بنسنمننن انل اننلنرنحنمننننن النرنحنينمننن وبنه ن ننسنتنعنيننننن
United Arab Emirates University
College of Engineering
Department of Architectural Engineering
Research Paper on
"The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture"
A refereed journal published by
College of Engineering
United Arab Emirates University
Dr. Yasser Osman Moharam Mahgoub
Department of Architectural Engineering
College of Engineering
United Arab Emirates University
Research Paper on
The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture
This paper introduces the concepts of Hypermedia and Hypertext systems
as tools for managing information in the field of architecture and enhancing
the landscape of education. An application developed by the author is used to
illustrate the use of Hypertext programs in architectural education. Paradox, a
powerful relational database program, is used to develop an application
illustrating the works and philosophies of twentieth century masters of
architecture. The paper recommends the development of similar applications
to be available for students through computer networks, as tools for
managing growing amounts of information and enhancing the landscape of
ورقة بحث فى
استخدام انظمة المعلومات المتفاعلة فى الهندسة المعمارية
يهدف هذا البحففث الى التعريففف بانظمففة المعلومات المتفاعلة ومجالت اسففتخدامها فففى
الهندسفة المعماريفة و التعليفم الهندسفى وتطفبيق أحفد أنظمفة المعلومات المتفاعلة على موضوع
مفن موضوعات العمارة كمثال يمكفن تطفبيقه ففى المجالت الهندسفية و التعليميفة المختلففة. تفم
اختيار برنامفج بارادوكفس ) (Paradoxلعمفل مثال تطفبيقي يسفتفيد منفه المهندس المعماري و
الطلبة في التعرف على فكر واعمال رواد العمارة فى القرن العشرين. يوصى البحث بتطوير
تطفبيقات مماثلة لمختلف مجالت التعليفم الهندسفي بحيفث يتمكفن المسفتخدم مفن الوصفول أليهفا
مفن خلل شبكات الكمفبيوتر لتكون بمثابفة أداة لتطويفر الوصفول الى المعلومات المعماريفة و
ف ف ف ف ف ف
The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 2
No longer will it suffice for us to continue doing what we did
best- that is, explaining techniques, procedures, and processes
in classroom lectures and student discussion. Traditional
teaching roles are going to change. Indeed, experts on the
leading edge of technology and learning theory hear the
rumbling of the shift that will soon hit education. Of course,
predicting exactly when and how hard it will hit each instructor in
each institution is about as difficult as predicting earthquakes.1
Due to the monumental technological changes currently affecting all
aspects of life and the introduction of computer as an essential tool in the age
of information, architecture and architectural education is in the midst of a
paradigm shift, one that will eventually change the way all architects work,
instructors teach and students learn. As Jensen put it;
Computer tools are currently available to assist the
dissemination of technical information to designers. Computer-
aid drafting (CADD) systems, spreadsheets, word processors,
and databases, have all altered the way the construction
industry uses technical data. As computer technologies mature
other tools are becoming readily available.2
Architects, as well as many other engineering disciplines and professions,
are becoming acquainted to the use of computer in many aspects of their
professional work. The use of computer aided design and drafting, word-
processing, spreadsheets, databases, project management and presentation
packages is changing all aspect of architecture as a profession and
discipline. Computers enable architects and researchers to approach
architecture for the first time as a knowledge-based discipline, and motivate
other traditional arguments.
Some of the arguments, such as those between science and
art, sound familiar but the computer puts a new spin on them.
For example, the scientific approach attempts to understand
architecture based on explicit knowledge; the artistic approach
focuses more on tacit knowledge, intuitive understanding, and
The building industry was faster in adapting computers to its requirements
and it is time for architecture and architectural education to follow the same
Aim of Research
The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 3
The aim of this paper is to introduce Hypermedia systems and their
applications in architecture and education. The use of computers and
Hypermedia systems as information managing systems and a learning aid is
stressed and their impact in changing the traditional paradigm of education is
elaborated. An application on an architectural subject is explored as an
example of the use hypertext systems in architectural education. This work
wishes to emphasize that a paradigm shift in the field of architecture and
education is currently taking place, and that participants in the field of
architecture should work on adapting new modes of practice, teaching and
learning to benefit the skills and knowledge of their students.
CAL: Computer Aided Learning in Architecture
Computer systems serve the discipline of architecture in several ways.
Sophisticated computer systems are used for drafting, presentation, project
management and design purposes. Yet, they are not fully utilized in the field
of architecture education as powerful learning aids. Furthermore, architects
have to deal with vast amounts of information (e.g., standards, regulations,
specifications, etc.) in both the design and execution phases of their work,
they can utilize the capabilities of computers to store and retrieve data in
different forms and combine information to benefit their own purposes. By
exciting their students to benefit from the capabilities of computers and
networks, educators are indirectly advancing the discipline of architecture.
Designers and students of design will soon come to regard
computer networks as indispensable utilities, and workstations
will be as standard on their desks as telephones. These
workstations will provide tools for accessing, manipulating, and
disseminating information in a wide variety of forms: text files,
numeric databases, geometric models, bitmapped images,
sound images, and video clips. Separations between different
forms of information will disappear: sound effects might be
associated with spaces in a geometric model of building, sound
notes with elements in a drawing, or video clips with technical
information in a construction products database.4
Computer networks are another feature affecting the education
landscape. The availability of networks connecting computer stations,
research centers, colleges, universities, and ultimately countries all over the
world, open a new world of information exchange, research, and education. It
is no longer necessary to be in physical proximity to learning materials. Also,
it is no longer necessary to provide physical proximity between teachers and
The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 4
students. At times, shyness, fear, and low self-esteem in social interactions
discourage students from asking and understanding.
Networking is, at times, superior for both educational and social
interaction. Language or other communication barriers between
'teacher' and student shrink in the presence of interactive
choices about language, extent of visualization, and extent of
reading versus audio. Network socializing patterns may be less
impacted by skin color, sex, language differences, national
origin, physical handicaps, and many other factors present in
For several reasons, the academia is slow in adapting multi media for its
purposes. Multimedia is costly and requires capital investment in equipment,
networks installations, and training. Economic constraints currently facing
universities around the world are influencing the speed of acquiring and using
multimedia in academia. Government agencies, the military, business
corporations, and other parts of society are well ahead of academe in
multimedia development for training and communications. We need to catch
up, or students not familiar with network communicating, socializing, and
training will face a competitive disadvantage in their future careers.
The role of instructors will change dramatically in the educational process.
They will no longer be required to explain their materials and present every
detail of the subject to their students. They will work on inspiring their
students to learn more about the subject using hypermedia presentations
available through computer networks, which will be available for the students
day and night. Instructors will be responsible of developing their subjects in
the form of Hypermedia applications and continuously updating them with
new information and material. The authoring of Hypermedia applications will
replace currently celebrated books and articles authoring for both academic
promotion and recognition.
Emerging technologies enable professors both to create their
own customized teaching materials and to update those
materials daily. Publishers of electronic books can put new
editions on networks at will. Instructors can change electronic
books when and how they choose, including changes made
directly in front of an audience. Emerging technologies that
digitize knowledge make it cheaper and easier to combine all,
or portions of documents from multiple sources into a single file
or electronic book. These technologies are very worrisome in
terms of copyright infringement, but new ways of rewarding
creative scholarship may emerge, permitting copyrights and
electronic reproductions to go hand in hand. Emerging
The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 5
technologies lift experts as well as beginners to higher levels of
Students will also benefit from this new mode of learning. Students will be
able to study at their own pace and time. For example, a student will be able
to choose the material that he or she want to study or re-study without
affecting other students who can grasp the material faster and wish to study
Computers have infinite patience in teaching that involves drill
and repetition, especially among students with differing skills
and aptitudes. From Mathematics to music to pilot training,
human instructors run short of patience when some students
need seemingly endless repetitions relative to the few who
catch on the first time. Newer hypertext and hypermedia
learning materials allow nonlinear interactions such that
learners can seek different levels of entry and alternative
methods of presentation. In plain words, the new technology in
the emerging paradigm shift is jolting us with comparative
advances significantly different from the technology of past
1- Hypermedia Systems
There is little doubt among researchers and scholars, thought,
that technological plates are sliding in a way that will lead to the
ultimate pre-eminence of what is known as hypermedia
Hypermedia is a term used to denote the growing activity of using the
capabilities of computers in managing vast and varied amounts of information
and the use of multi-media (visual and audio) in storing and retrieving vast
amounts of information in different forms and for several purposes. The
introduction of Hypermedia in the field of education has changed taken for
granted assumptions concerning education and the relationship between
instructors and students. Hypermedia learning is a causing a paradigm shift
in different fields of education.
The traditional approach to education was linear in terms of delivery and
reception of information. Hypermedia learning, on the other hand, "entails
interactive and nonlinear navigation through learning material that reaches
students' senses - seeing, hearing, touching, smelling. Hypermedia
computers connected by international broad band networks will do most of
the 'interactive teaching,' especially the teaching of technical details of art,
business, history, languages, Mathematics, medicine, music, and science."9
The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 6
Several important consideration are generated by the introduction of
hypermedia education. Among them are economic considerations. As
elaborated by Jensen;
Multimedia training and education may save millions of dollars
due to a variety of factors. For example, compact discs that hold
thousands of pages of text and graphics can be reproduced for
about $2 per disc. Hard-copy publishing, in contrast, is
significantly more costly and more difficult to update. Electronic
books can be authored and updated at will on rewriteable
optical drives. Traditional texts are bulky to store and transport,
relative to, say, new portable Compact disc players that have
flipup color screens. These can be carried in briefcases along
with a few discs that hold millions of pages of text, graphics, and
audio files. Networks make it possible to transfer thousands of
pages of text and graphics to new locations in the blink of an
eye. Hard-copy books are difficult to search in comparison with
electronic searches of computer files.10
The use of hypermedia and networks is a cost-effective way of making
interactive learning materials available to anyone anywhere young or old, rich
or poor, rural or urban. While the advantages of hypermedia authoring are
clear, unforeseen disadvantages are also in the horizon. Hypermedia
applications can be, as books are, good or bad. Also, rewards for hypermedia
applications development does not exist.
Probably the main obstacle that currently impedes professors
from becoming immersed in developing hypermedia teaching
materials is the existing reward structure at most institutions.
Promotion, tenure, and merit rewards are driven mainly by
creativity in research. If teaching superiority is rewarded, the
rewards hinge primarily upon highly favorable student
evaluations or a professor's reputation on campus for caring for
and attending to students on an individual basis. A lackluster
researcher who devotes fifty hours a week to developing and
updating wonderfully creative hypermedia teaching materials is
likely to come up on the short end of tenure, promotion, and
merit raise awards. The same cannot be said for a lackluster,
though adequate, professor who devotes fifty hours a week
generating wonderfully creative research. In the current system,
rewards for creating great teaching materials flow mainly from
outside royalties from successful textbooks.11
Another concern of hypermedia authors is publishing and copyrights.
Publishing companies and firms have not yet figured out how to "publish"
electronic materials and make profits from them. Markets for hard-copy texts
are well established and libraries are equipped with shelves for storing them.
The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 7
Authors are more likely to be rewarded for writing successful hard-copy texts
than producing creative electronic applications. Moreover, Electronic books
require investment in libraries' systems to store and offer these materials to
The major obstacle is probably the constantly changing
technology in computer hardware and software, especially
varied and changing technology in microprocessors, file
storage, video graphics, laser technology (CDROM, CDMM,
CDI, CDAudio, photo CD, video disk), operating systems (DOS,
OS/2, Windows NT, Apple, UNIX), hypermedia, software, and
networking hardware and software. Vendors seeking market
dominance insist upon being unique to the point analogous to
having hundreds of railroad companies that cannot agree on a
uniform gauge of track to be laid out. Lack of standardization
discourages publishers, professors, and other materials
developers from creating and distributing hypermedia
The academia budget constraints are also discouraging the utilization of
hypermedia systems. Most universities around the world are struggling to
equip their buildings and offices with computers, advanced equipment and
networks which require large amounts of money at a time when cutbacks are
devastating existing budgets.
1-1 Introduction to Hypertext
Hypertext is an electronic media used for storing, retrieving, and
information exchange in different forms. It is a software for managing
nonlinear structures of information.13 Hypertext is used to access vast
amounts of technical and engineering information to assist in decision making
especially in the early stages of design. Hypertext allows non-linear structure
of information, as opposed to linear structure of information found in
traditional means of information storing devices such as books. A nonlinear
structure of information allows fast access of cross referenced and traversing
Besides nonlinear structure, the other defining characteristic of
hypertext is navigation, Navigation means moving around in the
hypertext graph by traversing its links. Usually this works as
follows. The contents of a node-e.g., text- are displayed on the
computer screen along with labels denoting its links to other
nodes. Clicking on a link label with the mouse causes display of
the contents of the node that the link points to. Repeated
The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 8
application of this link traveler allows the user to travel around in
the information 'hyperspace.'14
1-2 The Evolution of Hypertext Systems
Hypertext systems will change the way people read and write.15
Hypertext evolved in the 1960's to address the needs for rapid text
searching, and systems were available as early as the late 1960's.16 Owl
Guide on IBM PC and Macintosh was developed by Dr. Peter J. Brown's at
the University of Kent, Hypercard was developed by Bill Atkinson on the
Apple Macintosh, research and development of ZOG led to the marketing of
KMS on a wide variety of machines, Business FileVision on the Macintosh,
Document Examiner on the Symbolics Lisp machine and KnowledgePro on
the IBM PC. Other demonstration prototypes are also available.
Hypertext has become a 'hot' topic in the last year due primarily
to Apple's release of HyperCard, to the proliferation of powerful
micro-computers, to the user-friendliness of the interface and to
the availability of large, fast storage devices. The main targets
of the developers of hypertext systems are producers and
distributors of large volumes of information. Their product target
is oriented towards the 5 1/4" CD ROM (Compact Disk-Read
Only Memory) holding over 500 megabytes of read-only data.
This is equivalent to approximately 250,000 pages of encoded
text, 5,000 pages of facsimile information, or 2,000 video
1-3- Description of Hypertext Systems
For the hypertext user (normally an information seeker) it can
offer rapid access, user-friendly information retrieval. For the
hypertext author (in this case the technology expert developing
an information base) it is a complete environment, linking,
storing, and retrieving information. The major feature of the
medium is that information access is not sequential: the
possible information routes are pre-determined by the hypertext
author, and the hypertext user does not have to follow a specific
routing to search information. Not unlike the print medium, the
user can peruse in any way desired - following the text
sequentially to maintain continuity or searching randomly to pick
up key words, phrases, or graphics.18
Authoring in hypertext does not require a computer programmer. Most
hypertext software tools can easily be learned in a few hours and mastered in
days. The software tools available for hypertext application design consist of
fields, graphics, and buttons as well as a scripting language. The scripting
The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 9
language permits both the hypertext author and user to customize the
application to meet their specific needs. Most hypertext systems have high
level programming language that is accessible to hypertext authors and
The node presented to the user consists of layered graphics
and data. The author can create a background and foreground
overlay the fields, graphics, or buttons in any order. The
hypertext author can reduce the data entry time and create a
standard user interface by creating standard backgrounds..19
All forms of data can be included in hypertext systems; text, graphics,
facsimile data, animation, and voice. Although researchers call for standards,
the only standard is that there is no standard. An important benefit of
hypertext as a teaching aid is that users of hypertext information bases are
more likely to browse wider selections of information than users of
conventional paper documents.
The basic information packet in hypertext is a 'node'. It may be
called a card, frame, or record in other systems. 'Contexts' are
analogous to files or 'stacks' of related cards or records. Access
to additional or related information is made by the 'Links' to
other nodes. The basic components of a node are fields,
graphics, and buttons. The fields are conventional data fields
that are created and normally filled by the author. The data can
be augmented by the user or can be browsed by the user by
searching key words in all or specific fields on a card. The
graphics are bitmap or object drawings done in the hypertext
application or imported from other packages. A button is
designed to look like a push button or can be a designated
transparent area. Buttons are graphical areas on a node that
initiate actions such as pointing to another file or location;
popping up an interactive message on the computer screen,
opening another file; or returning the user to a specific
Generally, all hypertext systems contain the following characteristics21
(see figure 1):
• Small chunks of self-sufficient information called nodes.
• Relationships between associated nodes called links.
• Quick traversing of networks of nodes called hyper.
• Direct manipulation interface buttons.
The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 10
• Conceptual data model representing user's mental model of
H yp e rte x t C o n c e p t
Figure (1) Hypertext Concept
2- The application of Hypertext Systems in Architectural Education
Whether the computer is used as a tool in architectural design
or as a tool in teaching, the success or failure of the program
depends to a great extent on the design and implementation of
the user interface.22
Hypermedia systems are ideal for architectural education purposes. The
capability of storing information in different forms, especially graphics, serves
the purposes of visual communication necessary for architectural education.
There are several areas in which Hypertext Systems can be used in the field
of architecture and architectural education. There are basic information and
data that architects use in their professional practice and education, e.g.
architectural design data of building types, building construction details,
materials' specifications, and history/theory data of architectural work.
Information regarding the development of architecture during the twentieth
century is considered an important part of each architects education and
development. This information is also used by researchers from other fields
acquiring information regarding the influence of twentieth century
developments on all aspects of life.
The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 11
For the purpose of this study, the projects and philosophies of twentieth
century architects was selected as an illustration of the use of hypertext
systems in developing applications useful for architects and students.
2-1- Description of Borland Paradox Program Used in the
Borland Paradox for Windows, an affordable relational database program,
was selected as a hypertext system because of its features and capabilities
suitable for the application. An important feature of Paradox is the capability
of including pictures in its relational databases, which is an essential feature
for architectural presentations. Paradox is a full-featured, and easy-to-use
relational database package already meeting the information management
needs of the selected application. It does not require a high level of
programming skills. Paradox is designed for computer users with all levels of
experience, from beginners to advanced. Few hours with full featured
manuals provide the necessary programming skills needed for the
development of applications.
Paradox is a full-featured relational database management system that
can be used either as a standalone system on a single computer or as a
multi-user system on a network. The needs of a database user often grow
over time. At first it is important to be able to create a table quickly and easily,
enter data in the table, ask questions about the data, and generate a report.
These essential tasks never lose their importance, but as the needs expand,
the power of database system must expand with them. Because data has a
tendency to grow over time, it is important to be able to break data into small,
easily managed tables. It's then important to be able to link tables easily,
query data across several tables and create multi-table forms and reports.
Paradox provides the power to do this simply and quickly.
Customization is another powerful feature of Paradox. At first, the
enhancement of a report visual appeal, or creation of customized forms for
ease of data entry is needed. Later, the performance of some tasks
automatically or tying several tasks together is required.
One of the rich design features of Paradox is the ability to give the exact
look for forms and reports. Data can be drawn from several sources and in
many forms, tables, texts, graphs, and pictures. A calculated summary of field
scan be added and conclusions can be drawn about the data. ObjectPAL
The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 12
codes can be added to objects on forms to create any needed function.
Buttons can be created to execute any defined commands.
The ultimate power of Paradox is the ability to create database
applications and the use of ObjectPAL to create whole database application,
define its menus, organize and structure the tables it uses, define the
functions, and deliver the whole application. Once an application has been
delivered, any ObjectPAL code is hidden from the user, so the customization
of Paradox is transparent.
A database is an organized collection of information or data. In a relational
database like Paradox, data is organized into tables. Tables contain
categories of data, repeated for each item in the table. A relational database
allows the definition of a relationship (called a link) between different tables.
This allows for extraction or combination of data from several tables and get
the exact needed results.
2-2- The Application: "Masters of Architecture in the 20th Century"
The philosophies and projects of Twentieth Century Masters of
Architecture is considered an important, basic information studied by
architects and students of architecture. The work of the four celebrated
masters of architecture, Walter Gropius, Frank Lloyd Wright, Mies van der
Roh, and Le Corbusier, had a great influence on architecture as a reflection
of Twentieth Century Modern movement which affected all aspects of
humanity. Their work is also studied by other fields, such as art and
anthropology, as a reflection of the cultural and social values of the Twentieth
Several history of architecture references were used to organize and
select the material in developing the application.24 Databases containing the
work of those architects were prepared using pictures, descriptions, locations,
and dates. Information on each architect was developed using several
references and books on theory of architecture during the Twentieth Century.
A Hand-held scanner was used to input graphic and text data into the
computer database. The databases were arranged so that more projects can
be added later to expand and enrich them.
An introductory screen introduces the four architects with pictures and
option keys to go to more information on the architect or directly to his work.
The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 13
The user can navigate between the databases with a click of a button. A user
looking for a specific information can go directly to it without having to go
through the work of other architects. The application allows users to return at
anytime to the main screen to select the works of another architect. This
allows for comparison and contemplation to take place instead of relying on
memorization and remembering.
The following figures represent several screens of the application as
viewed by the user. They include the following:
1- The introductory screen
2- Display of basic information of architects
3- Display of several work of architects
The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 14
Figure (2) Introductory Screen
Figure (3) Display of Basic Information of an Architect
The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 15
Figure (4) Sample of Architect's Projects
The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 16
Figure (5) Sample of an Architect's Projects
The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 17
A group of students from the department of architecture were selected to
evaluate the application and propose modifications. All students praised the
usefulness of the application for introducing them to the works of the masters
of architecture. Some students proposed changes to information display,
which were considered during the development of the application.
Conclusions and Recommendations
A great new force will, in the years immediately ahead, change
the landscape of learning and what it means to be a faculty
member. Many of us welcome the coming developments and
believe that higher education will improve significantly for most
students. Great changes are usually accompanied by some
disruptions, disagreement, and pain. Academia will have to be
patient and creative in dealing with the attendant problems. On
balance, however, the advantages outweigh the disadvantages,
and we would do well to prepare for the great changes that are
almost upon us. The opportunity and the promise for better
teaching and learning will make all of the effort fully
The utilization of a hypertext system in developing an application
regarding a subject in architecture was successful and useful for both
architects and students. It illustrated the capabilities of hypertext as a new
educational media. University instructors are encouraged to develop
hypertext applications for different subjects and provide information in a way
that allows interactive learning.
This research recommends the development of course material on
computer networks and utilize the information available in networks to
upgrade and enrich their work and methods of teaching. The potentials of
using the software for developing applications related to other areas of
architecture are unlimited. For example, valuable applications could be
developed for history of architecture courses. Other applications could be
developed in the areas of building types studies and architectural data.
Finally, applications regarding building construction systems are of great
importance for architectural students.
The landscape of architectural education should change to reflect the
introduction of new ways of learning and teaching. Hypertext is a valuable
learning media that could be utilized by educators to enhance the educational
experience of young architects.
The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 18
The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 19
- Jensen, Robert E. (1993) The Technology of the Future is Already Here, ACADEME, July-August 1993, p. 8.
- Vanier, Dana J. (1990) Hypertext: A Computer Tool to Assist Building Design. In Mitchell, William J. and
McCullouggh, Malcolm, The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era,, The
MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, p. 284.
- Oliver R. Witte (1989) How the Schools Are Teaching The Uses of Computers, Architecture/August 1989, p. 92.
- Mitchell, William J. (1990) The Design Studio of The Future, In Mitchell, William J. and McCullouggh, Malcolm,
The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, The MIT Press, Cambridge,
Massachusetts, 1990, p. 489.
- (Jensen 1993) p.11.
- (Jensen 1993) p.11.
- (Jensen 1993) p. 10.
- (Jensen 1993) p. 8.
- (Jensen 1993) p.8.
- (Jensen 1993) p.12.
- (Jensen 1993) p.12.
- (Jensen 1993) p.12.
- Conklin, J. (1987) Hypertext: An Introduction and Survey. IEEE Computer 20:9 (September 1987).
- McCall, Raymond, Gerhard Fischer and Anders Morch (1990) Supporting Reflection-in-Action in the Janus
Design Environment. In Mitchell, William J. and McCullouggh, Malcolm, The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural
Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era,, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1990. p. 250.
- Marchionini, Gary and Ben Shneiderman (1988) Finding Facts vs. Browsing Knowledge in Hypertext Systems.
IEE Journal Computer 1988.
- See Englebart, Doug (1963) A Conceptual Framework for Augmentation of Man's Intellect. Vistas in Information
Handling Vol:1, 1963. Sparta Books. Washington. D.C., Conklin, E. Jeffrey. 1987. Hypertext: An Introduction and
Survey. IEEE Journal Computer. September. and Brown, P.J..1986. Interactive Documentation. Software - Practice and
Experience. Vol. 16(3) March.
- (Vanier 1990) p. 285.
- (Vanier 1990) p. 286.
- (Vanier 1990) p. 288.
- (Vanier 1990) p. 287.
- (Vanier 1990) p. 286.
- Zutphen, Rob van (1990) CALinCAD: Computer-Aided Learning in CAAD, in The Electronic Design Studio:
Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1990, p. 275.
- Paradox for Windows Manuals (1985) Borland International, Inc..
- See Banham, Reyner (1982) The Age of the Masters, Architectural Press Ltd., and Bill Risebero (1987) The Story
of Western Architecture, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- (Jensen 1993) p. 13.