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  1. 1. ‫بنسنمننن انل اننلنرنحنمننننن النرنحنينمننن وبنه ن ننسنتنعنيننننن‬ United Arab Emirates University College of Engineering Department of Architectural Engineering Research Paper on "The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture" Presented to Derasat Handasiah A refereed journal published by College of Engineering United Arab Emirates University December 1995 Dr. Yasser Osman Moharam Mahgoub Department of Architectural Engineering College of Engineering United Arab Emirates University
  2. 2. ‫‪Research Paper on‬‬ ‫‪The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture‬‬ ‫‪Abstract‬‬ ‫‪This paper introduces the concepts of Hypermedia and Hypertext systems‬‬ ‫‪as tools for managing information in the field of architecture and enhancing‬‬ ‫‪the landscape of education. An application developed by the author is used to‬‬ ‫‪illustrate the use of Hypertext programs in architectural education. Paradox, a‬‬ ‫‪powerful relational database program, is used to develop an application‬‬ ‫‪illustrating the works and philosophies of twentieth century masters of‬‬ ‫‪architecture. The paper recommends the development of similar applications‬‬ ‫‪to be available for students through computer networks, as tools for‬‬ ‫‪managing growing amounts of information and enhancing the landscape of‬‬ ‫.‪learning‬‬ ‫******************************************************************‬ ‫ورقة بحث فى‬ ‫استخدام انظمة المعلومات المتفاعلة فى الهندسة المعمارية‬ ‫ملنخنننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننصننن البنحننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننثنن‬ ‫يهدف هذا البحففث الى التعريففف بانظمففة المعلومات المتفاعلة ومجالت اسففتخدامها فففى‬ ‫الهندسفة المعماريفة و التعليفم الهندسفى وتطفبيق أحفد أنظمفة المعلومات المتفاعلة على موضوع‬ ‫مفن موضوعات العمارة كمثال يمكفن تطفبيقه ففى المجالت الهندسفية و التعليميفة المختلففة. تفم‬ ‫اختيار برنامفج بارادوكفس )‪ (Paradox‬لعمفل مثال تطفبيقي يسفتفيد منفه المهندس المعماري و‬ ‫الطلبة في التعرف على فكر واعمال رواد العمارة فى القرن العشرين. يوصى البحث بتطوير‬ ‫تطفبيقات مماثلة لمختلف مجالت التعليفم الهندسفي بحيفث يتمكفن المسفتخدم مفن الوصفول أليهفا‬ ‫مفن خلل شبكات الكمفبيوتر لتكون بمثابفة أداة لتطويفر الوصفول الى المعلومات المعماريفة و‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ف‬ ‫العمليففففففففففففففففففففففففففففففففففففففففففففففففففففة التعليميففففففففففففففففففففففففففففففففففففففففففففففففففففة.‬ ‫‪The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture‬‬ ‫2‬
  3. 3. Introduction No longer will it suffice for us to continue doing what we did best- that is, explaining techniques, procedures, and processes in classroom lectures and student discussion. Traditional teaching roles are going to change. Indeed, experts on the leading edge of technology and learning theory hear the rumbling of the shift that will soon hit education. Of course, predicting exactly when and how hard it will hit each instructor in each institution is about as difficult as predicting earthquakes.1 Due to the monumental technological changes currently affecting all aspects of life and the introduction of computer as an essential tool in the age of information, architecture and architectural education is in the midst of a paradigm shift, one that will eventually change the way all architects work, instructors teach and students learn. As Jensen put it; Computer tools are currently available to assist the dissemination of technical information to designers. Computer- aid drafting (CADD) systems, spreadsheets, word processors, and databases, have all altered the way the construction industry uses technical data. As computer technologies mature other tools are becoming readily available.2 Architects, as well as many other engineering disciplines and professions, are becoming acquainted to the use of computer in many aspects of their professional work. The use of computer aided design and drafting, word- processing, spreadsheets, databases, project management and presentation packages is changing all aspect of architecture as a profession and discipline. Computers enable architects and researchers to approach architecture for the first time as a knowledge-based discipline, and motivate other traditional arguments. Some of the arguments, such as those between science and art, sound familiar but the computer puts a new spin on them. For example, the scientific approach attempts to understand architecture based on explicit knowledge; the artistic approach focuses more on tacit knowledge, intuitive understanding, and qualitative judgments.3 The building industry was faster in adapting computers to its requirements and it is time for architecture and architectural education to follow the same path. Aim of Research The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 3
  4. 4. The aim of this paper is to introduce Hypermedia systems and their applications in architecture and education. The use of computers and Hypermedia systems as information managing systems and a learning aid is stressed and their impact in changing the traditional paradigm of education is elaborated. An application on an architectural subject is explored as an example of the use hypertext systems in architectural education. This work wishes to emphasize that a paradigm shift in the field of architecture and education is currently taking place, and that participants in the field of architecture should work on adapting new modes of practice, teaching and learning to benefit the skills and knowledge of their students. CAL: Computer Aided Learning in Architecture Computer systems serve the discipline of architecture in several ways. Sophisticated computer systems are used for drafting, presentation, project management and design purposes. Yet, they are not fully utilized in the field of architecture education as powerful learning aids. Furthermore, architects have to deal with vast amounts of information (e.g., standards, regulations, specifications, etc.) in both the design and execution phases of their work, they can utilize the capabilities of computers to store and retrieve data in different forms and combine information to benefit their own purposes. By exciting their students to benefit from the capabilities of computers and networks, educators are indirectly advancing the discipline of architecture. Designers and students of design will soon come to regard computer networks as indispensable utilities, and workstations will be as standard on their desks as telephones. These workstations will provide tools for accessing, manipulating, and disseminating information in a wide variety of forms: text files, numeric databases, geometric models, bitmapped images, sound images, and video clips. Separations between different forms of information will disappear: sound effects might be associated with spaces in a geometric model of building, sound notes with elements in a drawing, or video clips with technical information in a construction products database.4 Computer networks are another feature affecting the education landscape. The availability of networks connecting computer stations, research centers, colleges, universities, and ultimately countries all over the world, open a new world of information exchange, research, and education. It is no longer necessary to be in physical proximity to learning materials. Also, it is no longer necessary to provide physical proximity between teachers and The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 4
  5. 5. students. At times, shyness, fear, and low self-esteem in social interactions discourage students from asking and understanding. Networking is, at times, superior for both educational and social interaction. Language or other communication barriers between 'teacher' and student shrink in the presence of interactive choices about language, extent of visualization, and extent of reading versus audio. Network socializing patterns may be less impacted by skin color, sex, language differences, national origin, physical handicaps, and many other factors present in physical interactions.5 For several reasons, the academia is slow in adapting multi media for its purposes. Multimedia is costly and requires capital investment in equipment, networks installations, and training. Economic constraints currently facing universities around the world are influencing the speed of acquiring and using multimedia in academia. Government agencies, the military, business corporations, and other parts of society are well ahead of academe in multimedia development for training and communications. We need to catch up, or students not familiar with network communicating, socializing, and training will face a competitive disadvantage in their future careers. The role of instructors will change dramatically in the educational process. They will no longer be required to explain their materials and present every detail of the subject to their students. They will work on inspiring their students to learn more about the subject using hypermedia presentations available through computer networks, which will be available for the students day and night. Instructors will be responsible of developing their subjects in the form of Hypermedia applications and continuously updating them with new information and material. The authoring of Hypermedia applications will replace currently celebrated books and articles authoring for both academic promotion and recognition. Emerging technologies enable professors both to create their own customized teaching materials and to update those materials daily. Publishers of electronic books can put new editions on networks at will. Instructors can change electronic books when and how they choose, including changes made directly in front of an audience. Emerging technologies that digitize knowledge make it cheaper and easier to combine all, or portions of documents from multiple sources into a single file or electronic book. These technologies are very worrisome in terms of copyright infringement, but new ways of rewarding creative scholarship may emerge, permitting copyrights and electronic reproductions to go hand in hand. Emerging The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 5
  6. 6. technologies lift experts as well as beginners to higher levels of understanding.6 Students will also benefit from this new mode of learning. Students will be able to study at their own pace and time. For example, a student will be able to choose the material that he or she want to study or re-study without affecting other students who can grasp the material faster and wish to study another subject. Computers have infinite patience in teaching that involves drill and repetition, especially among students with differing skills and aptitudes. From Mathematics to music to pilot training, human instructors run short of patience when some students need seemingly endless repetitions relative to the few who catch on the first time. Newer hypertext and hypermedia learning materials allow nonlinear interactions such that learners can seek different levels of entry and alternative methods of presentation. In plain words, the new technology in the emerging paradigm shift is jolting us with comparative advances significantly different from the technology of past decades.7 1- Hypermedia Systems There is little doubt among researchers and scholars, thought, that technological plates are sliding in a way that will lead to the ultimate pre-eminence of what is known as hypermedia learning.8 Hypermedia is a term used to denote the growing activity of using the capabilities of computers in managing vast and varied amounts of information and the use of multi-media (visual and audio) in storing and retrieving vast amounts of information in different forms and for several purposes. The introduction of Hypermedia in the field of education has changed taken for granted assumptions concerning education and the relationship between instructors and students. Hypermedia learning is a causing a paradigm shift in different fields of education. The traditional approach to education was linear in terms of delivery and reception of information. Hypermedia learning, on the other hand, "entails interactive and nonlinear navigation through learning material that reaches students' senses - seeing, hearing, touching, smelling. Hypermedia computers connected by international broad band networks will do most of the 'interactive teaching,' especially the teaching of technical details of art, business, history, languages, Mathematics, medicine, music, and science."9 The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 6
  7. 7. Several important consideration are generated by the introduction of hypermedia education. Among them are economic considerations. As elaborated by Jensen; Multimedia training and education may save millions of dollars due to a variety of factors. For example, compact discs that hold thousands of pages of text and graphics can be reproduced for about $2 per disc. Hard-copy publishing, in contrast, is significantly more costly and more difficult to update. Electronic books can be authored and updated at will on rewriteable optical drives. Traditional texts are bulky to store and transport, relative to, say, new portable Compact disc players that have flipup color screens. These can be carried in briefcases along with a few discs that hold millions of pages of text, graphics, and audio files. Networks make it possible to transfer thousands of pages of text and graphics to new locations in the blink of an eye. Hard-copy books are difficult to search in comparison with electronic searches of computer files.10 The use of hypermedia and networks is a cost-effective way of making interactive learning materials available to anyone anywhere young or old, rich or poor, rural or urban. While the advantages of hypermedia authoring are clear, unforeseen disadvantages are also in the horizon. Hypermedia applications can be, as books are, good or bad. Also, rewards for hypermedia applications development does not exist. Probably the main obstacle that currently impedes professors from becoming immersed in developing hypermedia teaching materials is the existing reward structure at most institutions. Promotion, tenure, and merit rewards are driven mainly by creativity in research. If teaching superiority is rewarded, the rewards hinge primarily upon highly favorable student evaluations or a professor's reputation on campus for caring for and attending to students on an individual basis. A lackluster researcher who devotes fifty hours a week to developing and updating wonderfully creative hypermedia teaching materials is likely to come up on the short end of tenure, promotion, and merit raise awards. The same cannot be said for a lackluster, though adequate, professor who devotes fifty hours a week generating wonderfully creative research. In the current system, rewards for creating great teaching materials flow mainly from outside royalties from successful textbooks.11 Another concern of hypermedia authors is publishing and copyrights. Publishing companies and firms have not yet figured out how to "publish" electronic materials and make profits from them. Markets for hard-copy texts are well established and libraries are equipped with shelves for storing them. The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 7
  8. 8. Authors are more likely to be rewarded for writing successful hard-copy texts than producing creative electronic applications. Moreover, Electronic books require investment in libraries' systems to store and offer these materials to users. The major obstacle is probably the constantly changing technology in computer hardware and software, especially varied and changing technology in microprocessors, file storage, video graphics, laser technology (CDROM, CDMM, CDI, CDAudio, photo CD, video disk), operating systems (DOS, OS/2, Windows NT, Apple, UNIX), hypermedia, software, and networking hardware and software. Vendors seeking market dominance insist upon being unique to the point analogous to having hundreds of railroad companies that cannot agree on a uniform gauge of track to be laid out. Lack of standardization discourages publishers, professors, and other materials developers from creating and distributing hypermedia materials.12 The academia budget constraints are also discouraging the utilization of hypermedia systems. Most universities around the world are struggling to equip their buildings and offices with computers, advanced equipment and networks which require large amounts of money at a time when cutbacks are devastating existing budgets. 1-1 Introduction to Hypertext Hypertext is an electronic media used for storing, retrieving, and information exchange in different forms. It is a software for managing nonlinear structures of information.13 Hypertext is used to access vast amounts of technical and engineering information to assist in decision making especially in the early stages of design. Hypertext allows non-linear structure of information, as opposed to linear structure of information found in traditional means of information storing devices such as books. A nonlinear structure of information allows fast access of cross referenced and traversing data. Besides nonlinear structure, the other defining characteristic of hypertext is navigation, Navigation means moving around in the hypertext graph by traversing its links. Usually this works as follows. The contents of a node-e.g., text- are displayed on the computer screen along with labels denoting its links to other nodes. Clicking on a link label with the mouse causes display of the contents of the node that the link points to. Repeated The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 8
  9. 9. application of this link traveler allows the user to travel around in the information 'hyperspace.'14 1-2 The Evolution of Hypertext Systems Hypertext systems will change the way people read and write.15 Hypertext evolved in the 1960's to address the needs for rapid text searching, and systems were available as early as the late 1960's.16 Owl Guide on IBM PC and Macintosh was developed by Dr. Peter J. Brown's at the University of Kent, Hypercard was developed by Bill Atkinson on the Apple Macintosh, research and development of ZOG led to the marketing of KMS on a wide variety of machines, Business FileVision on the Macintosh, Document Examiner on the Symbolics Lisp machine and KnowledgePro on the IBM PC. Other demonstration prototypes are also available. Hypertext has become a 'hot' topic in the last year due primarily to Apple's release of HyperCard, to the proliferation of powerful micro-computers, to the user-friendliness of the interface and to the availability of large, fast storage devices. The main targets of the developers of hypertext systems are producers and distributors of large volumes of information. Their product target is oriented towards the 5 1/4" CD ROM (Compact Disk-Read Only Memory) holding over 500 megabytes of read-only data. This is equivalent to approximately 250,000 pages of encoded text, 5,000 pages of facsimile information, or 2,000 video images.17 1-3- Description of Hypertext Systems For the hypertext user (normally an information seeker) it can offer rapid access, user-friendly information retrieval. For the hypertext author (in this case the technology expert developing an information base) it is a complete environment, linking, storing, and retrieving information. The major feature of the medium is that information access is not sequential: the possible information routes are pre-determined by the hypertext author, and the hypertext user does not have to follow a specific routing to search information. Not unlike the print medium, the user can peruse in any way desired - following the text sequentially to maintain continuity or searching randomly to pick up key words, phrases, or graphics.18 Authoring in hypertext does not require a computer programmer. Most hypertext software tools can easily be learned in a few hours and mastered in days. The software tools available for hypertext application design consist of fields, graphics, and buttons as well as a scripting language. The scripting The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 9
  10. 10. language permits both the hypertext author and user to customize the application to meet their specific needs. Most hypertext systems have high level programming language that is accessible to hypertext authors and users. The node presented to the user consists of layered graphics and data. The author can create a background and foreground overlay the fields, graphics, or buttons in any order. The hypertext author can reduce the data entry time and create a standard user interface by creating standard backgrounds..19 All forms of data can be included in hypertext systems; text, graphics, facsimile data, animation, and voice. Although researchers call for standards, the only standard is that there is no standard. An important benefit of hypertext as a teaching aid is that users of hypertext information bases are more likely to browse wider selections of information than users of conventional paper documents. The basic information packet in hypertext is a 'node'. It may be called a card, frame, or record in other systems. 'Contexts' are analogous to files or 'stacks' of related cards or records. Access to additional or related information is made by the 'Links' to other nodes. The basic components of a node are fields, graphics, and buttons. The fields are conventional data fields that are created and normally filled by the author. The data can be augmented by the user or can be browsed by the user by searching key words in all or specific fields on a card. The graphics are bitmap or object drawings done in the hypertext application or imported from other packages. A button is designed to look like a push button or can be a designated transparent area. Buttons are graphical areas on a node that initiate actions such as pointing to another file or location; popping up an interactive message on the computer screen, opening another file; or returning the user to a specific location.20 Generally, all hypertext systems contain the following characteristics21 (see figure 1): • Small chunks of self-sufficient information called nodes. • Relationships between associated nodes called links. • Quick traversing of networks of nodes called hyper. • Direct manipulation interface buttons. The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 10
  11. 11. • Conceptual data model representing user's mental model of information. Buttons Graphics Links Text Fields Node Context H yp e rte x t C o n c e p t Figure (1) Hypertext Concept 2- The application of Hypertext Systems in Architectural Education Whether the computer is used as a tool in architectural design or as a tool in teaching, the success or failure of the program depends to a great extent on the design and implementation of the user interface.22 Hypermedia systems are ideal for architectural education purposes. The capability of storing information in different forms, especially graphics, serves the purposes of visual communication necessary for architectural education. There are several areas in which Hypertext Systems can be used in the field of architecture and architectural education. There are basic information and data that architects use in their professional practice and education, e.g. architectural design data of building types, building construction details, materials' specifications, and history/theory data of architectural work. Information regarding the development of architecture during the twentieth century is considered an important part of each architects education and development. This information is also used by researchers from other fields acquiring information regarding the influence of twentieth century developments on all aspects of life. The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 11
  12. 12. For the purpose of this study, the projects and philosophies of twentieth century architects was selected as an illustration of the use of hypertext systems in developing applications useful for architects and students. 2-1- Description of Borland Paradox Program Used in the Application23 Borland Paradox for Windows, an affordable relational database program, was selected as a hypertext system because of its features and capabilities suitable for the application. An important feature of Paradox is the capability of including pictures in its relational databases, which is an essential feature for architectural presentations. Paradox is a full-featured, and easy-to-use relational database package already meeting the information management needs of the selected application. It does not require a high level of programming skills. Paradox is designed for computer users with all levels of experience, from beginners to advanced. Few hours with full featured manuals provide the necessary programming skills needed for the development of applications. Paradox is a full-featured relational database management system that can be used either as a standalone system on a single computer or as a multi-user system on a network. The needs of a database user often grow over time. At first it is important to be able to create a table quickly and easily, enter data in the table, ask questions about the data, and generate a report. These essential tasks never lose their importance, but as the needs expand, the power of database system must expand with them. Because data has a tendency to grow over time, it is important to be able to break data into small, easily managed tables. It's then important to be able to link tables easily, query data across several tables and create multi-table forms and reports. Paradox provides the power to do this simply and quickly. Customization is another powerful feature of Paradox. At first, the enhancement of a report visual appeal, or creation of customized forms for ease of data entry is needed. Later, the performance of some tasks automatically or tying several tasks together is required. One of the rich design features of Paradox is the ability to give the exact look for forms and reports. Data can be drawn from several sources and in many forms, tables, texts, graphs, and pictures. A calculated summary of field scan be added and conclusions can be drawn about the data. ObjectPAL The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 12
  13. 13. codes can be added to objects on forms to create any needed function. Buttons can be created to execute any defined commands. The ultimate power of Paradox is the ability to create database applications and the use of ObjectPAL to create whole database application, define its menus, organize and structure the tables it uses, define the functions, and deliver the whole application. Once an application has been delivered, any ObjectPAL code is hidden from the user, so the customization of Paradox is transparent. A database is an organized collection of information or data. In a relational database like Paradox, data is organized into tables. Tables contain categories of data, repeated for each item in the table. A relational database allows the definition of a relationship (called a link) between different tables. This allows for extraction or combination of data from several tables and get the exact needed results. 2-2- The Application: "Masters of Architecture in the 20th Century" The philosophies and projects of Twentieth Century Masters of Architecture is considered an important, basic information studied by architects and students of architecture. The work of the four celebrated masters of architecture, Walter Gropius, Frank Lloyd Wright, Mies van der Roh, and Le Corbusier, had a great influence on architecture as a reflection of Twentieth Century Modern movement which affected all aspects of humanity. Their work is also studied by other fields, such as art and anthropology, as a reflection of the cultural and social values of the Twentieth Century. Several history of architecture references were used to organize and select the material in developing the application.24 Databases containing the work of those architects were prepared using pictures, descriptions, locations, and dates. Information on each architect was developed using several references and books on theory of architecture during the Twentieth Century. A Hand-held scanner was used to input graphic and text data into the computer database. The databases were arranged so that more projects can be added later to expand and enrich them. An introductory screen introduces the four architects with pictures and option keys to go to more information on the architect or directly to his work. The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 13
  14. 14. The user can navigate between the databases with a click of a button. A user looking for a specific information can go directly to it without having to go through the work of other architects. The application allows users to return at anytime to the main screen to select the works of another architect. This allows for comparison and contemplation to take place instead of relying on memorization and remembering. The following figures represent several screens of the application as viewed by the user. They include the following: 1- The introductory screen 2- Display of basic information of architects 3- Display of several work of architects The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 14
  15. 15. Figure (2) Introductory Screen Figure (3) Display of Basic Information of an Architect The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 15
  16. 16. Figure (4) Sample of Architect's Projects The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 16
  17. 17. Figure (5) Sample of an Architect's Projects The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 17
  18. 18. A group of students from the department of architecture were selected to evaluate the application and propose modifications. All students praised the usefulness of the application for introducing them to the works of the masters of architecture. Some students proposed changes to information display, which were considered during the development of the application. Conclusions and Recommendations A great new force will, in the years immediately ahead, change the landscape of learning and what it means to be a faculty member. Many of us welcome the coming developments and believe that higher education will improve significantly for most students. Great changes are usually accompanied by some disruptions, disagreement, and pain. Academia will have to be patient and creative in dealing with the attendant problems. On balance, however, the advantages outweigh the disadvantages, and we would do well to prepare for the great changes that are almost upon us. The opportunity and the promise for better teaching and learning will make all of the effort fully worthwhile.25 The utilization of a hypertext system in developing an application regarding a subject in architecture was successful and useful for both architects and students. It illustrated the capabilities of hypertext as a new educational media. University instructors are encouraged to develop hypertext applications for different subjects and provide information in a way that allows interactive learning. This research recommends the development of course material on computer networks and utilize the information available in networks to upgrade and enrich their work and methods of teaching. The potentials of using the software for developing applications related to other areas of architecture are unlimited. For example, valuable applications could be developed for history of architecture courses. Other applications could be developed in the areas of building types studies and architectural data. Finally, applications regarding building construction systems are of great importance for architectural students. The landscape of architectural education should change to reflect the introduction of new ways of learning and teaching. Hypertext is a valuable learning media that could be utilized by educators to enhance the educational experience of young architects. The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 18
  19. 19. References The Use of Hypertext Systems in Architecture 19
  20. 20. 1 - Jensen, Robert E. (1993) The Technology of the Future is Already Here, ACADEME, July-August 1993, p. 8. 2 - Vanier, Dana J. (1990) Hypertext: A Computer Tool to Assist Building Design. In Mitchell, William J. and McCullouggh, Malcolm, The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era,, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, p. 284. 3 - Oliver R. Witte (1989) How the Schools Are Teaching The Uses of Computers, Architecture/August 1989, p. 92. 4 - Mitchell, William J. (1990) The Design Studio of The Future, In Mitchell, William J. and McCullouggh, Malcolm, The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1990, p. 489. 5 - (Jensen 1993) p.11. 6 - (Jensen 1993) p.11. 7 - (Jensen 1993) p. 10. 8 - (Jensen 1993) p. 8. 9 - (Jensen 1993) p.8. 10 - (Jensen 1993) p.12. 11 - (Jensen 1993) p.12. 12 - (Jensen 1993) p.12. 13 - Conklin, J. (1987) Hypertext: An Introduction and Survey. IEEE Computer 20:9 (September 1987). 14 - McCall, Raymond, Gerhard Fischer and Anders Morch (1990) Supporting Reflection-in-Action in the Janus Design Environment. In Mitchell, William J. and McCullouggh, Malcolm, The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era,, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1990. p. 250. 15 - Marchionini, Gary and Ben Shneiderman (1988) Finding Facts vs. Browsing Knowledge in Hypertext Systems. IEE Journal Computer 1988. 16 - See Englebart, Doug (1963) A Conceptual Framework for Augmentation of Man's Intellect. Vistas in Information Handling Vol:1, 1963. Sparta Books. Washington. D.C., Conklin, E. Jeffrey. 1987. Hypertext: An Introduction and Survey. IEEE Journal Computer. September. and Brown, P.J..1986. Interactive Documentation. Software - Practice and Experience. Vol. 16(3) March.
  21. 21. - (Vanier 1990) p. 285. 17 - (Vanier 1990) p. 286. 18 - (Vanier 1990) p. 288. 19 - (Vanier 1990) p. 287. 20 - (Vanier 1990) p. 286. 21 - Zutphen, Rob van (1990) CALinCAD: Computer-Aided Learning in CAAD, in The Electronic Design Studio: 22 Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1990, p. 275. - Paradox for Windows Manuals (1985) Borland International, Inc.. 23 - See Banham, Reyner (1982) The Age of the Masters, Architectural Press Ltd., and Bill Risebero (1987) The Story 24 of Western Architecture, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. - (Jensen 1993) p. 13. 25