectural and construction information
  37. 43. 3. Delivery Approach Variations <ul><li>Delivery approaches affect the </li></ul><ul><li>content , </li></ul><ul><li>level of development , </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>packaging </li></ul><ul><li>of the construction documents. </li></ul>
  38. 44. 3. Delivery Approach Variations 3.1. Early Award <ul><li>The contractor is selected on the basis of early &quot;pricing documents&quot; , which include only the items the contractor needs to develop a price for. </li></ul>
  39. 45. 3. Delivery Approach Variations 3.2. Multiple Prime Contracts <ul><li>When the construction contract is divided into multiple prime contracts. </li></ul><ul><li>There will be multiple construction documents packages (or carefully delineated packages of work within a single set of documents). </li></ul><ul><li>The summary of work and the article on related work in Part 1 of each specification section are the major vehicles for clarifying the relationships between packages. </li></ul>
  40. 46. 3. Delivery Approach Variations 3.3. Fast-track projects <ul><li>Requires coordination among documents packages. </li></ul><ul><li>Various packages are not bid or negotiated at the same time. </li></ul>
  41. 47. 3. Delivery Approach Variations 3.4. Construction management <ul><li>Projects involving construction management are often fast-tracked. </li></ul><ul><li>Construction documents must reflect administrative and contractual differences. </li></ul>
  42. 48. 3. Delivery Approach Variations 3.4. Construction management <ul><li>They may involve &quot; scope documents&quot; as a basis for providing the owner with a fixed price or a Guaranteed Maximum Price (GMP) for construction. </li></ul>
  43. 49. 3. Delivery Approach Variations 3.4. Construction management <ul><li>Scope documents : Incomplete, but sufficiently developed, documents that indicate material qualities done before all construction documents are fully developed. </li></ul>
  44. 50. 3. Delivery Approach Variations 3.5. Deign/Build <ul><li>A single entity that designs and builds. </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment based on a schematic design or a performance specification that involves no design . </li></ul>
  45. 51. 3. Delivery Approach Variations 3.5. Deign/Build <ul><li>For small projects , drawings and specifications are more like shop drawings or contractor's coordination drawings. An in-house tool for construction. Use standard details bound separately or left to the construction crew's standard operating procedures. </li></ul>
  46. 60. Tools Project Planning Tools (PPT) <ul><li>Project Planning Tools (PPT) </li></ul><ul><li>A web-based resource that produces automated, project specific, Commissioning Plans to enable efficient planning, management, and delivery of building projects. PPT is offered by the U.S. General Services Administration's Public Buildings Service to assist public and private organizations in delivering quality projects, on time, and within budget. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.projectplanningtools.org/ </li></ul>
  47. 70. http://www.wbdg.org/
  48. 71. http://www.wbdg.org/
  49. 72. http://www.wbdg.org/
  50. 73. http://www.wbdg.org/
  51. 74. Construction Documents 3.81 Part 4
  52. 75. Time budget and project phases used in &quot;Typical current practice&quot; <ul><li>15% Schematic </li></ul><ul><li>20% Design Development </li></ul><ul><li>40% Construction Documents </li></ul><ul><li>5% Bid/Negotiation </li></ul><ul><li>20% Construction </li></ul>
  53. 76. Time budget and project phases used in &quot;Typical current practice&quot;
  54. 77. 4. Drawings <ul><li>Construction drawings show, in graphic and quantitative form the: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>extent, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>configuration, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>location, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>relationships, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dimensions </li></ul></ul>
  55. 78. 4. Drawings <ul><li>They generally contain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>site and building plans, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>elevations, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sections, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>details, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diagrams, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>schedules </li></ul></ul>
  56. 79. 4. Drawings <ul><li>In addition to drawn information, they may include: </li></ul><ul><li>Photographs </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics </li></ul><ul><li>Printed schedules </li></ul><ul><li>Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>(for small projects) </li></ul>
  57. 80. 4. Drawings 4.1. Sequence and sheet Formats <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>A set of drawings is an organized presentation of the project. </li></ul>
  58. 81. 4. Drawings 4.1. Sequence and sheet Formats <ul><li>Organization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Site work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architectural drawings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plumbing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any special disciplines </li></ul></ul>COVER SHEET
  59. 82. 4. Drawings 4.1. Sequence and sheet Formats <ul><li>Office standards: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheet size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Layout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Title blocks </li></ul></ul>
  60. 83. Title Block Area Drawing Area Production Data Area Basic Sheet Layout
  61. 84. Title Block Area Margins Same as Drawing Area Formats Horizontal Text Vertical Text Data Blocks Designer Identification Project ID Block Issue Block Management Block Sheet Title Block Sheet ID Block
  62. 85. Drawing Blocks Drawing modules containing graphic or textural info are called drawing blocks. DRAWING B LOCKS Drawing Blocks
  63. 86. Graphic & Notation Area Column Grid & Dimension Area Title Area Drawing blocks that contain plans, elevations, sections, and details are organized in a format that includes the elements shown. Margin Drawing Module Lines Drawing Block Format
  64. 87. Drawing Block Format - Sample A sample drawing block showing a simple plan layout. Note the column grid and dimension area (shaded), the graphic and notation area, the drawing block title area, and the margins. XXXXX XX XXXXX XXX   X:X GRID XXXX XXX XX XX XXXX XXXX XXX
  65. 88. . Vertical grid lines are located across the top and are numbered from left to right. Horiz. grid lines are located to the right and are alphabetized from bottom to top. Column Grid Lines 3 4 5 2 1 D C B A
  66. 89. . Graphic Scales Sheet Keynote Room Identifier 3 Detail Indicator Column Grid Indicator 2 Reference Symbols refer reader to another part of the document Examples: 2 1 0 2 4 101 VESTIBULE D2 A-512
  67. 90. Note Blocks The Note Block is the module or modules in the drawing area for General Notes, Keynotes, and Key Plans. Note Blocks
  68. 91. Sheet Keynotes Order of Sequence: General Notes Reference Notes Sheet Keynotes GENERAL SHEET NOTES 1. IIII II III III IIII IIII 2. II III II II IIIII III 3. II IIIII II IIII IIIIII 4. I II IIII III IIIIIII II 5. III I II IIII IIIII III REFERENCE KEYNOTES IIIII.I III III IIII II IIIII.I II II IIIII II IIIII.I I II IIII III IIIII.I III IIIIIII II IIIII.I IIII IIIII III SHEET KEYNOTES 1 III III IIII II 2 III III II II IIII 3 IIII II I II IIII
  69. 92. 03300.A 03200.A 03200.A (#4 BARS) Reference Keynotes in Drawing Block Reference Keynotes in Note Block REFERENCE KEYNOTES DIVISION 3 - CONCRETE 03200.A REINFORCING STEEL 03200.B WELDED WIRE MESH 03300.A CAST-IN- PLACE CONCRETE
  70. 93. Sheet Keynotes in Drawing Block Sheet Keynotes in Note Block SHEET KEYNOTES 1 EXISTING FLOOR DRAIN 2 DASHED LINE INDICATES SOFFIT ABOVE 2
  71. 94. 4. Drawings CONDOC SYSTEM <ul><li>G General project requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Site work </li></ul><ul><li>TS Topographic survey </li></ul><ul><li>SB Soil borings data </li></ul><ul><li>SD Site demolition </li></ul><ul><li>C Civil </li></ul><ul><li>L Landscaping </li></ul>
  72. 95. 4. Drawings CONDOC SYSTEM <ul><li>Major disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>A Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>A000, A001, etc. Schedules, master keynote, legend, general notes </li></ul><ul><li>A100, A101, etc. Plans </li></ul><ul><li>A200, A201, etc. Exterior elevations, Sections </li></ul><ul><li>A300, A301, etc. Vertical circulation, core plan and details </li></ul><ul><li>A400, A401, etc. Reflected ceiling plans, details </li></ul><ul><li>A500, A501, etc. Exterior envelope, details </li></ul><ul><li>A600, A601, etc. Architecture interiors </li></ul>
  73. 96. 4. Drawings CONDOC SYSTEM <ul><li>Major disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>S Structural </li></ul><ul><li>M Mechanical </li></ul><ul><li>P Plumbing </li></ul><ul><li>FP Fire Protections </li></ul><ul><li>E Electrical </li></ul>
  74. 97. 4. Drawings CONDOC SYSTEM <ul><li>Special elements </li></ul><ul><li>ID Interior design </li></ul><ul><li>FS Food service </li></ul><ul><li>SG Signage/graphics </li></ul><ul><li>FF Furniture/furnishings </li></ul><ul><li>AA Asbestos abatement </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul>
  75. 98. 4. Drawings Title Block <ul><li>Name, address, and phone number of the architectural firm </li></ul><ul><li>Project title and address </li></ul><ul><li>Owner's name and address </li></ul><ul><li>Drawing title and sheet number </li></ul><ul><li>Names and addresses of consultants </li></ul><ul><li>Notation of who worked on the drawing, including cjecking </li></ul><ul><li>Dates drawings were issued (such as for bid, permit, and construction) </li></ul><ul><li>Dates of revisions </li></ul><ul><li>Architect's seal and signature (when required) </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright information </li></ul>
  76. 99. 4. Drawings <ul><li>Drawings should also include the basic information required to orient the user, such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Key plans (showing location of partial plans in relation to the whole) </li></ul><ul><li>North arrows </li></ul><ul><li>Scales for drawings (graphic scales are normally included in case drawings are reduced or CAD generated) </li></ul>
  77. 100. 4. Drawings <ul><li>The Cartooning Process </li></ul><ul><li>Most firms lay out the drawings very early in the project. </li></ul><ul><li>To establish roughly how many and what kinds of plans, sections, elevations, details, schedules, and other graphic elements will be prepared. </li></ul><ul><li>Scale and size on sheet </li></ul><ul><li>Order </li></ul><ul><li>Interrelationships </li></ul>
  78. 101. 4. Drawings 4.2 Scaling, dimensioning, and targeting <ul><li>4.2.1. Scaling </li></ul><ul><li>The smallest scale that clearly presents the required information is chosen for a drawing. </li></ul><ul><li>Scales and lettering sizes must also take into account whether the drawings will be reduced for distribution. </li></ul>
  79. 102. 4. Drawings 4.2 Scaling, dimensioning, and targeting <ul><li>4.2.2. Dimensioning </li></ul><ul><li>ONLY necessary dimensions should be numerically indicated on the drawings. </li></ul><ul><li>The contractor is not entitled to rely on scaling the drawings for dimension. </li></ul><ul><li>Relate to horizontal and vertical reference planes (structural grid) tied to one or more benchmarks established as permanent data points for the project. </li></ul><ul><li>Dimension from portions of the building that are placed early and recur within the building. </li></ul>
  80. 103. 4. Drawings 4.2 Scaling, dimensioning, and targeting <ul><li>4.2.2. Dimensioning </li></ul><ul><li>Where strings of dimensions must add up to a specific number, it is often wise to note one of the dimensions as a plus-or-minus value . </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Construction Tolerance (SCT) </li></ul><ul><li>The experienced architect recognizes that materials and construction tolerance in the field rarely approach those that can be achieved in manufacturing. </li></ul><ul><li>Some architects regard field-created tolerances of less than 1/8 inch (0.3 cm) or even 1/4 inch (0.6 cm) as unrealistic. </li></ul>
  81. 104. 4. Drawings 4.2 Scaling, dimensioning, and targeting <ul><li>Dimensions Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Dimensioning requires an understanding of the sequence of construction . </li></ul><ul><li>New assemblies can only be located relative to assemblies already in place . </li></ul><ul><li>Dimension only from a fixed reference point . </li></ul><ul><li>Dimension only those things that really matter . </li></ul><ul><li>Do not repeat dimensions. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not close dimension strings … Leave tolerance by omitting the dimension for a non-critical space or assembly. </li></ul>
  82. 105. Construction Documents 3.81 Part 5
  83. 106. 4. Drawings 4.2 Scaling, dimensioning, and targeting <ul><li>Dimensions Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Final decisions concerning the method of dimensioning reside with the project architect . </li></ul><ul><li>The thickness of tile, wood base, wainscoting كسوة خشبية , trim, and similar applied finishes are not included in room dimensions. </li></ul>
  84. 107. 4. Drawings 4.2 Scaling, dimensioning, and targeting <ul><li>Dimensions Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical dimensioning appears on elevations or wall sections. </li></ul><ul><li>Dimensions should be to the top of significant structural elements and to windows and door heads. </li></ul><ul><li>Dimensions should be from the top of the foundation, finish floor level, or similar fixed reference. </li></ul>
  85. 108. 4. Drawings 4.2 Scaling, dimensioning, and targeting <ul><li>Dimensions Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Masonry is dimensioned to the top of the masonry unit, not to the joint centerline . </li></ul><ul><li>Ends of dimensions are indicated by short, bold, diagonal slashes . No dots, arrows, or crosses. </li></ul>
  86. 109. 4. Drawings 4.2 Scaling, dimensioning, and targeting <ul><li>Dimensions Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Specific dimensions are not always the best choice. The simple notes &quot; ALIGN &quot; and &quot; 4 EQUAL SPACES &quot; are often more appropriate. </li></ul><ul><li>Dimensions and its checking are the responsibility of the job captain alone. </li></ul><ul><li>All dimensions are to be double checked . </li></ul>
  87. 110. 4. Drawings 4.2 Scaling, dimensioning, and targeting <ul><li>4.2.3. Targeting (keying) </li></ul><ul><li>Orienting the user to the relationships among the drawings. </li></ul><ul><li>Standard symbols to locate (target) building sections, column grids, door designations, wall types and sections, details, interior elevations, enlarged plans, and similar information. </li></ul><ul><li>Elevations target building sections, windows, and details. </li></ul><ul><li>Target details on wall sections and building sections. </li></ul>
  88. 111. 4. Drawings 4.3. Other drawing elements <ul><li>4.3.1. Symbols and Abbreviations </li></ul><ul><li>To be defined early in the documents and used consistently . </li></ul><ul><li>Designations on the drawings should be coordinated with those used in the specifications . </li></ul>
  89. 112. 4. Drawings 4.3. Other drawing elements <ul><li>4.3.2 Notes </li></ul><ul><li>Statements on quality and workmanship are made in the specifications. </li></ul><ul><li>Notes on the drawings should be limited to the minimum needed to convey intent clearly. </li></ul>
  90. 113. 4. Drawings 4.3. Other drawing elements <ul><li>4.3.3 Schedules </li></ul><ul><li>Schedules for doors, windows, hardware, room finishes, paint selections, fixtures and equipment, repetitive structural elements (column footings, or lintels), … </li></ul><ul><li>Many schedules can be easily computerized by using spreadsheets or word processing programs. </li></ul>
  91. 118. SITE PLAN
  92. 119. PLAN
  93. 120. SECTION
  94. 121. ELEVATION
  95. 122. ELEVATION
  96. 123. WALL SECTION
  97. 124. P lans
  98. 125. P lans All necessary dimensions
  99. 126. P lans All structural features
  100. 127. P lans Window and door identification marks
  101. 128. P lans Titles or numbers for all rooms & spaces
  102. 129. P lans Materials symbols
  103. 130. P lans Levels
  104. 131. P lans Stair symbols
  105. 132. P lans Bath Rooms
  106. 133.  ections Show interior features
  107. 134.  ections Show complete vertical dimensions
  108. 135.  ections Indicate materials
  109. 136. E levations All necessary dimensions
  110. 137. E levations Slabs Levels
  111. 138. E levations Grid lines
  112. 139. E levations Materials
  113. 140.  tairs Details
  114. 141.  tairs Details
  115. 142.  all  ections <ul><li>Show all materials in their proper location and thickness. </li></ul><ul><li>Tie the section into the cross-reference system </li></ul>
  116. 143. 5. Specifications <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Written requirements for </li></ul><ul><li>materials, equipment, and construction systems </li></ul><ul><li>as well as </li></ul><ul><li>standards for products, workmanship, and the construction services </li></ul><ul><li>required to produce the work. </li></ul>
  117. 144. 5. Specifications <ul><li>CSI </li></ul><ul><li>The Construction Specifications Institute publishes conventions for specifications organization, format, and development. </li></ul><ul><li>MASTERFORMAT </li></ul><ul><li>A master list of section titles and numbers as well as a format for the organization of individual specification sections. </li></ul><ul><li>AIA's MASTERSPEC and SPECSystem </li></ul>
  118. 145. 5. Specifications 5.1. Methods of Specifying <ul><li>Performance Approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listing required performance qualities of products and assemblies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proprietary Approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listing products and assemblies by one or more manufacturers and trade names </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The architect may use allowances and unit prices for parts of the work that cannot be accurately quantified or qualified at the time of bidding. </li></ul>
  119. 146. 5. Specifications 5.1. Methods of Specifying <ul><li>5.1.1. Performance approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Brevity, simplicity and familiarity. </li></ul><ul><li>Augmented with reference to standards, narrative descriptions of materials' qualities, and performance requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly include &quot;or approved equal&quot; provisions. </li></ul>
  120. 147. 5. Specifications 5.1. Methods of Specifying <ul><li>5.1.2. Proprietary approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Best in principle because they &quot;specify the end result required&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility and creativity in meeting the requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Complicated by the vast number of qualities that affect the finished result. </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty of the actual appearance of the final product. </li></ul>
  121. 148. 5. Specifications 5.1. Methods of Specifying <ul><li>5.1.3. Reference standards </li></ul><ul><li>Reference to standards published by industry associations and testing organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>American National Standards Institute (ANSI) </li></ul><ul><li>American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) </li></ul><ul><li>American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) </li></ul><ul><li>The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) </li></ul><ul><li>Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) </li></ul><ul><li>American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) </li></ul><ul><li>American Plywood Association (APA) </li></ul><ul><li>American Architectural Manufacturers Association (AAMA) </li></ul><ul><li>Underwriters Laboratories (UL) </li></ul>
  122. 149. 5. Specifications 5.2. Scope <ul><li>Broad Scope specifications cover entire complex systems or groups of related fabrications (unit masonry or metal fabrications) in one section. </li></ul><ul><li>The advantage of specifying entire system together in one section. </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow Scope specifications brake the work into components (brick masonry, masonry mortar, steel stairs) </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to edit but many related sections must be carefully cross-referenced. </li></ul>
  123. 150. 5. Specifications 5.3. Levels of Restrictiveness <ul><li>One manufacturer's product </li></ul><ul><li>Several products </li></ul><ul><li>Any product that meets specified criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Publicly funded projects </li></ul><ul><li>require specification of several brands of products. </li></ul><ul><li>Qualified manufacturers should be able to compete equitably for the work. </li></ul><ul><li>Private work </li></ul><ul><li>architects have the right to specify restrictively </li></ul>
  124. 151. 5. Specifications 5.3. Levels of Restrictiveness <ul><li>5.4. Master specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Covers an entire topic, including a range of options </li></ul><ul><li>Should be clear, concise, precise, and inclusive with accurate and up to date references to brand names and standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Modified and edited for each project </li></ul><ul><li>Specifications editor fills in blanks, deletes options, incorporates special requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Computers are widely used to produce specifications with the specifier editing text directly on the screen. </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent starting points for writing specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Offer good checks against important omissions, as well as consistency and uniformity of language </li></ul>

×