Post Occupancy Evaluation - تقييم المشروعات بعد الاستخدام


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Post Occupancy Evaluation - تقييم المشروعات بعد الاستخدام

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  • Post Occupancy Evaluation - تقييم المشروعات بعد الاستخدام

    1. 1. Kuwait University College of Engineering and Petroleum Post Occupancy Evaluation Research Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Department of Architecture College of Engineering and Petroleum Kuwait University by:
    2. 2. Lecture 1
    3. 3. Post Occupancy Evaluation ( POE ) studies are concerned with the performance of projects after construction and occupancy by end-users. They offer feedback on existing conditions , propose solutions to existing problems , and direct design guidelines to produce better future projects . Introduction
    4. 4. Linear Design Methods
    5. 5. Cyclical Design Methods
    6. 6. Introduction <ul><li>Buildings are said to be made for people . Yet, many buildings do not properly serve the functions for which they were designed. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who actually occupy or otherwise use buildings are seldom able to influence the way buildings are designed . </li></ul>
    7. 7. Introduction <ul><li>Nearly all the important decisions are based on factors that have little to do with either the way people use buildings or the way buildings affect people . </li></ul><ul><li>Those decisions are made by clients, builders, architects, and others who in most instances do not occupy the buildings which are ultimately constructed. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Introduction <ul><li>This lack of user participation has been cited as a major reason for dissatisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Yet these same users can serve as valuable sources of information in the design and evaluation phases of the building cycle. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Introduction <ul><li>User requirements in the past have for the most part been defined by the personal experience of architects and their clients . </li></ul><ul><li>There has been little incentive to spend time and resources defining the requirements of building occupants . </li></ul>
    10. 10. Introduction <ul><li>We need to upgrade the quality and importance of user information employed in the design process . </li></ul><ul><li>If buildings are to serve the people who occupy them, we must learn more about the way in which the built environment affects behavior and about how behavioral factors should influence building design . </li></ul>
    11. 11. Introduction <ul><li>Architects should become familiar with behavioral science information applicable to building users . </li></ul>
    12. 12. Introduction <ul><li>Familiarity with this information will enable them to make better use of available design data dealing with user needs and to identify requirements for new and/or improved information. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Introduction <ul><li>The primary function of a building is to enable particular activities to be performed within it . </li></ul>
    14. 14. Introduction <ul><li>The Performance Approach </li></ul><ul><li>The performance approach demands a statement of performance in terms of function . </li></ul><ul><li>The philosophy of the performance approach begins and ends with - and puts its principal emphasis on - the satisfaction of human needs . </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>The Performance Approach </li></ul><ul><li>To accomplish the satisfaction of the user with the end product we must: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Determine the nature of user requirements as a prerequisite for design, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Be able to evaluate buildings after occupancy to determine whether the requirements were met. </li></ul></ul>Introduction
    16. 16. Background <ul><li>Pruitt Igoe Housing Project, St. Louis, Missouri, USA </li></ul><ul><li>A multi million dollar complex of apartment building which had to be destroyed because it was unsuitable for the occupants. Designers failed to understand the life style of the people who were to occupy the housing. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Background <ul><li>User Requirements Information </li></ul><ul><li>New factors affecting design and requiring more attention to the needs and satisfaction of the users: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long term use of buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource limitations (financial and natural) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflicting priorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The information explosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questioning of traditional values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concern of quality of life. </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Background <ul><li>Building Users </li></ul><ul><li>Users are typically thought of as occupants, e.g. those who visit, reside or work in buildings. Indirect users are those who make observations because they are nearby or have an unobtrusive view. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Background
    20. 20. Building Users <ul><li>The builder , or the organization financing construction, is an extremely important building user. </li></ul><ul><li>The concern of the builder is to build a safe structure (meeting local regulation) which can be sold at a profit commensurate with the investment and risks taken . </li></ul><ul><li>Concern for building acceptability is likely to be limited to those factors which influence the sales potential and market value of the building. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Building Users <ul><li>Large Private and Governmental Organizations build and later occupy buildings . </li></ul><ul><li>The success of such buildings is largely determined by their responsiveness to the requirements of those who occupy them . </li></ul><ul><li>These buildings do not have to compete in the marketplace - they are built to carry out the activities of the organization that built them . </li></ul>
    22. 22. Building Users <ul><li>The Building Owner , who rents space to others , is vitally concerned that a building works adequately for its occupants. </li></ul><ul><li>The returns of investment depend largely on the degree of success achieved in renting space profitably. </li></ul><ul><li>Dissatisfaction by building occupants is therefore directly translated into unleased space. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Building Users <ul><li>The Building Manager or Operator, responsible of for the smooth day-to-day functioning of a building , is a key link between the owners and occupiers of buildings. </li></ul><ul><li>Building management problems include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The building and its subsystems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The interaction of people with the building and its subsystems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications among management, ownership and occupants. </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Building Users <ul><li>The Building Occupants . </li></ul><ul><li>When we use the term “user” we refer to occupants of buildings. </li></ul><ul><li>Occupants should be seen in terms of the major activities performed in a building. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Building Users <ul><li>For example, in a hospital the occupants are patients, nurses, doctors, technicians, maintenance people, and visitors. Each of these occupant groups perform important functions within the building, and these must be considered by the architect. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Background <ul><li>Differences Among Occupants </li></ul><ul><li>While readily visible distinctions are apparent (e.g. gender, age, etc.), many psychological, cultural, and social factors exist which may be extremely important for the designer to consider but which cannot be readily identified. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Background <ul><li>Personal and Cultural Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of Employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic Heritage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Previous Experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes. </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Background <ul><li>Hierarchy of Needs </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most comprehensive and widely used schemes for defining user needs was developed by A. Maslow (psychologist), who treated human needs as an ever-changing process. </li></ul>Food, Clothing, Shelter Security Member of a group Status Self
    29. 29. Background <ul><li>Hierarchy of Needs </li></ul><ul><li>He assumes that complete satisfaction of needs is not possible because when one set of needs is satisfied, another one emerges . </li></ul>Food, Clothing, Shelter Security Member of a group Status Self
    30. 30. Lecture 2
    31. 31. The Theoretical Base of the POE Concept <ul><li>Over the past 30 years efforts in this field turned out to be the process called Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE). </li></ul><ul><li>In the USA, POEs derived their name from the “ Occupancy Permit ” which is issued when a building is completed, inspected, and deemed to be safe to occupy in accordance with building codes and regulations. </li></ul><ul><li>In the USA, Canada, Australia and new Zealand, several government agencies have established ongoing POE programs in order to evaluate the performance of their facilities. </li></ul>
    32. 32. The Theoretical Base of the POE Concept <ul><li>After evolving over the past 20 years, POE feedback is now most commonly used in large corporations and in the institutional sector . </li></ul><ul><li>In an attempt to improve upon building performance with each building delivery cycle , POEs are mostly used in situations where there are recurring construction programs or repetitive building types . </li></ul>
    33. 33. Six Phases of the Building Life Cycle <ul><li>The six phases of the building life cycle are: </li></ul><ul><li>1- Planning, </li></ul><ul><li>2- Programming, </li></ul><ul><li>3- Design, </li></ul><ul><li>4- Construction, </li></ul><ul><li>5- Occupancy, and </li></ul><ul><li>6- Recycling. </li></ul>Occupancy Recycling Construction Design Program- ming Planning
    34. 34. Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) is the process of evaluating buildings in a systematic and rigorous manner after they have been built and occupied for some time. POE’s focus on building occupants and their needs, and thus they provide insights into the consequences of past design decisions and the resulting building performance . This knowledge is a sound basis for creating better buildings in the future . Post Occupancy Evaluation: A definition
    35. 35. <ul><li>This course outlines a comprehensive approach to Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) applicable to all architectural and urban design projects. </li></ul><ul><li>The Post Occupancy Evaluation process encompasses functional and technical performance of buildings alongside human performance criteria, while recognizing the cultural context of the project. </li></ul><ul><li>Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) offers feedback on design and contributes to architectural knowledge . </li></ul>POE Course Objectives
    36. 36. Participants in the Building Life Cycle <ul><li>Initiators : Owners - Investors - Institutions - Governmental Agencies - … </li></ul><ul><li>Designers : Architects - Engineers- Interior Designers - Landscape Architects - Specialists (Structural - Electrical - Mechanical - HVAC - ..…) </li></ul><ul><li>Builders : Contractors - Sub-contractors - … </li></ul><ul><li>Operators : Managers - Operators - Maintenance staff. </li></ul><ul><li>End Users : the actual persons occupying the building </li></ul>
    37. 37. The Application of POE <ul><li>Institutions and Government Agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Over the past few years, there has been an increasing concern for budget overruns , building failure , or inappropriate design decisions made during the planning and development of facility. Government agencies are interested in the performance evaluation concept and process in order to avoid these disadvantages. </li></ul>
    38. 38. The Application of POE <ul><li>Private Sector and Facility Managers </li></ul><ul><li>There is an increasing acceptance of the performance evaluation concept and process in the private sector in order to solicit user feedback on existing buildings . </li></ul><ul><li>Design Firms </li></ul><ul><li>While some design firms are fearful that BPE results may be used against them, and others are unable to convince clients to pay for evaluation studies . Evaluation studies today constitutes an important contribution in the quest to provide quality assurance . </li></ul>
    39. 39. Goals of POE <ul><li>“ Post occupancy evaluation is a means of learning how well the plan worked in practice and the extent to which the goals were achieved . “ </li></ul><ul><li>( M. Brill, “Evaluating Buildings on a Performance Basis,” in Designing for Human Behavior: Architecture and the Behavioral Sciences, ed. J. Lang, Stroudsburg, 1974) </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation must be an integral part of the total design process . </li></ul><ul><li>A major difficulty with many evaluations is that they concentrate on general attitudes and preferences of respondents to environments, without adequately specifying the design characteristics of the building being evaluated . </li></ul>
    40. 40. Goals of POE <ul><li>Evaluations of the completed projects - post occupancy or post construction evaluations are conducted for several reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To modify or correct an existing building, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To provide guidelines for future construction of the same building type, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To evaluate programming criteria and design effectiveness , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To provide data on how people use and respond to the built environment . </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. The Performance Approach <ul><li>To accomplish the satisfaction of the user with the end product we must: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Determine the nature of user requirements as a prerequisite for design , and </li></ul><ul><li>2) Be able to evaluate buildings after occupancy to determine whether the requirements were met . </li></ul>
    42. 42. POE Outcomes <ul><li>Short term outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback on existing problems in buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of appropriate solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medium term outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inform the next building delivery cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long term outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generation of planning and design criteria for specific building types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add to existing architectural knowledge </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Quantitative and Qualitative Measurements of Performance <ul><li>Many aspects of building performance are in fact quantifiable , such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lighting, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acoustics, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature and humidity, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Durability of materials, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amount and distribution of space, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User satisfaction and so on. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The evaluation of qualitative aspects of building performance, such as aesthetic beauty or visual compatibility with a building’s surroundings, is somewhat more difficult to measure. </li></ul>
    44. 44. Measurements of Performance <ul><li>Observed Performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured by an expert or panel of experts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information is recorded with the help of a checklist during a walkthrough of the building. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perceived Performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured by the users or occupants of a particular environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In most cases this information is recorded by a questionnaire . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measured Performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured performance is captured through monitoring of physical phenomena. </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Measurements of Performance
    46. 46. An Integrative Framework for POE
    47. 47. Conclusions <ul><li>In summary, Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) identifies both successes and failures in building performance, with an emphasis on human factors and the interaction with the design of physical setting and building systems . </li></ul><ul><li>If POEs are made part of standard practice, it will help establish a performance-based approach to design . </li></ul>
    48. 48. Conclusions <ul><li>The benefits of POEs are several: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>better quality of the built environment; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>greater occupant comfort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more satisfactory experience in visiting, using, or working in a facility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improved staff morale and productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>significant cost savings </li></ul></ul>
    49. 49. Conclusions Most important of all, building performance evaluation contributes to the state-of-the-art knowledge of environmental design research and thus make significant contributions towards improving the profession of architecture .
    50. 50. Lecture 3
    51. 51. The Three Major Elements of Evaluation The Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) process encompasses design and technical and functional performance of buildings alongside human performance criteria. POEs offer feedback on design and contribute to architectural knowledge.
    52. 52. Elements of Evaluation <ul><li>Technical Elements : </li></ul><ul><li>Fire safety, structural integrity, sanitation, durability, acoustics, lighting, HVAC, ….. </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Elements : </li></ul><ul><li>Workflow, circulation, space allocation, operational efficiency, productivity, organization, ….. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Elements : </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy, security, social interaction, perception of density, territoriality, ….. </li></ul>
    53. 53. Aspects of Performance Evaluation
    54. 54. POE Outcomes <ul><li>Feedback from occupants combined with state-of-the-art knowledge : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves building performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures quality in terms of health, safety and security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assesses functionality and psychological/cultural satisfaction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adds to the state-of-the-art knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizes local experience and contextual factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saves cost of maintaining and operating facilities over the life cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves morale of occupants and staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generates benchmarks/successful concepts and design guidelines </li></ul></ul>
    55. 55. Levels of POE Effort <ul><li>There are three levels of effort at which POEs can be undertaken: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indicative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Investigative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnostic </li></ul></ul></ul>
    56. 56. Levels of POE Research <ul><li>Indicative Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick, walk-through evaluations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selected interviews with knowledgeable informants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured interviews with key personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group meetings with end-users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive and negative aspects of building performance are documented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photography and/or notes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be carried out within few hours of on-site data gathering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive summary results with prioritized issues and recommendations for action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicates major strengths and weaknesses of a particular building’s performance. </li></ul></ul>
    57. 57. Levels of POE Research <ul><li>Investigative Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More in-depth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews and survey questionnaires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photographic / video recordings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical measurements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve a number of buildings of the same type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take anywhere from a week to several months </li></ul></ul>
    58. 58. Levels of POE Research <ul><li>Diagnostic Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused, longitudinal and cross-sectional evaluation studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One or more performance aspects (e.g. stair safety, orientation, way-finding, privacy, overcrowding, ...) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resemble traditional in-depth research in a very focused topic area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From months to years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires highly sophisticated data gathering and analysis techniques </li></ul></ul>
    59. 59. Research Design <ul><li>Case Study </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers use a case study design when they want to develop intensive knowledge about one complex object . </li></ul><ul><li>They are used to describe and diagnose single, internally complex objects : individuals , buildings , episodes , institutions , processes , societies . </li></ul><ul><li>A case study is appropriate when investigators are interested mainly in information specific to the particular study object and context , rather than information easily generalizable to a large population. </li></ul>
    60. 60. Research Design <ul><li>Survey </li></ul><ul><li>A survey design is useful when investigators want to find out in detail about a phenomenon, such as housing satisfaction, or about a class of elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Survey researchers who study large populations often choose to gather data that are easy to quantify and therefore less time-consuming to analyze than qualitative data. </li></ul><ul><li>For this reason frequent research methods used in surveys are mail questionnaires , observing physical traces , observing behavior , and interviews . </li></ul>
    61. 61. <ul><li>Experimental </li></ul><ul><li>An experimental design is appropriate when investigators want to measure the effects that an action has in a particular situation . </li></ul><ul><li>In an experiment you want to be able to focus observation on a small number of attributes at one time . </li></ul><ul><li>To do so, you need control , so that you can be as sure as possible that the effects you observe result from experimental changes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control group and Experiment group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before and After the action </li></ul></ul>Research Design
    62. 62. Research Design <ul><li>Parametric Study </li></ul><ul><li>Parametric research consists of the systematic manipulation of one variable ( Independent ), and making measurements on another variable ( Dependent ) thought to be directly influenced by the independent variable , while keeping all other conditions constant by means of control variable. </li></ul>
    63. 63. Research Design <ul><li>Multivariant Study </li></ul><ul><li>In many situations, identifying one or even a restricted set of variables is difficult - especially in the case of behavioral studies of building environments where many physical and personal factors are present . </li></ul>
    64. 64. Research Design <ul><li>Natural Settings </li></ul><ul><li>Natural settings offer researchers the unique opportunity to observe people in settings they choose to come to, engaged in activities a contrived setting could not re-create. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural settings are particularly appropriate for diagnostic studies in which investigators want to find out what is actually going on - what elements, relationships, and dynamics are salient . </li></ul><ul><li>In natural settings you can also carry out an experiment , by manipulating a part of a physical environment , a particular social behavior, or a policy. </li></ul>
    65. 65. Research Design <ul><li>Contrived Settings </li></ul><ul><li>Contrived settings are planned and controlled research environments in which to observe people and gather data from them. </li></ul><ul><li>One such setting is the experimental laboratory , in which investigators: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>control the setting , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>choose participants randomly , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>effect controlled changes , and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>measure some attribute of the subjects after those changes . </li></ul></ul>
    66. 66. Research Design <ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability refers to whether other researchers performing similar studies obtain equivalent results . </li></ul>
    67. 67. Research Design <ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><li>The validity of a measurement is concerned with whether the property being measured is what should be measured - i.e., are we measuring the right thing? </li></ul>
    68. 68. Lecture 4
    69. 69. Research Methods <ul><li>Observing Physical Traces </li></ul><ul><li>Observing Environmental Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Focused Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized Questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>Archives </li></ul>
    70. 70. Research Methods: Observing Physical Traces <ul><li>Observing physical traces means systematically looking at physical surroundings to find reflections of previous activity not produced in order to be measured by researchers. </li></ul><ul><li>Traces may have been unconsciously left behind (for example, paths across a field), or they may be conscious changes people have made in their surroundings (for example, a curtain hung over an open doorway or a new wall built). </li></ul><ul><li>From such traces researchers begin to learn how an environment got to be the way it is , what decisions its designers and builders made about the place , how people actually use it , how they feel toward their surroundings , and generally how that particular environment meets the needs of its users . </li></ul>
    71. 71. Research Methods: Observing Physical Traces Erosions
    72. 72. Research Methods: Observing Physical Traces Leftovers
    73. 73. Research Methods: Observing Physical Traces Missing Traces
    74. 74. Research Methods: Observing Physical Traces Connections
    75. 75. Research Methods: Observing Physical Traces Personalization
    76. 76. Research Methods: Observing Physical Traces Personalization
    77. 77. Research Methods: Observing Physical Traces Official
    78. 78. Research Methods: Observing Physical Traces Unofficial
    79. 79. <ul><li>Recording Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Drawings </li></ul><ul><li>Sketches of traces and drawings can be extremely useful in final reports. </li></ul><ul><li>Photographs </li></ul><ul><li>It is generally valuable to document both easily photographed outdoor traces and indoor traces.Consideration should be given to research requirements and respondents’ sensitivity. Black and white photos - color photos - color slides. </li></ul><ul><li>The “Big Arrow”: A stiff 1-foot long arrow is used in photography to call attention to specific, often small items. </li></ul><ul><li>Counting </li></ul><ul><li>Certain traces yield their full value only when their quantity is taken into account. </li></ul><ul><li>Each way of recording traces catches another dimension of the trace and provides researchers with new data. </li></ul>Research Methods: Observing Physical Traces
    80. 80. Research Methods: Observing Physical Traces <ul><li>Recording Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Annotated Diagrams </li></ul>
    81. 81. <ul><li>Observing behavior means systematically watching people use their environments : individuals, pairs of people, small groups, and large groups. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do they do? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do activities relate to one another spatially? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do spatial relations affect participants? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How does a physical environment support or interfere with behaviors taking place within it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What side effects does the setting have on relationships between individuals or groups? </li></ul></ul>Research Methods: Observing Environmental Behavior
    82. 82. <ul><li>Observing behavior in physical settings generates data about people's activities and the relationships needed to sustain them ; about regularities of behavior ; about expected uses , new uses , and misuses of a place ; and about behavioral opportunities and constraints that environments provide . </li></ul>Research Methods: Observing Environmental Behavior
    83. 83. Research Methods: Observing Environmental Behavior
    84. 84. Research Methods: Observing Environmental Behavior
    85. 85. <ul><li>What to Observe? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who is Actor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>doing what Act </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>with whom ? Significant Other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In what relationship , Relationships (aural, visual, tactile, olfactory, symbolic) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in what context , Sociocultural Context (situation, culture) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and where? Physical Setting (props, spatial relations) </li></ul></ul></ul>Research Methods: Observing Environmental Behavior
    86. 86. <ul><li>Recording Devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Notation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Notation is the recording of behavior in verbal and diagrammatic notes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It demands that observers decide what to describe and what to overlook on the spot. </li></ul></ul></ul>Research Methods: Observing Environmental Behavior
    87. 87. <ul><li>Recording Devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-coded Checklists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive notes (qualitative observations) can be used to develop a precoded checklist for counting. For each activity on a checklist, observers record characteristics of participants (alone or in group), place, time, and other relevant conditions, such as the weather. </li></ul></ul></ul>Research Methods: Observing Environmental Behavior
    88. 88. <ul><li>Recording Devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recording activities on floor plans , diagrams, or maps is particularly convenient if researchers want to observe and analyze several people in one general area at the same time. Maps are also useful to record sequences of behavior in settings where people have a choice of several paths. </li></ul></ul>Research Methods: Observing Environmental Behavior
    89. 89. <ul><li>Recording Devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photographs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Still photographs can capture subtleties that other methods may not record. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photographs are useful throughout a research project because of their illustrative quality . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Videotapes and Movies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whenever time is a significant element, motion photography - videotape or movies - ought to be considered. </li></ul></ul></ul>Research Methods: Observing Environmental Behavior
    90. 90. Lecture 4b
    91. 91. Design of Observational Instrument <ul><li>As with research plan in general, survey design is an interactive process </li></ul><ul><li>Ask self series of questions: </li></ul>
    92. 92. 1. What do you need to know? 2. How will observation be accomplished? 3.What type of population are you sampling?
    93. 93. A. Secret Outsider <ul><li>Distant observer unknown to participants in natural setting </li></ul><ul><li>Non-intrusive </li></ul><ul><li>Major Disadvantage: Removed from the immediacy of the action </li></ul>
    94. 94. B. Recognized Outsider <ul><li>Firsthand observer made known to participants </li></ul><ul><li>Intrusive: Hawthorne effect </li></ul>
    95. 95. C. Marginal Participant <ul><li>Adopt position of commonly accepted and unimportant participant </li></ul><ul><li>Non-intrusive as long as subjects unaware of being observed </li></ul><ul><li>Choice of clothesobjects carried </li></ul><ul><li>Physical posturing </li></ul>
    96. 96. <ul><li>Major Disadvantage: Familiarity with situation influences what data is recorded </li></ul>C. Marginal Participant
    97. 97. D. Full Participant <ul><li>Adopt position of central importance in situation </li></ul><ul><li>Intrusive if not perceived as resident or fail to meet membership criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Major Disadvantage : Ability to unintentionally change others behavior </li></ul>
    98. 98. <ul><li>A. Access to subjects' behavior </li></ul><ul><li>B. Amount of activity </li></ul><ul><li>C. Awareness of being observed </li></ul>D. Full Participant
    99. 99. 4. How will observation be recorded ? <ul><li>Recording devices depend upon: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detail required of information gathered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount previously known (exploratory vs. confirmatory) </li></ul></ul>
    100. 100. <ul><li>Asking questions in research means posing questions systematically to find out what people think, feel, do, know, believe, and expect. Focused interviews are particularly suited to the needs of researchers interested in reactions to particular environments. </li></ul><ul><li>Focused Interviews can be used with individuals or groups to find out in depth: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how people define a concrete situation, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what they consider important about it, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what effects they intended their actions to have in the situation, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how they feel about it. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The use of the tape recorder. </li></ul>Research Methods: Focused Interviews
    101. 101. <ul><li>The Interview Guide </li></ul><ul><li>The interview guide is a loose conceptual map; a set of topics, elements, patterns, and relationships that the interviewer tentatively intends to cover. </li></ul>Research Methods: Focused Interviews
    102. 102. <ul><li>Standardized questionnaires are used to discover regularities among groups of people by comparing answers to the same set of questions asked of a large number of people . </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaires can be delivered by mail or administered over the phone or in person by interviewers trained to ask the questions in the same way . </li></ul>Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire: Overview
    103. 103. <ul><li>Questionnaires provide a useful data when investigators begin with a very well defined problem , knowing what major concepts and dimensions they want to deal with . </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of questionnaire responses can provide precise numbers to measure variables, e.g. degrees, percentages, .etc. </li></ul>Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire: Overview
    104. 104. <ul><ul><li>Begin with hypotheses about which attributes relate to each other. ( Example: Type of previous dwelling influences satisfaction with apartment living.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry out particularly thorough preliminary diagnostic research . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use focused interviews and observation methods to determine how people similar to intended questionnaire respondents define a situation : what is important; what names they use for places and things; the types of answers they give. </li></ul></ul>Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire: Steps
    105. 105. <ul><ul><li>Structure and develop the questionnaire to include all the variables . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pretest the questionnaire with more people like the expected respondents by administering it to self-conscious respondents while asking them to comment on it . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administer the questionnaire and analyze the results. </li></ul></ul>Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire: Steps
    106. 106. Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire: Cover Page
    107. 107. Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire: Cover Page
    108. 108. Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire: Types of Questions Ordinal Questions Information
    109. 109. Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire: Types of Questions Ordinal Questions Attitudes
    110. 110. Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire: Types of Questions Ordinal Questions Meaning
    111. 111. Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire Rank-ordering of Items
    112. 112. Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire: Types of Questions
    113. 113. Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire: Types of Questions
    114. 114. Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire: Types of Questions
    115. 115. Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire: Types of Questions
    116. 116. Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire: Types of Questions
    117. 117. <ul><li>Very important consideration before one begins to write questions </li></ul><ul><li>Consider number of qualities respondents possess: </li></ul>
    118. 118. <ul><li>Visual Responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some cognitive, expressive, and perceptual information about respondents’ physical surroundings may be better expressed visually than verbally, through non-precoded techniques, such as freehand area maps, base-map additions, drawings, photographs taken by respondents and games. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive maps are the mental pictures of the surroundings that people use to structure the way they look at, react to, and act in their environment. If designers know how people who use their environments see them, they can better control the side effects of design decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freehand Maps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additions to Base Maps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photographs </li></ul></ul>Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire
    119. 119. <ul><li>Other tools: Additions to Base Maps </li></ul>Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire
    120. 120. <ul><li>Other tools: Drawings </li></ul>Research Methods: Standardized Questionnaire Drawings by children Freehand maps
    121. 121. <ul><li>Games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To develop games through which respondents express themselves by making a series of linked choice. </li></ul></ul>Research Methods: Gaming Simulation
    122. 122. Research Methods: Gaming Simulation <ul><li>The Prehistory of Games </li></ul><ul><li>Games are one of the things that make us distinctively human. </li></ul><ul><li>The prehistory of games includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>entertainment games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>operational games </li></ul></ul>
    123. 123. Research Methods: Gaming Simulation <ul><li>The Inside Action of Games </li></ul><ul><li>One key difference between different genres of games is whether main focus is on: </li></ul><ul><li>interaction (roles of players) or transaction (rules of play) </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between playing cops and robbers and playing marbles, for example. The first is oriented towards relational (or social) exchange: the second is oriented towards rational (or economic) exchange. While toddlers prefer interaction games (peek-a-boo), adults prefer transaction games (bridge). Only adolescent fantasy gamers seem to prefer a mix of interaction/transaction . </li></ul>
    124. 124. Research Methods: Gaming Simulation <ul><li>A Taxonomy of Games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entertainment Games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational Games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental Games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research Games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational Research Games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational Games </li></ul></ul>
    125. 125. Research Methods: Gaming Simulation <ul><li>Entertainment Games </li></ul><ul><li>pretense (children's games) probability (gambling games) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Dungeon and Dragons poker Tetris paintball marbles </li></ul>
    126. 126. Research Methods: Gaming Simulation <ul><li>Educational Games </li></ul><ul><li>All direct benefits derived by people playing game, but benefits are longer-term and more general in nature. Any benefits to people outside game derive from games-players increasing their specific knowledge or learning to be more efficient in carrying out tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>children playing 'house' employee training programs using role-playing foreign language instruction via conversational practice corporate-sponsored driving program teaching terrorist evasion tactics for execs abroad </li></ul>
    127. 127. Research Methods: Gaming Simulation <ul><li>The Roles of Role-Play </li></ul><ul><li>Four distinct kinds of role-playing: </li></ul><ul><li>theatrical (actor presents part assigned by a director) sociological (normal behavior of persons in a given culture is presented) dissimulative (person presents a deception regarding true self) educational (participation intended to diagnose, inform and train) </li></ul><ul><li>Unique element in role-playing is the interaction: situation not completely under the control of any of the participants. Similar to (but simpler than) real life situations. </li></ul>
    128. 128. Research Methods: Gaming Simulation <ul><li>Experimental Games </li></ul><ul><li>Aimed at testing theories or other general hypotheses, without a specific empirical content, without a specific situational context, and without any specific application in mind. Main benefit is to experimenters in reporting on results of games. </li></ul><ul><li>Little benefit to participants themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Stanley Milgram's 'shocking' obedience trials Solomon Asch's 'group pressure' judgment calls Philip Zimbardo's 'prison simulation' at Stanford </li></ul>
    129. 129. Research Methods: Gaming Simulation <ul><li>Research Games </li></ul><ul><li>Oriented towards obtaining empirical material (e.g., forecasts) concerning a fairly broad area in which the eventual application isn't immediately apparent. Emphasis on macro-view of game results rather than micro-view of results as achieved by individual players. Main benefit is to outside audience that receives the reported results. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>strategic management games using MBA students instead of actual management teams </li></ul>
    130. 130. Research Methods: Gaming Simulation <ul><li>Operational Research Games </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to aid decisions, planning, and policy implementation, but focusing on several similar situations rather than a single decision situation. Directed toward development of methods appropriate to type of decision situation involved </li></ul><ul><li>May benefit wider audience of decision-makers as well as game participants </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>strategic marketing games futures research foreign policy simulations </li></ul>
    131. 131. Research Methods: Gaming Simulation <ul><li>Operational Games </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to aid decision-making, planning, and policy implementation for a specific (usually crisis) situation. Main benefits to decision-makers and participants. </li></ul><ul><li>No outside reporting of results. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>war games emergency response simulations corporate crisis simulations </li></ul>
    132. 132. Research Methods: Gaming Simulation <ul><li>Research Benefits of Games </li></ul><ul><li>Gaming can be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a brain-storming device a method of actualizing a thought experiment a chance to pre-test behavioral assumptions in decision models prior to implementation a two-way learning device a way to open communication lines among players an aid to discussion between analysts and decision makers about problem clarification a very graphic display of the 'gestalt' of a situation for efficient transfer of ideas and data </li></ul></ul>
    133. 133. Research Methods: Gaming Simulation <ul><li>Origins of Game Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Original applications were strictly military: objective was to win in a zero-sum game ('winner take all') First known 'war game' was 'Wei-Hai' board game (&quot;Go&quot;) played in China circa 3000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>First theoretical treatise on war games was also written by great Chinese general, Sun Tsu, about 500 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Frederick the Great of Prussia's military staff began creating formal war games ('Kriegspiel') to train officers in mid-18th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Edison came close to inventing first game model of real military situation in 1917 with his German U-boat evasion strategy for protecting U.S. transport ships </li></ul><ul><li>Real problem with theoretical 'war games': can't quantify critical 'irrational' factors (revenge, resolve, morale, courage) of troops and any solutions would be considered 'top secret' by military. </li></ul><ul><li>'Game theory' that can't even account for boys' interest in playing violent video-games like 'Mortal Kombat' probably has little real-world military implications, anyway. </li></ul><ul><li>Game Theory Without Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>However, if you take the 'irrational' element out, you have a pretty good 'real world' model for much economic-oriented behavior, and certainly a much more flexible model than the pure linear programming models of operations research. The term 'game theory' applies to the creation of a complete model of a game situation, involving the following specific 'limiting assumptions': </li></ul><ul><li>All players are 'rational': </li></ul><ul><li>They attempt to maximize their own 'pay-off' They have correct expectations of other players'(rational) behavior They have correct expectations of other players' (rational) expectations </li></ul><ul><li>The Theory of Games and Economic Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Origins of modern game theory found in the book of this name written in 1944 by refugees John von Neumann, a Hungarian mathematician, and Oskar Morgenstern,an Austrian economist, at Princeton. (It's said they wrote &quot;a big book, because they wrote it twice, once in symbols for mathematicians and once in prose for economists&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>Book's emphasis in 635 pages on n-person non-cooperative games was thought not to be of practical use until the post-war period. A book more cited than actually read... but some claim that von Neumann may have been the original for Stanley Kubrick film 'Dr. Strangelove', as von Neumann was both famous in cybernetic circles and known to have been involved in the development of nuclear deterrence strategies during the start of the Cold War period. </li></ul><ul><li>Nash Equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Next major development was the 'Nash equilibrium' (proposed by John Nash in 1951) which describes a solution set for non-zero sum games in which no player has an incentive to deviate from best strategy, given that the other players don't deviate from their best strategy Three classic equilibrium games: </li></ul><ul><li>The Prisoner's Dilemma the two cooperating players have to decide whether to stop cooperating in exchange for an individual 'pay-off' Chicken the two competing players refuse to cooperate even though otherwise the 'pay-off' may be a fatal one </li></ul><ul><li>The Battle of the Sexes the two competing players have to cooperate in order to bring about a mutually satisfactory 'pay-off' </li></ul><ul><li>The Social Psychology of Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Another interesting use of Nash equilibria is in social psychology. John Thibaut and Harold Kelley's 1959 book, The Social Psychology of Groups, uses the 'Battle of the Sexes' game to model interpersonal interactions of a dyad over time, based on either member of the dyad's 'level of satisfaction' with the relationship (as opposed to other possible relationships). Most recently, the concept has been used by Rusbault and others to attempt to model the evolution of abusive relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Again, the problem with this type of application is the researcher's inability to quantify 'players' 'subjective' (&quot;how much love do I feel?&quot;) rather than 'objective' (&quot;how much money can I win?&quot;) 'pay-offs'. </li></ul><ul><li>Game Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>Normal Form of a game are 2 x 2 matrices, one showing the strategy combinations for each player, and the other showing outcome pay-offs for each player If there is a first-mover advantage (that is, who moves first is important to the ensuing sequence of moves),then </li></ul><ul><li>the Extensive Form , showing a game tree (each player's moves in a decision-tree format) and possibly a time line for the game's action, is used. </li></ul><ul><li>Information and Games </li></ul><ul><li>Information structure of a game can be very important. More sophisticated games may show variations on the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Perfect information All players have true and equal knowledge. Complete information No pre-existing game conditions alter prior to the first player's move. </li></ul><ul><li>Certain information No pre-existing game conditions alter due to any player's moves </li></ul><ul><li>Symmetric information No player has information different from other players </li></ul><ul><li>Imperfect, incomplete, uncertain, asymmetric games are the most interesting... think of poker! Important Strategic Terms </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant strategy: a player's best response, no matter what other players do Minimax: an attempt to minimize the maximum outcome possible for any player ('controlling the winner) </li></ul><ul><li>Maximin: an attempt to maximize the minimum outcome possible for any player ('protecting the loser') </li></ul><ul><li>Focal Points </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Schelling's 1960 book, The Strategy of Conflict ,introduced the idea of focal points : Nash equilibria which for psychological reasons are particularly compelling Boundaries are particular kinds of focal points: it's where an arbitrary discontinuity in behavior can be expected if the opponent 'crosses the line.' </li></ul><ul><li>Market Signalling </li></ul><ul><li>A. Michael Spence illustrated the importance of the concept of 'signaling' in repeated game interactions in his 1974 book, Market Signalling . He suggests, for example, that the possession of an MBA sends a 'signal' that that person is 'higher quality' than a non-MBA (presumably because the person was admitted to business school). 'Screening' is used when employers hire new MBAs in preference to non-MBAs strictly on the basis of the 'signal' rather than actual job-related critiera. </li></ul><ul><li>Same reason that some dealers sell used cars with warranties! </li></ul><ul><li>The Evolution of Cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Axelrod's 1984 book, The Evolution of Cooperation , described how some cooperative strategies in a computerized tournament achieved higher scores than purely competitive strategies through long-term play, by employing a 'tit for tat' (&quot;always cooperate at first, but retaliate immediately if provoked&quot;) algorithm. Idea is used to model 'evolutionary games', in which same players interact over time and to study how cooperation may arise in certain situations </li></ul><ul><li>Game Theory Uses in Business </li></ul><ul><li>Widely used for modelling of: </li></ul><ul><li>fault-tolerance in distributed computing industry entry deterrence predatory pricing takeovers and greenmail innovation and patent development location models customer switching costs out-of-court settlements auctions to hinder buyer collusion optimal contracts moral hazards (agent-principal relations) shareholder voting procedures collective bargaining outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Future Games </li></ul><ul><li>One of the more interesting applications of game theory has been in social science micro-simulation. Although, until recently, 'simulation' without human-computer interaction has been limited to data-based dynamical micro-simulation with little or no interaction between the individual 'datums' (which exhibit stochastic 'black box' 'behavior'), there has been a new increase of interest in concept-driven micro-simulations based on the distributed artificial intelligence approach, with the individual 'datums' modeled as agents with memory, goals, and rules, and acting in an 'environment'. This, of course, has particular interest in terms of 'intelligent agent' applications for the World Wide Web. </li></ul><ul><li>Also of particular theoretical interest is Maxwell professor Allan Mazur's modelling of the evolution of macro-level social stratification and language in human societies using micro-simulation techniques. </li></ul>
    134. 134. <ul><li>Games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the oldest such games is Wilson’s “ Neighborhood Game ”. Alternative degrees of attributes such as neighborhood physical quality and sanitation services each have a price tag attached. Respondents are given a set of chips representing the total amount of money they can spend to “buy” the amenities on the game board. With the amount of play money they have, they are forced to chose among attractive alternatives, not all of which they can afford. Their final judgements express not a linear series of individual choices but a balanced set of simultaneous ones. </li></ul></ul>Research Methods: Gaming Simulation
    135. 135. <ul><li>Games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Another game developed by Zeisel and Griffin is the “ Dwelling Unit Floor Plan game ” in which respondents make a series of simple design decisions to develop their housing unit. </li></ul></ul>Research Methods: Gaming Simulation
    136. 136. Research Methods: Gaming Simulation
    137. 137. Research Methods: Gaming Simulation
    138. 138. Research Methods: Gaming Simulation
    139. 148. Lecture 5
    140. 149. Data Collection Techniques
    141. 150. Major Issues of Data Collection <ul><li>1. Sources of Data </li></ul><ul><li>2. Form of Data </li></ul><ul><li>3. Amount of Data </li></ul><ul><li>4. AccuracyReliability of Data </li></ul><ul><li>5. Design Fit </li></ul>
    142. 151. 1. Sources of Data <ul><li>Two broad categories: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Primary Data = information obtained exclusively for current research </li></ul><ul><li>2. Secondary Data = archival or previously recorded information </li></ul>
    143. 152. Advantages of Primary data collection : <ul><li>Collection based on researcher's need </li></ul><ul><li>Control over measurement selection and execution </li></ul>
    144. 153. Advantages of Secondary data collection : <ul><li>Little cost or time required to access data </li></ul><ul><li>Not confined to immediate level or uni of analysis </li></ul>
    145. 154. 2. Form of Data <ul><li>A. Self-Report Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject provides account of attitude, opinion, memory, personal characteristics, or circumstances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SurveysQuestionnaires </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul></ul></ul>
    146. 155. B. Observational Data <ul><li>Recording of events, actions, or circumstances of behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturalistic Inquiry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participatory Observation </li></ul></ul>
    147. 156. C. Archival Data <ul><li>Previously collected data </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedural documents </li></ul></ul>
    148. 157. 3. Amount of Data <ul><li>Determine amount of data needed to conduct study </li></ul><ul><li>Data sources, time periods, and number of units sampled </li></ul><ul><li>Involves sampling techniques </li></ul>
    149. 158. <ul><li>Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Aim of sampling is to equate unknown characteristics that may influence variation and to preserve the representativeness of the sample </li></ul>
    150. 159. Two Classes of Sampling Techniques : <ul><li>1. Non-probability Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>2. Probability Sampling </li></ul>
    151. 160. 1. Non-probability Sampling <ul><li>Common feature is that subjective judgments are used to determine the population that are contained in the sample. </li></ul>
    152. 161. <ul><li>A. Convenience sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Select cases based on their availability for the study </li></ul>
    153. 162. <ul><li>B. Judgmental sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Select cases based on some purpose (Most similardissimilar, Typical or Critical cases) </li></ul>
    154. 163. <ul><li>C. Systematic Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Select cases based on some predefined criteria (Interval sampling) </li></ul>Every 4th
    155. 164. Advantages of Non-probability sampling <ul><li>Fast, low effortcost methods </li></ul><ul><li>Useful in exploratory research </li></ul>
    156. 165. 2. Probability Sampling <ul><li>Common feature is that each unit in the population has a known, nonzero probability of being included in the sample </li></ul>
    157. 166. <ul><li>Simple Random Sample </li></ul><ul><li>Each member of the study population has an equal </li></ul><ul><li>probability of being selected </li></ul>
    158. 167. B. Stratified Random Sample Each member of a population is assigned to a group or stratum, then random sample is drawn from each stratum (ensures levels represented)
    159. 168. C. Proportional Random Sample Each member of a population is assigned to a sub-group, then representative sample is drawn from each group proportional to population
    160. 169. Advantages of Probability Sampling <ul><li>Objective standards remove possibility of unknown confounds </li></ul><ul><li>Intent to remove bias in selection process </li></ul>
    161. 170. 4. Accuracy and Reliability of Data <ul><li>Issues of data quality: validity, reliability and utility of measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of error in measurement </li></ul>
    162. 171. 5. Design Fit <ul><li>Statistical Conclusion Validity </li></ul><ul><li>Utility (Efficiency/Generality) </li></ul>
    163. 172. Lecture 5b
    164. 173. Data Analysis
    165. 174. Scales of Measurement <ul><li>1. Nominal or Categorical </li></ul><ul><li>2. Ordinal </li></ul><ul><li>3. Interval </li></ul><ul><li>4. Ratio </li></ul>
    166. 175. 1. Nominal or Categorical <ul><li>Classification according to presence or absence of qualities </li></ul><ul><li>No information provided on order or magnitude of differences </li></ul><ul><li>Because nominal scales have no quantitative properties, data consist of frequencies only </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., sex, race, religion, political party </li></ul></ul>Yes No 45 76
    167. 176. 2. Ordinal <ul><li>Classification according to degree of quality present </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish between ordered relationships between classes or characteristics, but no information about the magnitude of difference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tall > normal > short </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>first > second > third </li></ul></ul>
    168. 177. 3. Interval <ul><li>Addition of a meaningful unit of measure : equal size interval </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent and useful unit of measure allows the use of basic arithmetic functions (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., Fahrenheit scale, shoe size </li></ul></ul>25 December 30 November 35 October 40 September 45 August 40 July 35 June 30 May 25 April 20 March 15 February 20 January
    169. 178. 4. Ratio <ul><li>Addition of an absolute zero point to interval scale </li></ul><ul><li>Zero implies total absence of the characteristic </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to utilize ratio statements (2:1, 1:5) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., Height and weight </li></ul></ul>
    170. 179. Bar Graphs <ul><li>Qualitative Data (NominalOrdinal) </li></ul><ul><li>Width of the bars is constant </li></ul><ul><li>Bars separated by constant distance </li></ul><ul><li>Normally height of bar corresponds to frequency of category </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orientation (horiz vs. vertical) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grid lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Axes & Tickmarks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Order </li></ul></ul>
    171. 180. Figure 1. Prevalence of Eye Color Frequency <ul><li>Elements needed : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification (Figure #) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Title </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LabelsHeadings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remember: Figure should read like a self-contained paragraph. </li></ul>Eye Color
    172. 181. Quantitative Data (IntervalRatio) <ul><li>Histogram (similar to Bar Graph) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Okay to put breaks in axis where set of values omitted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bar widths represent real limits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore, touch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep bar widths constant </li></ul></ul></ul>
    173. 182. Figure 2. Scores of First Exam Frequency 95-99 94-90 89-85 84-80 79-75 74-70 69-65 64-60 59-55 54-50 Test Scores <ul><li>Elements needed : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification (Figure #) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Title </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LabelsHeadings </li></ul></ul>
    174. 183. Quantitative Data (IntervalRatio) <ul><li>Frequency Polygon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Values represented as points above interval </li></ul></ul>
    175. 184. Figure 3. Scores of First Exam Frequency 95-99 94-90 89-85 84-80 79-75 74-70 69-65 64-60 59-55 54-50 Test Scores <ul><li>Elements needed : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification (Figure #) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Title </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LabelsHeadings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remember: Figure should read like a self-contained paragraph. </li></ul>
    176. 185. 4 Strongly Disagree 7 Disagree 12 Agree 18 Strongly Agree
    177. 186. Lecture 6
    178. 187. Preparation of POE Research Proposals
    179. 188. Preparation of POE Proposal <ul><li>1 . Problem Statement: What & Where is the project that you want to evaluate? What is [are] the problem[s] that you want to investigate? </li></ul><ul><li>2 . Research Approach and Method: How are you going to do this evaluation? </li></ul><ul><li>3 . Data Collection and Analysis: What is the data that you need to collect to conduct this POE? How are you going to collect it? What are the resources that you need to collect this data? </li></ul><ul><li>4 . Data Analysis: How are you going to analyze this data? What resources do you need [personnel, software, time, etc.]? </li></ul><ul><li>5 . Usefulness of Results: Why do you think the results of this POE will be useful for your organization? How are you going to present this data to others? In what way will they be used? </li></ul>
    180. 189. Discussion of Research Proposals Submitted
    181. 190. Examples
    182. 191. Case study # 1
    183. 192. Ex. POE of New Elementary School Buildings - Al Ain, UAE. <ul><li>تقييم مشروعات المدارس الابتدائية الجديدة بمدينة العين - دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة </li></ul><ul><li>د . م . ياسر عثمان محرم محجوب </li></ul><ul><li>في أوائل التسعينيات قامت دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة ببناء عدد كبير من المدارس الحكومية ابتدائية وإعدادية وثانوية في جميع أنحاء الإمارات لمقابلة الاحتياج المتزايد للمرافق التعليمية . هدف هذه الدراسة الميدانية هو تقييم أداء مباني المدارس الابتدائية الجديدة بعد الاستخدام وقياس مدى تحقيقها للأهداف التي أنشئت من اجلها . و يناقش البحث مميزات وعيوب التصميم الجديد لمباني المدارس الابتدائية بمدينة العين التي تمت بها الدراسة الميدانية ومدى نجاحها في توفير بيئة تعليمية مناسبة كما هو مرجو منها و يقدم البحث عددا من التوصيات الخاصة بتحسين أداء مباني المدارس الابتدائية . وتفيد نتائج الدراسة في تطوير معايير تصميم إنشاء المباني المدرسية للمرحلة الابتدائية بما يتناسب مع احتياجات البيئة والإنسان . </li></ul>
    184. 193. Ex. POE of New Elementary School Buildings - Al Ain, UAE. <ul><li>School Plan </li></ul>
    185. 194. Ex. POE of New Elementary School Buildings - Al Ain, UAE.
    186. 195. Ex. POE of New Elementary School Buildings - Al Ain, UAE.
    187. 196. Case study # 2
    188. 197. Post Occupancy Evaluation (Governmental Housing Projects) Rebuilding Done by: Hussain Nader Hamad Al-Bagli Mohammed Al-Kandery Kuwait University College of Eng. & Petrolium College of Eng. & Petrolium
    189. 198. introduction -Basic house to shelter a basic Kuwaiti family -Rebuilding after occupancy and sometimes even before occupancy!! -Different habits between the housing authority and the families -Social, economical and environmental factors behind these changes.
    190. 199. -The importance of the problem comes mainly from the economical side. -People show their extremely different process of thinking than the authority. -Changes differ from changing windows to the whole structure! -Exterior and interior changes. Problem statement
    191. 200. -waste of the national sources , time and human energies. -crucial damage to the city vision and the harmony is demolished
    192. 201. This research is applied on a sample of 27 house owners from different educational levels and socio-cultural backgrounds.
    193. 202. The changes that have been done
    194. 203. The changes that have been done
    195. 204. The changes that have been done Exterior changes
    196. 205. The changes that have been done Interior Changes
    197. 207. Case study # 3
    198. 208. P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1    Asrar AL-Najjar        Banan AL-Ansari         Dalal AL-Wohaib       Hanan AL-Houti Nada Al-khalaf Zainab Murtadhawy K u w a i t U n i v e r s i t y | Collage of engineering & Petroleum | Department of Architecture P r o j e c t T e a m : Marina mall Dr. Yasser Mahgoub FALL 2003 - 2004 P O S T O C C U P A N C Y E V A L U A T I O N
    199. 209. P O S T O C C U P A N C Y E V A L U A T I O N Marina mall P O S T O C C U P A N C Y E V A L U A T I O N
    200. 210. P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 Summery P O S T O C C U P A N C Y E V A L U A T I O N <ul><li>Department stores changed the concept of shopping and liberated people to enjoy it. A shopping mall is a mixture of old, familiar, new and exciting. It has an extensive collection of things. For women a shopping mall means easy traveling from one shop to another. For most of the people a shopping mall means going out and just being together in the same public space. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Marina Mall: </li></ul><ul><li>   </li></ul><ul><li>To evaluate the level of user satisfaction in Marina Mall. intended to depict the objectives and aims of the designers of it then compare them with opinions of its users, employees and visitors. </li></ul><ul><li>main targets were: </li></ul><ul><li>Way finding and circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Air temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Noise levels </li></ul><ul><li>Some users attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The investigative POE method is the most appropriate to our research.   </li></ul><ul><li>To investigate the quality of the formally mentioned targets we include interviews, photographs, lighting and noise measuring tools, and questionnaires. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    201. 211. P O S T O C C U P A N C Y E V A L U A T I O N P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1   Marina mall location Marina Mall:
    202. 212. P O S T O C C U P A N C Y E V A L U A T I O N P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 Ground floor plan first floor plan second floor plan   Marina Mall:
    203. 213. P O S T O C C U P A N C Y E V A L U A T I O N P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1   Problem statement:            Way-finding and Circulation:   Most users cannot find their way in and out the mall and between stores. They get lost easily. It is hard for users to understand the vertical circulation between the parking level and the shopping level. There by, most users make themselves familiar with only one entrance to access the mall, which for most of them is the entrance on the Gulf Road.        Air temperature: The employees are not showing any satisfaction with the indoor cold temperature. The employees who usually have slight movements, suffer from the cold temperature.   1 2     Noise:   The area under the dome is very noisy due to the design of the large double height space under the dome, which causes echoes to travel throughout the building. In addition to the large flow of crowd on the ground floor, the noise coming from the food court on the upper level and the level of music coming from each restaurant and stores surrounding the dome.     Some users attitudes: Users complain from the abuse and disrespect of other visitors. 3 4
    204. 214. P O S T O C C U P A N C Y E V A L U A T I O N P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1   Problem statement:   Security: Security staff members are not enough nor qualified for their jobs. People complain from the fights that regularly occur inside the mall on weekends when there is a large crowd. 5
    205. 215.   P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 M a r i n a m a l l Data Gathering and Analysis: Noise and Lighting level measurement:   THE DECIBEL METER P O S T O C C U P A T I O N E V A L U A T I O N
    206. 216.   P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 P O S T O C C U P A T I O N E V A L U A T I O N M a r i n a m a l l Data Gathering and Analysis:   5 SYMETRICAL AXIS   Daytime (lux) Night (lux) Area 1 250 64 Area 2 860 210 Area 3 670 118 Area 4 570 43 Area 5 400 302 Area 6 790 405 Area 7 690 96 1 2 3 4 7 6
    207. 217.   P O S T O C C U P A T I O N E V A L U A T I O N M a r i n a m a l l Data Gathering and Analysis:   DAY NIGHT DAY NIGHT P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1
    208. 218.   P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 P O S T O C C U P A T I O N E V A L U A T I O N M a r i n a m a l l Data Gathering and Analysis:   DAY NIGHT DAY NIGHT
    209. 219. P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1   P O S T O C C U P A T I O N E V A L U A T I O N M a r i n a m a l l Data Gathering and Analysis:   DAY NIGHT DAY NIGHT P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1
    210. 220.   P O S T O C C U P A T I O N E V A L U A T I O N M a r i n a m a l l Data Gathering and Analysis:   P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 Age? Nationality?
    211. 221.   P O S T O C C U P A T I O N E V A L U A T I O N M a r i n a m a l l Data Gathering and Analysis:   P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 Level of education? Area of residents?
    212. 222.   P O S T O C C U P A T I O N E V A L U A T I O N M a r i n a m a l l Data Gathering and Analysis:   P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 Is it difficult to get to Marina Mall? How do you get to Marina Mall?
    213. 223.   P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 P O S T O C C U P A T I O N E V A L U A T I O N M a r i n a m a l l Data Gathering and Analysis:   How difficult is it to find parking space? Rate the amount of noise in the parking area?
    214. 224.   P O S T O C C U P A T I O N E V A L U A T I O N M a r i n a m a l l Data Gathering and Analysis:   P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 How far is your working space from your parking? Rate the location of Marina Mall?
    215. 225.   P O S T O C C U P A T I O N E V A L U A T I O N Data Gathering and Analysis:   P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 Rate Marina Mall according to?
    216. 226.   P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 P O S T O C C U P A T I O N E V A L U A T I O N M a r i n a m a l l Data Gathering and Analysis:   <ul><li>Visitor questionnaire: </li></ul>Gender? Age?
    217. 227.   P O S T O C C U P A T I O N E V A L U A T I O N M a r i n a m a l l Data Gathering and Analysis:   P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 Nationality? Occupation?
    218. 228.   P O S T O C C U P A T I O N E V A L U A T I O N M a r i n a m a l l Data Gathering and Analysis:   P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 Level of education? Marital status?
    219. 229.   P O S T O C C U P A T I O N E V A L U A T I O N M a r i n a m a l l Data Gathering and Analysis:   P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 Area of residence? Monthly income?
    220. 230.   P O S T O C C U P A T I O N E V A L U A T I O N M a r i n a m a l l Data Gathering and Analysis:   P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 Monthly shopping expenditure? Purpose of visit?
    221. 231.   P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 P O S T O C C U P A T I O N E V A L U A T I O N M a r i n a m a l l Data Gathering and Analysis:   Number of visits to malls in Kuwait? Number of visit to Marina Mall?
    222. 232.   P O S T O C C U P A T I O N E V A L U A T I O N M a r i n a m a l l Data Gathering and Analysis:   Marina other P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 Favorite Mall in Kuwait? How difficult is it to get to Marina Mall?
    223. 233.   P O S T O C C U P A T I O N E V A L U A T I O N M a r i n a m a l l Data Gathering and Analysis:   P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 How did you get to Marina Mall? How long does it take you to find Parking?
    224. 234.   P O S T O C C U P A T I O N E V A L U A T I O N M a r i n a m a l l Data Gathering and Analysis:   P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 Rate the location of Marina Mall? Rate the amount of temperature in side Marina Mall?
    225. 235.   P O S T O C C U P A T I O N E V A L U A T I O N M a r i n a m a l l Data Gathering and Analysis:   P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 Rate Marina Mall according to?
    226. 236.   P O S T O C C U P A T I O N E V A L U A T I O N M a r i n a m a l l   Data Gathering and Analysis: P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 Rate Marina Mall according to?
    227. 237.   P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 P O S T O C C U P A T I O N E V A L U A T I O N M a r i n a m a l l Data Gathering and Analysis:   Do you know where to find “MEXX”, “Energy”, “5 th Avenue” and “The One” Stores? Do you know where the praying rooms are located?
    228. 238.   P O S T O C C U P A T I O N E V A L U A T I O N M a r i n a m a l l Data Gathering and Analysis:   P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 Do you use the elevators? Would you like to have new activities in Marina Mall?
    229. 239.   P O S T O C C U P A T I O N E V A L U A T I O N M a r i n a m a l l Data Gathering and Analysis:   P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 Is the number of toilets in Marina Mall enough? What is your favorite space in Marina Mall? dome virgin Food court cinema Game works stores cinabon Court facing Salem al-Mubark st.
    230. 240. P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 P O S T O C C U P A N C Y E V A L U A T I O N RESULTS & FINDINGS <ul><li>Way finding and circulation: </li></ul>“ Game Works” “ Virgin” “ Mexx” & “energize” “ The One” and “The 5 th Avenue”
    232. 242. P O S T O C C U P A N C Y E V A L U A T I O N P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>As a solution and a result of this POE we propose solutions on the short term which we conclude as the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Opening clearer entrances of “The One” store onto the mall. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing signage of shaft numbers and maps in the parking </li></ul><ul><li>lot and throughout the building. </li></ul><ul><li>Relocate the existing visitors building maps. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>RESULTS & FINDINGS <ul><li>We also propose some recommendations for other future shopping centers and malls. They are summarized as the following: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Study flow patterns of visitors and design stores accordingly </li></ul><ul><li>Provide directories and reference labeling for entrances and </li></ul><ul><li>zones </li></ul><ul><li>Locate entrances of the building in nodes containing equal </li></ul><ul><li>amount of people so that the entrances would be used </li></ul><ul><li>equally. </li></ul>
    233. 243. P O S T O C C U P A N C Y E V A L U A T I O N P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 Salem al-Mubark court Virgin corridor The one store (exterior) Marina corridors Wide corridor Marina’s signage RESULTS & FINDINGS
    234. 244. P O S T O C C U P A N C Y E V A L U A T I O N P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Air Temperature </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The results of the question was as follows: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>         Employees: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>RESULTS & FINDINGS          Visitors: Marina corridors Wide corridor Inside a store
    235. 245. P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 P O S T O C C U P A N C Y E V A L U A T I O N <ul><li>Noise levels </li></ul><ul><li>measurements of noise levels at three different areas of the building; (1) the parking, (2) the dome and (3) the food court. </li></ul><ul><li>         In the food court the level was. 92.6/10 dba </li></ul><ul><li>         In the parking lot the level was. 96/10 dba </li></ul><ul><li>         In the dome area the level was. 94.9/10 dba </li></ul>THE DECIBEL METER RESULTS & FINDINGS
    237. 247. P O S T O C C U P A N C Y E V A L U A T I O N P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 Level of noise in Marina Mall RESULTS & FINDINGS
    238. 248. P O S T O C C U P A N C Y E V A L U A T I O N P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1           Employees          Visitors  RESULTS & FINDINGS
    239. 249. P O S T O C C U P A N C Y E V A L U A T I O N P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 Food court The dome The dome The parking RESULTS & FINDINGS
    240. 250. P O S T O C C U P A N C Y E V A L U A T I O N P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Our recommendation is to install sound control techniques in the noisy parts of the building such as: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>1. Acoustic panel boards </li></ul>RESULTS & FINDINGS 2. Usage of Acoustic Plaster  3.   Sound blocks A B
    241. 251. P O S T O C C U P A N C Y E V A L U A T I O N P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 4. Finally a mechanism known as the Resonator sound absorbers RESULTS & FINDINGS A B C
    242. 252. P O S T O C C U P A N C Y E V A L U A T I O N P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 Security and some users attitudes:        RESULTS & FINDINGS <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>recommendation and suggestions: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li> Legal authority to be given to security men to face any troublemakers inside Marina Mall. </li></ul><ul><li>   Limiting certain days for families only especially that most of the shops are female oriented, it is highly recommended to be on the weekends (this recommendation was highly supported by employees.) </li></ul><ul><li> Have places for young men to have fun and play games like billiard and snooker halls, bowling, and male gathering spaces. </li></ul>
    243. 253. P ROFESSIONAL P RACTICE 1 P O S T O C C U P A N C Y E V A L U A T I O N Conclusion <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The POE conducted on the Marina Mall is considered as one approach of how POE for shopping centers around the world are done. </li></ul><ul><li>It is worthy to mention several differences between the conditions of the two POE s on hand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marina Mall is conducted by under graduate students with first time practical experience while the Beiramar POE was done by a team that included academics and specialists in addition to graduate students of Urban design with more that one experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The POE for marina mall was oriented towards the comfort evaluation and feedback of healthy normal people without any special needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Beiramar evaluation on the other hand was oriented toward the accessibility and comfortable usage of the building for people with different special needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marina Mall POE was done in a one month duration meanwhile the Beiramar shopping center was carried out in a minimum period of one year. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>