Matter and elements


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Matter and elements

  1. 1. Elements the building blocks of all matter
  2. 2. The most important element is probably carbon. It has absolutely unique properties in the fact it can link to itself and form literally billions of different chemicals. Some of them have even become living matter. Inorganic carbon can exist as a diamond, both very beautiful and the hardest material known.
  3. 3. The most beautiful element is probably Gold. It is unique in the since it is both metallic and colorful. Unlike Copper (which can also be very beautiful), Gold does not tarnish or corrode. It is also so soft it can be finely polished just by rubbing it.
  4. 4. The most fascinating element is probably Mercury. It is the only metal which is fully liquid at room temperature. Unfortunately, unlike Carbon or Gold, Mercury is poisonous. Radium can also bedazzle people. A concentrated solution of radium chloride glows with a soft, blue phosphorescence. Close inspection reveals a galaxy of tiny stars twinkling throughout the glowing liquid. However, Radium is far more dangerous than Mercury because it is so terribly radioactive. The scientist who discovered it (Curie) eventually died of leukemia, most likely due to radiation exposure.
  5. 5. The most useful element is Iron, of course. It is easy to make and the properties of the metal can be fine tuned by alloying it with carbon and/or other metals. The creation of the Japanese Samurai sword is a fascinating study in the combination of high and low carbon steel into a remarkably effective and elegant weapon.
  6. 6. The strangest element might just be Francium. It is formed by the radioactive decay of larger atoms, but Francium itself has a half life of only about 10 minutes. Francium exists, but only as single atoms dispersed throughout the universe which suddenly appear like soap bubbles and then disappear just as quickly.
  7. 7. The most abundant element is Hydrogen. Most of the universe is made of this gas. The human body is mostly water, and because water is 2/3 hydrogen, humans are also mostly made of hydrogen as well.
  8. 8. The Elements • 116 known elements • 94 occur naturally -22 artificially made by nuclear processes
  9. 9. Properties of Metals • Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity. • Metals are shiny. • Metals are ductile (can be stretched into thin wires). • Metals are malleable (can be pounded into thin sheets). • A chemical property of metal is its reaction with water which results in corrosion.
  10. 10. Properties of Non-Metals • Non-metals are poor conductors of heat and electricity. • Non-metals are not ductile or malleable. • Solid non-metals are brittle and break easily. • They are dull. • Many non-metals are gases. Sulfur
  11. 11. Properties of Metalloids • Metalloids (metal-like) have properties of both metals and non-metals. • They are solids that can be shiny or dull. • They conduct heat and electricity better than non- metals but not as well as metals. • They are ductile and malleable. Silicon
  12. 12. The Periodic Table
  13. 13. Compound • Two or more elements chemically combined in specific proportions • Examples: – Water H2O – Salt NaCl – Sugar C6H12O6 Chemical Formulasareusedto representcompounds
  14. 14. Compounds Organic • contain carbon • produce smoke or soot when heated -ex. Acetic acid ascorbic acid ethanol propane Inorganic • some contain carbon but it evolve to gaseous compounds • form white residue when heated -ex. Water baking soda ammonia hydrochloric acid
  15. 15. • 95% of living organisms is made of:  carbon (C)  oxygen (O)  hydrogen (H)  nitrogen (N) Elements of Life
  16. 16. *water- most abundant compound *human body= 80%
  17. 17. Indicator- tool to classify compound (distinct colors when mixed w/ acids, base or salt.) •Acid -sour -red to blue -colorless (ph indicator) •Base -bitter -blue to red -purple
  18. 18. Classifying mixtures
  19. 19. Mixtures may be either: Solutions Colloids Suspensions
  20. 20. Solutions • Have small particles • Are transparent (not the same as colorless) • Do not separate • Water solutions are very common in biological systems – Examples: salt water, kool-aid, air, brass, vinegar
  21. 21. Colloids • Have medium size particles • Do not separate – Examples: fog, whipped cream, milk, cheese, mayonnaise *Tyndall effect- involves scattering of light by colloidal particles
  22. 22. Suspensions • Have very large particles • Settle out (separates into layers) – Examples: blood platelets, muddy water, calamine lotion, oil & water, Italian salad dressing
  23. 23. Separating mixtures • Filtration and decantation • Evaporation • Centrifugation • Simple and fractional distillation • Magnetic separation • Flotation • Sublimation • Chromatography
  24. 24. Filtration and decantation
  25. 25. Evaporation
  26. 26. Centrifugation
  27. 27. Simple and fractional distillation
  28. 28. Laboratory Distillation Setup Stone chips are added into the liquid to allow even and uniform boiling Cold and hot water enters from the bottom and top of the condenser respectively. Water will gain heat as vapour condenses. Warmer water is less effective in condensing vapour Thermometer at the entrance of the condenser indicates the boiling point of the type of vapour entering it
  29. 29. Magnetic separation
  30. 30. Flotation
  31. 31. Sublimation
  32. 32. Chromatography Mixture Components Separation Stationary Phase Mobile Phase
  33. 33. (1) Mixtures added at the base line (2) Paper dipped into solvent for mixtures (3) Component will run along paper as it dissolves in solvent Components of Essential Oils are separated
  34. 34. Separation of Mixtures • What are the components in mixture X? RedX Yellow BlueX Contains Red and Yellow Components
  35. 35. Separation of Mixtures • How do you separate a mixture of salt, sand and iron? Salt Salt Salt Iron IronIron N S Sand Sand Sand •Magnetic attraction to get iron filings •Add water to dissolve salt •Filter to get sand residue •Evaporate filtrate to get salt