Local Economic Development (LED) Overview or Local Economic Development = City Development  [email_address] August 2009
Agenda <ul><li>A brief history of LED </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summary of current best practices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LED i...
What is LED? <ul><li>The purpose of local economic development (LED) is to build up the economic capacity of a local area ...
A Brief History of LED  <ul><li>Since the 1960s, LED has passed through three broad stages or 'waves' of development.  </l...
The three waves of LED - #1:  Wave Focus Tools First: 1960s to early 1980s <ul><li>During the first wave the focus was on ...
The three waves of LED - #2:  Wave Focus Tools Second: 1980s to mid 1990s <ul><li>During the second wave the focus moved t...
The three waves of LED - #3:  Wave Focus Tools Third : Late 1990s onwards <ul><li>The focus then shifted from individual d...
LED focus on Cities and Towns <ul><li>At the threshold of the 21st century,  cities and towns  headline the World Bank's d...
We must have strong cities to have a strong America. <ul><li>CEOs for Cities is a national network of urban leaders dedica...
Cities, it turns out, have  natural advantages  <ul><li>From a recent speech by Carol Coletta to the US Congress regarding...
Which Programs  Do Not Work  (But We Still Keep Using Them!) <ul><li>Unfortunately there are countless examples of failed ...
Local Economic Growth <ul><li>Cities are engines of economic growth . As a nation's primary source of job creation and wea...
Entrepreneurship: A Catalyst for Urban Regeneration <ul><li>Entrepreneurship and urban regeneration policy have traditiona...
Entrepreneurship: A Catalyst for Urban Regeneration <ul><li>Entrepreneurship and urban regeneration policy have traditiona...
Local Economic Development, Human Development, and Decent Work Best practices and trends <ul><li>Based on the review of hu...
Summary of Current Thinking on LED
Typical Shortcuts proposed for  LED <ul><li>Attract: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outside investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O...
LED in the Context of Cities  from the easiest to the most difficult A Great City generates much more wealth than it consu...
LED in a Great City
LED in a Great City <ul><li>What is the role of Urban Planning and Transportation in creating a great place to live and to...
The cycle of city development People
LED in the Region of a Great City <ul><li>Create a great place to live and to develop economically  </li></ul><ul><li>The ...
Leveraging the five forces to accelerate LED in the region of a Great City <ul><li>ToD in the Center of Regional Towns of ...
LED in a Town Outside a Great City Region <ul><li>Need to become a Great City (or wait for a Great City to develop nearby)...
LED in a City that is not Great <ul><li>Need to become a Great City (or wait for a Great City to develop nearby) </li></ul>
How to Jumpstart the cycle of city development People The “handle”
The process of Urban Regeneration  or  How to increase Density, Variety and Access
Programs that typify current thinking on LED
Summary of Current Thinking on LED
Local Agenda 21 <ul><li>The Local Agenda 21 (LA21) Campaign promotes a participatory, long-term, strategic planning proces...
But, a great strategic plan <ul><li>…  in a binder on the shelf… </li></ul><ul><li>Is just that -  </li></ul><ul><li>A gre...
tools for local economic renewal <ul><li>bizfizz   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BizFizz is the leading business support model in ...
local multiplier 3 <ul><li>Local money flows in Localton (top) and Leakyville (bottom)  The area in blue represents money ...
revitalize older, traditional business districts <ul><li>The  Main Street Four-Point Approach ™ is a community-driven, com...
Economic Statistics: The Main Street Program's Success    Historic Preservation Equals Economic Development   <ul><li>1980...
 
Eight Principles of Success 
Comprehensive:  <ul><li>No single focus — lavish public improvements, name-brand business recruitment, or endless promotio...
Incremental:  <ul><li>Baby steps come before walking.  </li></ul><ul><li>Successful revitalization programs begin with bas...
Self-help:  <ul><li>No one else will save your Main Street.  </li></ul><ul><li>Local leaders must have the will and desire...
Partnerships:  <ul><li>Both the public and private sectors have a vital interest in the district and must work together to...
Identifying and capitalizing on existing assets:  <ul><li>Business districts must capitalize on the assets that make them ...
Quality:  <ul><li>Emphasize quality in every aspect of the revitalization program.  </li></ul><ul><li>This applies to all ...
Change:  <ul><li>Skeptics turn into believers and attitudes on Main Street will turn around.  </li></ul><ul><li>At first, ...
Implementation:  <ul><li>To succeed, Main Street must show visible results that can only come from completing projects.  <...
The critical role of the MIU in LED in Israel
City Development = Local Economic Development <ul><li>“ If the last century was the century of urbanization, the twenty-fi...
LED Overview Discussion and Q&A [email_address] August 2009
Can LED be achieved by attracting transplants? <ul><li>Transplants within a city region vs. transplants from afar  </li></...
Can LED be achieved in peripheral cities and towns by their residents?  <ul><li>Yes! If it can be achieved (and it can not...
Thank You [email_address] August 2009
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Led And Urbanism

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A Presentation by Nachman Shelef on Local Economic Development and Urbanism

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Led And Urbanism

  1. 1. Local Economic Development (LED) Overview or Local Economic Development = City Development [email_address] August 2009
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>A brief history of LED </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summary of current best practices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LED in the context of cities and towns </li></ul><ul><li>Programs that typify current thinking on LED </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion and Q&A </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is LED? <ul><li>The purpose of local economic development (LED) is to build up the economic capacity of a local area to improve its economic future and the quality of life for all . It is a process by which public, business and non-governmental sector partners work collectively to create better conditions for economic growth and employment generation. </li></ul>
  4. 4. A Brief History of LED <ul><li>Since the 1960s, LED has passed through three broad stages or 'waves' of development. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In each of these waves LED practitioners have developed a better understanding of successful and unsuccessful programs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today LED is in its 'third wave'. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Although LED has moved through each of these waves, elements of each wave are still practiced today. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The following table summarizes the three waves of LED: </li></ul>
  5. 5. The three waves of LED - #1: Wave Focus Tools First: 1960s to early 1980s <ul><li>During the first wave the focus was on the attraction of: </li></ul><ul><li>mobile manufacturing investment, attracting outside investment , especially the attraction of foreign direct investment </li></ul><ul><li>hard infrastructure investments </li></ul><ul><li>To achieve this cities used: </li></ul><ul><li>massive grants </li></ul><ul><li>subsidized loans usually aimed at inward investing manufacturers </li></ul><ul><li>tax breaks </li></ul><ul><li>subsidized hard infrastructure investment </li></ul><ul><li>expensive &quot;low road&quot; industrial recruitment techniques </li></ul>
  6. 6. The three waves of LED - #2: Wave Focus Tools Second: 1980s to mid 1990s <ul><li>During the second wave the focus moved towards: </li></ul><ul><li>the retention and growing of existing local businesses </li></ul><ul><li>still with an emphasis on inward investment attraction, but usually this was becoming more targeted to specific sectors or from certain geographic areas </li></ul><ul><li>To achieve this cities provided: </li></ul><ul><li>direct payments to individual businesses </li></ul><ul><li>business incubators/workspace </li></ul><ul><li>advice and training for small- and medium-sized firms </li></ul><ul><li>technical support </li></ul><ul><li>business start-up support </li></ul><ul><li>some hard and soft infrastructure investment </li></ul>
  7. 7. The three waves of LED - #3: Wave Focus Tools Third : Late 1990s onwards <ul><li>The focus then shifted from individual direct firm financial transfers to making the entire business environment more conducive to business . </li></ul><ul><li>During this third (and current) wave of LED, more focus is placed on: </li></ul><ul><li>soft infrastructure investments </li></ul><ul><li>public/private partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>networking and the leveraging of private sector investments for the public good </li></ul><ul><li>highly targeted inward investment attraction to add to the competitive advantages of local areas </li></ul><ul><li>To achieve this cities are: </li></ul><ul><li>developing a holistic strategy aimed at growing local firms </li></ul><ul><li>providing a competitive local investment climate </li></ul><ul><li>supporting and encouraging networking and collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>encouraging the development of business clusters </li></ul><ul><li>encouraging workforce development and education </li></ul><ul><li>closely targeting inward investment to support cluster growth </li></ul><ul><li>supporting quality of life improvements </li></ul>
  8. 8. LED focus on Cities and Towns <ul><li>At the threshold of the 21st century, cities and towns headline the World Bank's development campaign. </li></ul><ul><li>Within a generation, the majority of the developing world's population will live in urban areas, while the number of urban residents will double, increasing by over 2 billion inhabitants. </li></ul><ul><li>Cities and towns are not only growing in size and number, they are also gaining new influence . </li></ul><ul><li>The urban transition offers significant opportunities to improve the quality of life for all individuals, but whether this potential is realized depends critically on how cities are managed and on the national and local policies affecting their development. </li></ul>
  9. 9. We must have strong cities to have a strong America. <ul><li>CEOs for Cities is a national network of urban leaders dedicated to creating next generation cities that hold the answers to many of the challenges our nation faces. </li></ul><ul><li>If you care about keeping America globally competitive , fostering innovation , providing citizens access to opportunity and education , combating climate change , improving healthcare outcomes and learning how diverse people can co-exist peacefully , then you must be concerned about cities because that is where the solutions to these challenges will be met. </li></ul><ul><li>You can’t have a strong America without strong cities. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cities, it turns out, have natural advantages <ul><li>From a recent speech by Carol Coletta to the US Congress regarding the role of cities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities naturally offer Variety, a wide range of valued choices. They naturally offer Convenience.  In cities, there are more choices close at hand. Discovery is another city advantage.  Cities offer people more chances to discover things they didn't know they liked, things they didn't know they wanted to know, and people they didn't know they could make things with (including fun and babies). And cities naturally offer more Opportunity to their citizens in the form of access to jobs, education and smart people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But here's the problem:  We keep screwing it up. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We keep undermining the city’s natural advantages.  Instead of building compact cities that magnify, amplify and intensify these city advantages, we've blown it… </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Which Programs Do Not Work (But We Still Keep Using Them!) <ul><li>Unfortunately there are countless examples of failed LED strategies and projects. These include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive untargeted foreign direct investment marketing campaigns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply-led training programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive reliance on grant-led investments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over-generous financial inducements for inward investors (not only can this be an inefficient use of taxpayers money, it can breed considerable resentment amongst local businesses that may not be entitled to the same benefit). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business retention subsidies (where firms are paid to stay in the area despite the fact that financial viability of the plant is at risk) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliance on &quot;low-road&quot; techniques, e.g., cheap labor and subsidized capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government-conceived, -controlled, and -directed strategies </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Local Economic Growth <ul><li>Cities are engines of economic growth . As a nation's primary source of job creation and wealth generation, cites produce goods and provide services which strengthen economic opportunities for the entire country. Local Economic Development (LED) is a process of planning and implementation that seeks to increase the economic potential of a city, town, or region. LED aims to improve the economic future and the quality of life for all local residents and businesses. Although the process can be time-intensive, it is important to bring the public, business and civil society sector together to work collectively in creating better conditions for growth and employment generation. This ensures that all available local resources are accessed and that there is sufficient buy-in across all sectors to increase the chances of sustainability . </li></ul><ul><li>Much of a city's potential competitive advantage lies in its various forms of capital (human, natural resources, land, location, and infrastructure). </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralization has forced local governments to take more responsibility for designing their own economic development strategies, usually in partnership with the private sector. </li></ul>http://www.makingcitieswork.org/urbanThemes/Localecongrowth
  13. 13. Entrepreneurship: A Catalyst for Urban Regeneration <ul><li>Entrepreneurship and urban regeneration policy have traditionally been treated as separate fields. This volume is one of the first to focus explicitly on the links between the two , examining how policy can help regenerate inner cities and other areas of urban distress by stimulating entrepreneurship.  It sets out recent policy developments in North American and European cities in:  - Financing entrepreneurship.  - Providing advice, training and mentoring to entrepreneurs.  - Using special zones and area-based policies to grow new and small firms.  - Supporting social enterprises. </li></ul><ul><li>This book presents a 'toolbox' of instruments for entrepreneurship development in what often appear to be the most hostile environments for economic development in our cities, showing how entrepreneurship can indeed prosper given the right stimulus. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Entrepreneurship: A Catalyst for Urban Regeneration <ul><li>Entrepreneurship and urban regeneration policy have traditionally been treated as separate fields. This volume is one of the first to focus explicitly on the links between the two , examining how policy can help regenerate inner cities and other areas of urban distress by stimulating entrepreneurship.  It sets out recent policy developments in North American and European cities in:  - Financing entrepreneurship.  - Providing advice, training and mentoring to entrepreneurs.  - Using special zones and area-based policies to grow new and small firms.  - Supporting social enterprises. </li></ul><ul><li>This book presents a 'toolbox' of instruments for entrepreneurship development in what often appear to be the most hostile environments for economic development in our cities, showing how entrepreneurship can indeed prosper given the right stimulus. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Congress for the New Urbanism views disinvestment in central cities, the spread of placeless sprawl, increasing separation by race and income, environmental deterioration, loss of agricultural lands and wilderness, and the erosion of society's built heritage as one interrelated community-building challenge. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Local Economic Development, Human Development, and Decent Work Best practices and trends <ul><li>Based on the review of hundreds of LED programs from 24 organizations Worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Current Trends: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most significant item that characterizes them is the participatory approach . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… participation is now considered the base, the condition sine-qua-non for fostering local economic development strategies and actions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A new trend is, however, coming along: participation is not seen as an instrument for building consensus , but as a way of good governance . The accent on good governance, in fact, is more and more evident in the most recent initiatives, such as the Ilo, Undp and Unops Ledas, the World Bank, South Africa and it, in fact, also responds to the human development aims of United Nations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives, strategies and tools, of course, vary from case to case. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also in this case “traditional” objectives could be recognized in the improvement of employment , when job creation, promotion of micro and small local enterprise, attraction of external investment, territorial revitalization are mentioned. However a new typology of advanced objectives is recognizable: the improvement of the quality of life of the citizens in a more integrated approach, which includes human development, decent work, inclusion of the socially excluded people and the protection of the environment. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Summary of Current Thinking on LED
  17. 17. Typical Shortcuts proposed for LED <ul><li>Attract: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outside investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outside transplants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outside talent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outside residents </li></ul></ul>… if only LED was so easy…
  18. 18. LED in the Context of Cities from the easiest to the most difficult A Great City generates much more wealth than it consumes for mere existence. A Great City generates enough wealth to support growth in the city as well in its surrounding region.
  19. 19. LED in a Great City
  20. 20. LED in a Great City <ul><li>What is the role of Urban Planning and Transportation in creating a great place to live and to develop economically? </li></ul>
  21. 21. The cycle of city development People
  22. 22. LED in the Region of a Great City <ul><li>Create a great place to live and to develop economically </li></ul><ul><li>The City will do the rest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Five Economic Forces Exerted by Cities on Their Own Regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>City markets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>City jobs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>City developed technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transplanted city work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>City generated capital </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Leveraging the five forces to accelerate LED in the region of a Great City <ul><li>ToD in the Center of Regional Towns of a Great City </li></ul>Stockholm The Gr Stockholm Transit Oriented Metropolis The Gr Copenhagen Transit Oriented Metropolis The 1961 National Capital Plan for Gr Washington BC Is Beer-Sheva a Great City? What about rail stations in the center of the towns?
  24. 24. LED in a Town Outside a Great City Region <ul><li>Need to become a Great City (or wait for a Great City to develop nearby) </li></ul>
  25. 25. LED in a City that is not Great <ul><li>Need to become a Great City (or wait for a Great City to develop nearby) </li></ul>
  26. 26. How to Jumpstart the cycle of city development People The “handle”
  27. 27. The process of Urban Regeneration or How to increase Density, Variety and Access
  28. 28. Programs that typify current thinking on LED
  29. 29. Summary of Current Thinking on LED
  30. 30. Local Agenda 21 <ul><li>The Local Agenda 21 (LA21) Campaign promotes a participatory, long-term, strategic planning process that helps municipalities identify local sustainability priorities and implement long-term action plans. It supports good local governance and mobilizes local governments and their citizens to undertake such multi-stakeholder process. The LA21 process leads to the preparation and implementation of a long-term, strategic plan that addresses priority local sustainable development concerns. </li></ul><ul><li>The development of Local Agenda 21 and its subsequent endorsement at the Rio Earth Summit as Chapter 28 of Agenda 21. A 2002 survey found that more than 6,400 local governments in 113 countries have become involved in LA21 activities over a 10-year period. Through LA21, local governments are establishing stakeholder groups, developing local sustainability plans and acting on these plans. </li></ul>
  31. 31. But, a great strategic plan <ul><li>… in a binder on the shelf… </li></ul><ul><li>Is just that - </li></ul><ul><li>A great plan on the shelf! </li></ul>
  32. 32. tools for local economic renewal <ul><li>bizfizz </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BizFizz is the leading business support model in the UK in which Coaching is the preferred methodology for offering business support to entrepreneurs living in areas of economic decline . Over the last seven years, BizFizz programmes have provided coaching to entrepreneurs across England and Scotland. The Civic Trust and new economics foundation are delighted that Coaching and supporting entrepreneurs by developing local resident led networks has been recognised by national government. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>plugging the leaks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The issue is not necessarily that too little money flows into a neighbourhood. Rather, it is what consumers, public services and businesses do with that money. Too often it is spent on services with no local presence, and so immediately leaves the area . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>local multiplier 3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LM3 has been tried and tested across the UK, from agriculture to social enterprise to local government procurement, to determine how money coming into your community is then spent and re-spent. 'The Money Trail' shows you how to use LM3 to find out what's really happening in your local economy, and how you can make it better . </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. local multiplier 3 <ul><li>Local money flows in Localton (top) and Leakyville (bottom) The area in blue represents money that’s stayed in the local economy </li></ul>
  34. 34. revitalize older, traditional business districts <ul><li>The Main Street Four-Point Approach ™ is a community-driven, comprehensive methodology used to revitalize older, traditional business districts throughout the United States.  It is a common-sense way to address the variety of issues and problems that face traditional business districts.  The underlying premise of the Main Street approach is to encourage economic development within the context of historic preservation in ways appropriate to today's marketplace. The Main Street Approach advocates a return to community self-reliance, local empowerment, and the rebuilding of traditional commercial districts based on their unique assets: distinctive architecture, a pedestrian-friendly environment, personal service, local ownership, and a sense of community. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Reconstructing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>the four points of the Main Street approach correspond with the four forces of real estate value, which are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>social, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>political, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>economic. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Economic Statistics: The Main Street Program's Success    Historic Preservation Equals Economic Development <ul><li>1980-2007 Reinvestment Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Dollars Reinvested: - Total amount of reinvestment in physical improvements from public and private sources. $44.9 BillionAverage </li></ul><ul><li>reinvestment per community (i):$11,083,273 </li></ul><ul><li>Net gain in businesses:82,909 </li></ul><ul><li>Net gain in jobs:370,514 </li></ul><ul><li>Number of building rehabilitations: 199,519 </li></ul>
  36. 37. Eight Principles of Success 
  37. 38. Comprehensive:  <ul><li>No single focus — lavish public improvements, name-brand business recruitment, or endless promotional events — can revitalize Main Street. </li></ul><ul><li>For successful, sustainable, long-term revitalization, a comprehensive approach, including activity in each of Main Street's Four Points, is essential. </li></ul>
  38. 39. Incremental: <ul><li>Baby steps come before walking. </li></ul><ul><li>Successful revitalization programs begin with basic, simple activities that demonstrate that &quot;new things are happening &quot; in the commercial district. </li></ul><ul><li>As public confidence in the Main Street district grows and participants' understanding of the revitalization process becomes more sophisticated, Main Street is able to tackle increasingly complex problems and more ambitious projects. </li></ul><ul><li>This incremental change leads to much longer-lasting and dramatic positive change in the Main Street area. </li></ul>
  39. 40. Self-help: <ul><li>No one else will save your Main Street. </li></ul><ul><li>Local leaders must have the will and desire to mobilize local resources and talent. </li></ul><ul><li>That means convincing residents and business owners of the rewards they'll reap by investing time and money in Main Street — the heart of their community. </li></ul><ul><li>Only local leadership can produce long-term success by fostering and demonstrating community involvement and commitment to the revitalization effort.  </li></ul>
  40. 41. Partnerships: <ul><li>Both the public and private sectors have a vital interest in the district and must work together to achieve common goals of Main Street's revitalization. </li></ul><ul><li>Each sector has a role to play and each must understand the other's strengths and limitations in order to forge an effective partnership. </li></ul>
  41. 42. Identifying and capitalizing on existing assets: <ul><li>Business districts must capitalize on the assets that make them unique. </li></ul><ul><li>Every district has unique qualities like distinctive buildings and human scale that give people a sense of belonging. </li></ul><ul><li>These local assets must serve as the foundation for all aspects of the revitalization program. </li></ul>
  42. 43. Quality:  <ul><li>Emphasize quality in every aspect of the revitalization program. </li></ul><ul><li>This applies to all elements of the process — from storefront designs to promotional campaigns to educational programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Shoestring budgets and &quot;cut and paste&quot; efforts reinforce a negative image of the commercial district. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead, concentrate on quality projects over quantity.  </li></ul>
  43. 44. Change: <ul><li>Skeptics turn into believers and attitudes on Main Street will turn around. </li></ul><ul><li>At first, almost no one believes Main Street can really turn around. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in attitude and practice are slow but definite — public support for change will build as the Main Street program grows and consistently meets its goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Change also means engaging in better business practices, altering ways of thinking, and improving the physical appearance of the commercial district. </li></ul><ul><li>A carefully planned Main Street program will help shift public perceptions and practices to support and sustain the revitalization process.  </li></ul>
  44. 45. Implementation: <ul><li>To succeed, Main Street must show visible results that can only come from completing projects. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent, visible changes are a reminder that the revitalization effort is under way and succeeding. </li></ul><ul><li>Small projects at the beginning of the program pave the way for larger ones as the revitalization effort matures, and that constant revitalization activity creates confidence in the Main Street program and ever-greater levels of participation.  </li></ul>
  45. 46. The critical role of the MIU in LED in Israel
  46. 47. City Development = Local Economic Development <ul><li>“ If the last century was the century of urbanization, the twenty-first will be the century of cities. </li></ul><ul><li>It is in the cities that decisive battles for the quality of life will be fought, and their outcomes will have a defining effect on the planet’s environment and on human relations.” </li></ul><ul><li>Jaime Lerner, Former Governor of Paraná, Brazil, and former Mayor of Curitiba </li></ul>
  47. 48. LED Overview Discussion and Q&A [email_address] August 2009
  48. 49. Can LED be achieved by attracting transplants? <ul><li>Transplants within a city region vs. transplants from afar </li></ul><ul><li>What do transplants need? What makes transplants possible? </li></ul><ul><li>What is their influence on the local economy? </li></ul><ul><li>How many are available? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the costs to attract one? </li></ul>
  49. 50. Can LED be achieved in peripheral cities and towns by their residents? <ul><li>Yes! If it can be achieved (and it can not always be achieved) then it can be achieved by the local residents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the problem is not the residents! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the conditions that enable LED? </li></ul></ul>
  50. 51. Thank You [email_address] August 2009

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