Architectural Professional Practice - Programming


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  • Your Lectures (in slides) are a great synthesis to review the architecture. Right now I am study to get the Architectural License. Do you have a Lecture for Building Systems? . As an Immigrant, taking the Architectural Registration Examination in English as my second language. I really appreciate you capacity of synthesis and simplicity. Only who masters our profession can do this. Thank you very much.
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  • Your Lectures (in slides) are a great synthesis to review the architecture. Right now I am study to get the Architectural License. Do you have a Lecture for Building Systems? . As an Immigrant, taking the Architectural Registration Examination in English as my second language. I really appreciate you capacity of synthesis and simplicity. Only who masters our profession can do this. Thank you very much.
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Architectural Professional Practice - Programming

  1. 1. Architectural Programming
  2. 3. Architectural Programming Part 1
  3. 4. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>What is architectural programming? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Architectural programming is the research and decision-making process that defines the problem(s) to be solved by design. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architectural programming is basically a research process to gather, analyze and document relevant information (human factors, functions & activities, relationships, cost, ordinances, site, climate…etc.) and then reach a conclusion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architectural programming establishes the appropriate criteria for the proper design solution (a guide), to identify the forces that influences the design (Both Internal and External). </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Architectural programming is a structured research and problem-solving process used to identify, examine, and elaborate upon the various needs underlying a design project . </li></ul><ul><li>The architectural program is the foundation for a creative, meaningful, and - ultimately - useful architectural solution . </li></ul><ul><li>Gary JD Gingras, M.Arch. </li></ul>DEFINITION
  5. 6. The stages of architectural design <ul><li>Project Selection - define the goals (wants, needs, requirements, etc.); </li></ul><ul><li>Programming - research and document the related issues (facts, problems, potentialities, etc.); </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary Design - in a schematic form, acknowledge the impact of those issues on the goals; </li></ul><ul><li>Design Development - interpret the spatial expression of the design, goals and issues; </li></ul><ul><li>Final Design - resolve the issues, and the inter-relationships, of the design, goals, and issues; </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation - prepare the contract drawings and specifications; </li></ul><ul><li>Construction - facilitate and monitor the fabrication and assembly of the built environment; and, </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation - assess the quality of the built environment and its impact on the project's goals and users. </li></ul>
  6. 7. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURAL PROGRAMMING <ul><li>Self-conscious vs. unself-conscious design (Christopher Alexander: Notes on the Synthesis of Form) </li></ul><ul><li>Post war Baby boom  U.S. schools  CRS as pioneers (Pena & Caudill) </li></ul><ul><li>William Pena article in “Architectural Record”; “ Architectural Analysis—Prelude to Design ” in 1959 </li></ul><ul><li>Architectural Analysis  Architectural Programming </li></ul><ul><li>Programming recognized by AIA as part of architect’s services  incorporated into standard contracts & national architectural licensing examination </li></ul><ul><li>William Pena Book “Problem Seeking” in 1969 </li></ul><ul><li>The Concept of “Performance Specification”  avoiding preconceived forms/designs </li></ul>
  7. 9. Programming & Design <ul><li>Overlapping </li></ul>Programming Design <ul><li>Professional Issues & Concerns: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Programming limits creativity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programming is too complicated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programming increases cost & wastes of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Programming as Analysis vs. Design as Synthesis </li></ul>Dr. Yasser Mahgoub DESIGN PROGRAMMING
  8. 11. IMPORTANCE OF PROGRAMMING <ul><li>To provide the designer with the information needed to achieve the best possible solution to the problem at hand. </li></ul><ul><li>The wide range and variety of projects and building types the architect is asked to design makes it impossible to provide training for all building types. Programming is the tool that enables architects to handle this wide range of buildings. </li></ul><ul><li>The critical importance of the architect’s role in shaping the built environment. </li></ul><ul><li>To avoid major mistakes in design decisions , which can be very expensive to correct. </li></ul>
  9. 12. Program Preparation From Architectural programming and Predesign Manager By: Robert Hershberger, 1999
  10. 13. Program Preparation <ul><li>Program Form </li></ul><ul><li>Program Content </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminaries </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Values and Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Design Considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Project Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Space Identification and Allocation </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship Matrices and Diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>Space Program Sheets </li></ul><ul><li>Budget and Cost Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Project Schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Design Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Appendix </li></ul>
  11. 14. Introduction <ul><li>To process and organize the information so it can be communicated effectively to the client and the designer. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the nature of the architectural problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain their concurrence (approval) that the program document is correct as presented. </li></ul>
  12. 15. Introduction <ul><li>Programs are prepared for three different design phases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Master Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schematic Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Should contain the information that the designer needs to make informed design decisions for that phase. </li></ul>
  13. 16. 1. Program Form <ul><li>A variety of presentation format. </li></ul><ul><li>Bound paper publication. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bound left edge (English) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bound right edge (Arabic) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Typical sizes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8 ½” x 11” or 8 ½” x 14” or 11” x 17” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical or Horizontal </li></ul></ul>
  14. 17. 1. Program Form
  15. 18. 1. Program Form
  16. 19. 2. Program Content <ul><li>Five to Eight sections including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An executive summary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Values and goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design considerations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific project requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appendix </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The nature of design problems will affect how each program is structured. </li></ul>
  17. 21. 3. Preliminaries <ul><li>Cover sheet </li></ul><ul><li>Transmittal </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledgement </li></ul><ul><li>Directory </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
  18. 22. Cover Sheet
  19. 23. Transmittal
  20. 24. Acknowledgement
  21. 25. Directory <ul><li>Persons that the design team should contact relative to specific areas of design: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas of concern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul></ul>
  22. 27. Methods <ul><li>A summary of the information gathering and analysis procedures used to produce the program document. </li></ul>
  23. 29. References <ul><li>Reference materials. </li></ul>
  24. 31. Architectural Programming Part 2
  25. 32. 4. Executive Summary <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Format </li></ul>
  26. 33. Executive Summary - Purpose <ul><li>It allows the executive to take only a few minutes to read and understand the nature of the architectural problem. </li></ul><ul><li>It allows the designer to obtain an understanding of the entire design problem. </li></ul><ul><li>It reveals to anyone the key issues to look for as they continue through the document. </li></ul>
  27. 34. Executive Summary - Format <ul><li>Only a few pages in length. </li></ul><ul><li>State: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The organization’s mission/purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How the project will serve these purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The principal values or issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific goals to be achieved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important constraints or opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special user needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall size and relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The quality level of materials and systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The project schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The project budget and preliminary cost estimates </li></ul></ul>
  28. 36. <ul><li>Clients often change their minds as they gradually develop an understanding of the design implications of the program. </li></ul><ul><li>Some are also very forgetful as to what they had agreed upon earlier. </li></ul><ul><li>Many clients are unrealistic about what they want, compared to what they can afford. </li></ul>Executive Summary - Format
  29. 37. 5. Values and Goals <ul><li>First present the values and goals in simple phrases or sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Followed by the programming matrix </li></ul>
  30. 41. Architectural Programming CRS Matrix
  31. 42. A Brief History of CRS In 1946, William Caudill and John Rowlett , two architecture professors at the College of Texas A&M , became partners and founded the architecture firm of Caudill and Rowlett in Austin, Texas. In 1948 Wallie Scott , Caudill' s former student, joined the partnership and the firm became Caudill Rowlett Scott , Architects. The same year, William Peña , another former student of Caudill and Rowlett, became the fourth partner of the firm but requested to leave the firm's name unchanged . During the first two years, most of the firm's work came through the design of houses in Texas and Oklahoma. But in 1948, in large part due to Caudill's book Space for Teaching (1941) and John Rowlett's degrees in architecture and education, Caudill Rowlett Scott (CRS) landed their first project with an elementary school in Blackwell, Oklahoma. Through this project, CRS pioneered the revolution in schoolhouse design that would come into fruition across the United States during the 1950s.
  32. 43. A Brief History of CRS By the 1960s, CRS had become an integrated design firm, famous for its team approach which combined the efforts of architects, engineers, and planners . The firm ventured into higher education and health care facilities projects during this decade. It was also at this time that the architectural projects became international in scope as CRS began work in Saudi Arabia. In 1971, the firm went public under its new name, CRS Design Associates . During this decade, the firm continued to expand as it acquired several smaller companies, including Interlock, Inc., a management consulting firm; A.A. Matthews (AAM), a construction engineering firm; and Stevens, Thompson & Runyan (STR), an engineering company. Dr. Ghaith Pharaon, a Saudi multimillionaire, created headlines in 1978 when he purchased 20 percent of the corporation's stock. CRS Group, Inc. became CRSS in 1983 when it acquired J.E. Sirrine, a process engineering company. Ironically, William Caudill died the same year, without witnessing this last transformation in what once had been a small town business to the largest architecture/engineering/construction corporation in the U.S. The CRS Center was approved by the Board of Regents of the Texas A&M University System in 1990. The purpose of the CRS Center is to advance innovation and leadership in the design and construction industry.
  39. 50. 6. Design Considerations - Facts <ul><li>Human (activities and characteristics) </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental (site and climate) </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural (traditions, laws, codes, and ordinances) </li></ul><ul><li>Technical </li></ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul>
  40. 51. 6. Design Considerations - Facts <ul><li>Human (activities and characteristics) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of organization and its activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The organizational structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The organization mission and goals </li></ul></ul>
  41. 56. 6. Design Considerations - Facts <ul><li>Environmental (site and climate) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual illustration of the location of the project: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The city or region in which the site is located </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Its immediate environmental context </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The characteristics of the site </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The climate and microclimate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other information. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 65. 6. Design Considerations - Facts <ul><li>Cultural (traditions, laws, codes, and ordinances) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The cultural context of the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community traditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community fabric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban design objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ordinances or special review procedures relating to site, building, or landscape appearances. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 67. 6. Design Considerations - Facts <ul><li>Technical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled temperature or humidity requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials and finishes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solutions similar to existing ones or alternative approaches </li></ul></ul>
  44. 68. 6. Design Considerations - Facts <ul><li>Other (facts or needs?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Image of facility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signage and way-finding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form and color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy conservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety and accessibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budget and time </li></ul></ul>
  45. 69. Architectural Programming Part 3
  46. 70. 7. Project Requirements <ul><li>Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Requirements (PRs) </li></ul><ul><li>Design Requirements (DRs) </li></ul>
  47. 72. 7. Project Requirements <ul><li>Vary considerably depending on the nature of the project: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Master Planning Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Site Design (circulation, parking, drainage, retention, utilities) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building Layout (overall building relationships, sizes, location, orientation, future expansion) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 73. 7. Project Requirements <ul><li>Vary considerably depending on the nature of the project: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schematic Design Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building Design (building organization, size, orientation, image, growth, change) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interior Design (user needs, activities, sizes, relationships, conditions) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Space identification and square meter allocation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship matrices and diagrams </li></ul></ul></ul>
  49. 76. 7. Project Requirements <ul><li>Vary considerably depending on the nature of the project: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design Development Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Space program sheets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building systems requirements (materials, systems, processes) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  50. 77. NEEDS <ul><li>Poorly developed programs  a simple list of the required spaces is the program. </li></ul><ul><li>What space they think is needed without any systematic consideration of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The institutional purposes to be served </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Values to be expressed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project goals and objectives to be met </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental or cultural context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Client/user design ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other considerations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduces design to a puzzle-solving exercise . </li></ul>
  51. 78. NEEDS <ul><li>Contain compete information on the client’s and user’s: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factual constraints and opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Space needs compiled from programming matrix. </li></ul>
  52. 81. Performance Requirements (PRs) <ul><li>Statements of how some aspect of the organization or design should perform. </li></ul><ul><li>Referred to as Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GOALS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives (specific ways that a goal can be met) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>PRs can relate to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials </li></ul></ul>
  53. 82. Performance Requirements (PRs) <ul><li>Measurements of accomplishment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple binary or dichotomous judgment: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yes – No </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accomplished – Not Accomplished </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptable range of values that can be physically measured </li></ul></ul>
  54. 83. Performance Requirements (PRs) <ul><li>Example 1: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GOAL : To have excellent seating for theatrical performances. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PR : Provide an unobstructed view of at least three-quarters of the stage from all seats. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PR : Provide sound to each seat at the same level and quality as if the seat were 20 feet (7 meters) from the stage. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  55. 85. Performance Requirements (PRs) <ul><li>Example 2: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GOAL : To utilize daylighting strategies to reduce energy consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PR : Provide 75% of the daytime lighting load with daylighting. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  56. 86. Performance Requirements (PRs) <ul><li>Exercise 1: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GOAL : _____________________________ ___________________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PR 1 : ___________________________________ _______________________________________ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PR 2 : ___________________________________ _______________________________________ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PR 3 : ___________________________________ _______________________________________ </li></ul></ul></ul>
  57. 87. Design Requirements (DRs) <ul><li>More specific and measurable than goal statements. </li></ul><ul><li>Refer directly to the physical characteristics of the building. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships of various spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Particular furnishings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finishes </li></ul></ul>
  58. 88. Design Requirements (DRs) <ul><li>Measurements of accomplishment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A binary measure: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yes – No </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accomplished – Not Accomplished </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A simple count </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Square footage (meters) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement of the drawings </li></ul></ul>
  59. 89. Design Requirements (DRs) <ul><li>Example 1: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GOAL : To have excellent seating for theatrical performances. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DR : Offset and vary the width of seating (to allow persons to see between persons seated in front of them). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DR : Provide a minimum three-inch (7.5 cm) rise between rows of seats, and raise the stage three feet (90 cm) above first row (to allow people to see over the people seated in front of them). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DR : Provide a minimum of 6000 square feet (600 m2) for seating area (to provide ample seating for 600 people). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  60. 90. Design Requirements (DRs) <ul><li>Example 2: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GOAL : To utilize daylighting strategies to reduce energy consumption. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DR : Provide a clearstory lighting system (to provide 75% of the daytime lighting load). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  61. 91. Design Requirements (DRs) <ul><li>Exercise 2: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GOAL : _____________________________ ___________________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DR 1 : ___________________________________ _______________________________________ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DR 2 : ___________________________________ _______________________________________ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DR 3 : ___________________________________ _______________________________________ </li></ul></ul></ul>
  62. 92. Best Format <ul><li>GOAL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance requirement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design requirement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design requirement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design requirement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance requirement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design requirement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design requirement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design requirement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance requirement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design requirement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design requirement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design requirement </li></ul></ul></ul>
  63. 93. Exercise 3: <ul><li>GOAL: ________________________________ ______________________________________ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PR1: _____________________________________ __________________________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DR1: ___________________________________________ ________________________________________________ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DR2: ___________________________________________ ________________________________________________ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PR2: _____________________________________ __________________________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DR1: ___________________________________________ ________________________________________________ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DR2: ___________________________________________ ________________________________________________ </li></ul></ul></ul>
  64. 94. Architectural Programming Part 4
  65. 95. 8. Space Identification and Allocation <ul><li>Tabular presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Iconic representation </li></ul><ul><li>Building efficiency </li></ul>
  66. 96. 8. Space Identification and Allocation <ul><li>Tabular presentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brown sheets or Grid sheets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate size for each space </li></ul></ul>
  67. 98. 8. Space Identification and Allocation <ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead lengthy work session discussions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Number of persons who will be using the spaces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activities in which they are likely to engage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type and amount of furnishings and equipment that will be needed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Point out norms and standards for space size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help client/user group come to an understanding and agreement to what size each space must be. </li></ul></ul>
  68. 101. 8. Space Identification and Allocation <ul><li>Iconic representation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illustrate space size with small rectangular figures at the same scale. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective in showing laypersons the comparative size of spaces . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helpful to the designer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designers are often more comfortable with iconic rather than numeric imagery. </li></ul></ul>
  69. 108. 8. Space Identification and Allocation <ul><li>Building efficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate the amount of additional square footage (meters) that will be required to account for unprogrammed spaces including: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Circulation spaces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Walls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical and electric rooms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Janitor’s closets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rest rooms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Miscellaneous storage </li></ul></ul></ul>
  70. 111. 8. Space Identification and Allocation <ul><li>Building efficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very substantial percent of the building area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Net-to-Gross Ratio or Building Efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Varies significantly for different building types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If it is accounted for incorrectly, it can have a significant negative impact on building quality . </li></ul></ul>
  71. 113. 8. Space Identification and Allocation <ul><li>Building efficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculation of efficiency: </li></ul></ul>Net Area Efficiency = Gross Area 6000 m2 60% = 10,000 m2
  72. 114. 9. Relationship Matrices and Diagrams <ul><li>Relationship Matrices </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship Diagrams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding relationships is a very basic and important part of architectural programming. </li></ul></ul>
  73. 115. 9. Relationship Matrices and Diagrams <ul><li>Three distinct levels: </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship of activities within an organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship of activities to objects or places. </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship between different objects and/or places. </li></ul>
  74. 116. 9. Relationship Matrices and Diagrams <ul><li>Relationship of activities within an organization </li></ul>
  75. 117. 9. Relationship Matrices and Diagrams <ul><li>Relationship of activities to objects or places </li></ul>
  76. 118. 9. Relationship Matrices and Diagrams <ul><li>Relationship between different objects and/or places </li></ul>
  77. 119. 9. Relationship Matrices and Diagrams <ul><li>The programmer must discover the actual relationships and not make assumptions based on limited past experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Food preparation  Eating </li></ul><ul><li>Kitchen  Activities </li></ul>
  78. 123. 9. Relationship Matrices and Diagrams <ul><li>The programmer needs to have a good understanding of all the relationships between activities, objects, and places in order to know which activities and objects can and should be separated into distinct spaces or rooms, and which will work better in one common area . </li></ul>
  79. 125. Relationship Matrices <ul><li>Relationship matrix develop and show how various spaces relate. </li></ul><ul><li>Every identified space is located vertically along one side of the matrix. </li></ul><ul><li>Lines at a 45-degree angle to the end of each identified space extend to provide one cell connecting each space to every other space. </li></ul><ul><li>A simple distinguishable code can be used to show the nature of the relationship between the spaces. </li></ul>
  80. 130. Relationship Diagrams <ul><li>Small circles or “ bubbles ” each of which contains the name of one of the identified spaces. </li></ul><ul><li>The bubble representing the space under consideration is drawn first, then other spaces relating to it are indicated in additional bubbles placed near the first bubble. </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy , medium, and light-weight lines can be used as a code to indicate strong, moderate, and weak relationships. </li></ul>
  81. 133. Relationship Diagrams <ul><li>For simple buildings , it may be possible to prepare a diagram which, like the relationship matrix, shows the interrelationships of all interior and exterior spaces. </li></ul><ul><li>As the building becomes more complex , it is difficult to prepare such a diagram without implying some relationships that may not exist. It may be necessary to relate only the established major zones of the building. </li></ul>
  82. 138. Relationship Diagrams <ul><li>The programmer should avoid initiating diagrams that have design preconceptions built into them. </li></ul>
  83. 140. 10. Space Program Sheet <ul><li>A space program sheet for each identified space includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Statement regarding the purpose </li></ul><ul><li>The square meter (foot) allocations. </li></ul><ul><li>The important relationships for each space. </li></ul><ul><li>Types and numbers of people who will use the space. </li></ul><ul><li>The activities in which people will be engaged at various times of the day, week, and year. </li></ul><ul><li>Furnishing and equipment needs. </li></ul>
  84. 141. 10. Space Program Sheet <ul><li>A space program sheet provides a complete miniature program for the space covered. </li></ul><ul><li>They are circulated throughout the client’s organization for review, comment, and correction. </li></ul><ul><li>The following are samples of program sheets. </li></ul>
  85. 142. 10. Space Program Sheet
  86. 149. Architectural Programming Part 5
  87. 150. 11. Budget and Cost Analysis <ul><li>Owner’s Budget </li></ul><ul><li>Construction Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Project Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Life Cycle Costs </li></ul>
  88. 151. 11. Budget and Cost Analysis <ul><li>Owner’s Budget </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the construction budget is fixed , this should be stated clearly in the program. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It makes little sense to prepare a program ignoring the realities of the client’s budget. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The budget will almost always be an area of client concern and will be included as a primary value area. </li></ul></ul>
  89. 152. 11. Budget and Cost Analysis <ul><li>Construction Costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clients are likely not understand how much building they can get for their money. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average cost of various building types. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High, Medium, Low Averages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction systems that lead to these various averages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The programmer can use this information to project a probable range of construction costs for the facility even before any design studies have begun. </li></ul></ul>
  90. 155. 11. Budget and Cost Analysis <ul><li>Construction Costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is better to confront budgetary problems at this early stage of the building development process than to keep the client happy for the moment, suggesting that he/she can have everything desired, when, in fact, it is evident that the budget is not sufficient to construct the building. </li></ul></ul>
  91. 156. 11. Budget and Cost Analysis <ul><li>Project Costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction cost IS NOT Project cost. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project cost includes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taxes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Debt retirement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fees for programming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Financial feasibility studies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Architectural and engineering services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Governmental approvals and permits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Site surveys </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soil tests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Archeological surveys </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Landscape and interior design services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Site and offsite development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moveable furnishings and equipment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  92. 161. 11. Budget and Cost Analysis <ul><li>Life Cycle Costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some owners are willing to pay more for the building initially, if it means that the continuing costs of operations and maintenance can be reduced. </li></ul></ul>
  93. 163. 12. Project Schedule <ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Address every phase of the project. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be shown in different ways. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bar Chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical Path Method (CPM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast Track </li></ul></ul>
  94. 168. stop
  95. 169. 13. Design Analysis <ul><li>Client ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Precedents </li></ul><ul><li>Programmatic concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Design concepts </li></ul>
  96. 170. 13. Design Analysis <ul><ul><li>Not requirements for design. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas which have come up in the course of the diagnostic interviewing or work sessions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible directions for the designer to explore when formulating the design solution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design ideas come forward while people are considering the nature of the problem. </li></ul></ul>
  97. 171. 13. Design Analysis <ul><li>Client ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrapbook of ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Novice architects may prefer to ignore such ideas, feeling they are threats to the architect’s need for personal design expression. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experienced designers and programmers will encourage the client to collect and preserve this material as a data bank of design ideas. </li></ul></ul>
  98. 175. 13. Design Analysis <ul><li>Precedents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar buildings collected during the literature review. </li></ul></ul>
  99. 177. 13. Design Analysis <ul><li>Programmatic concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts having primarily organizational or operational implications. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programmatic concept cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas expressed in diagrams are more understandable to the designer than if they were expressed only in words. </li></ul></ul>
  100. 180. 13. Design Analysis <ul><li>Design precepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Precept Diagrams” of partial solutions to design problems as a final step in programming. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precepts can be diagrammatic , physical , or even metaphorical in nature and in how they are presented. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are “just” ideas. </li></ul></ul>
  101. 184. 13. Design Analysis <ul><li>Design concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the designer is a member of the programming team, it is also possible to begin the development of design concept diagrams as a concluding part of the programming activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analytical approach to developing design concepts focusing on particular issues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Functional concept diagrams </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zoning relationship diagrams </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Context related design concepts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Image related design concepts </li></ul></ul></ul>
  102. 189. 13. Design Analysis <ul><li>Design exploration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include design exploration in programming only when the designer is involved in the programming process . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reservations: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Confirmation of the program </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The designer may see other possibilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Premature fixing of conceptual ideas </li></ul></ul></ul>
  103. 190. 14. Appendix <ul><li>Contains information obtained from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Literature search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionnaire/survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other data … </li></ul></ul>
  104. 191. 14. Example
  105. 203. END
  106. 228. DEFINITION <ul><li>Architectural programming is the first stage of the design process in which the relevant: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>values of the client, user(s), architect, and society are identified; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>important project goals are examined; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>research reveals facts about the project; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>facility needs are clarified; and, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a foundation of knowledge is prepared for the creative ideas to follow. </li></ul></ul>
  107. 229. PROGRAMMING ISSUES <ul><li>Critical issues and related goals that affect architectural design: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific use(s ) of the space(s); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number and type of occupants ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities of the occupants; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Furnishings , fixtures, equipment, and/or materials required to support the occupants and activities; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional and spatial relationships between spaces; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural and community context ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site selection and site characteristics; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate and microclimate; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budget (overall, required expenses, restrictions, etc.); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legalities (laws, codes, ordinances, etc.); and, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other miscellaneous considerations. </li></ul></ul>