The most important element is
probably carbon. It has
absolutely unique properties in the
fact it can link to itself and form
literally billions of different
chemicals. Some of them have
even become living matter.
Inorganic carbon can exist as a
diamond, both very beautiful and
the hardest material known.
The most beautiful element is
probably Gold. It is unique in the
since it is both metallic and
colorful. Unlike Copper (which
can also be very beautiful), Gold
does not tarnish or corrode. It is
also so soft it can be finely
polished just by rubbing it.
The most fascinating element is probably
Mercury. It is the only metal which is fully liquid
at room temperature. Unfortunately, unlike
Carbon or Gold, Mercury is poisonous. Radium
can also bedazzle people. A concentrated
solution of radium chloride glows with a soft, blue
phosphorescence. Close inspection reveals a
galaxy of tiny stars twinkling throughout the
glowing liquid. However, Radium is far more
dangerous than Mercury because it is so terribly
radioactive. The scientist who discovered it
(Curie) eventually died of leukemia, most likely
due to radiation exposure.
The most useful element is Iron,
of course. It is easy to make and
the properties of the metal can be
fine tuned by alloying it with
carbon and/or other metals. The
creation of the Japanese Samurai
sword is a fascinating study in the
combination of high and low
carbon steel into a remarkably
effective and elegant weapon.
The strangest element might just
be Francium. It is formed by the
radioactive decay of larger atoms,
but Francium itself has a half life
of only about 10 minutes.
Francium exists, but only as single
atoms dispersed throughout the
universe which suddenly appear
like soap bubbles and then
disappear just as quickly.
The most abundant element is
Hydrogen. Most of the universe
is made of this gas. The human
body is mostly water, and because
water is 2/3 hydrogen, humans are
also mostly made of hydrogen as
• 116 known elements
• 94 occur naturally
-22 artificially made by nuclear
Properties of Metals
• Metals are good conductors of
heat and electricity.
• Metals are shiny.
• Metals are ductile (can be
stretched into thin wires).
• Metals are malleable (can be
pounded into thin sheets).
• A chemical property of metal is
its reaction with water which
results in corrosion.
Properties of Non-Metals
• Non-metals are poor
conductors of heat and
• Non-metals are not
ductile or malleable.
• Solid non-metals are
brittle and break easily.
• They are dull.
• Many non-metals are
Properties of Metalloids
• Metalloids (metal-like)
have properties of both
metals and non-metals.
• They are solids that can
be shiny or dull.
• They conduct heat and
electricity better than non-
metals but not as well as
• They are ductile and
• Two or more elements chemically
combined in specific proportions
– Water H2O
– Salt NaCl
– Sugar C6H12O6
• contain carbon
• produce smoke or
soot when heated
-ex. Acetic acid
• some contain carbon but
it evolve to gaseous
• form white residue when
• 95% of living
organisms is made
Elements of Life
*water- most abundant
*human body= 80%
Indicator- tool to classify
(distinct colors when mixed w/ acids,
base or salt.)
-red to blue
-blue to red
Mixtures may be either:
• Have small particles
• Are transparent (not the same as colorless)
• Do not separate
• Water solutions are very common in
– Examples: salt water, kool-aid, air, brass, vinegar
• Have medium size particles
• Do not separate
– Examples: fog, whipped cream, milk, cheese,
*Tyndall effect- involves scattering of light by
• Have very large particles
• Settle out (separates into layers)
– Examples: blood platelets, muddy water,
calamine lotion, oil & water, Italian salad
• Filtration and decantation
• Simple and fractional distillation
• Magnetic separation
Laboratory Distillation Setup
Stone chips are
added into the
liquid to allow even
and uniform boiling
Cold and hot water enters
from the bottom and top of
the condenser respectively.
Water will gain heat as vapour
condenses. Warmer water is
less effective in condensing
Thermometer at the
entrance of the
the boiling point of
the type of vapour
added at the
will run along
paper as it
Components of Essential Oils are
Separation of Mixtures
• What are the components in mixture X?
RedX Yellow BlueX Contains Red and
Separation of Mixtures
• How do you separate a mixture of salt,
sand and iron?
•Magnetic attraction to get iron filings
•Add water to dissolve salt
•Filter to get sand residue
•Evaporate filtrate to get salt