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   What is Nazism?
   Weimar Republic
   The First World War (1914 to 1918)
   The Period in between 1st & 2nd World War
   The Second World War (1939 to 1945)
   Period of Hitler & Nazism in Germany
   End of Nazism & Second World war
   Nazism is a System and structure
    of ideas about world and politics.
ALLIED POWER BLOCK
                                AXIS POWER BLOCKS
(ALLIES)

   USSR                           Germany
   USA                            Jappan
   UK
                                   Ittaly
   FRANCE

(In the initial stage U K and
   France took the
   leadership, 1941 U S A
   and U S S R joined)
   Germany was Powerful in the earliest of 20th centuary.
   They fought in 1st W.W with Austria against Allied
    powers……. England, France, Russia.
   Had a hope they can gain a quick victory.
   Germany gained initial gains & captured France and Belgium.
   In 1917 U S entered in Allied power block they become much
    strong.
   Germany completely defeated in the 1st W.W in 1918
   The defeat of Germany & Abdiction of Monarchy gave an
    opportunity to Parliamentary parties to recast their politics.
   A National assembly met at Weimar & they estd a Democratic
    Constitution with Federal Structure.
   Deputies were elected to the German Parliament- Reichstag
    on the base of equal and universal votes cast by all adults
    including womens.
   The communists backed by the Bolshevik used the
    instability of the country a stage of revolution.
   It was led by Luxemburg they tried to organise a
    revolution.
   But the army crushed the attempt.
   The right wing Kapp Pustch (Army wing) tried to
    back the country Prussian aristocratic domination.
   It failed but all the officers fled from Berlin it created
    a vacuum to be filled by the workers. This was
    followed by strikes in all cities.
   Finally army suppressed all the revolution.
   In 1923 they introduced a new currency.
   Its name was Rentenmark
   It strengthened Germany’s monetary system.
   It helped them to create a political stability in
    Germany.
   Politically it was a fragile.
   The weimar constitution had some defects, which
    made unstable and vulnerable to dictatorship.
   Another one was proportional representation.
   This made achieving a majority by any one party a
    near impossible task, leading a rule of coalitions.
   Article 48 which gave the president the powers to
    impose emergency, suspend civil rights.
   They failed to manage this situations.
   The peoples they have lost their confidence in the
    Democratic system.
   It was formed after the 2nd W.W.
   Its duty was to prosecute Nazi war criminals.
   Also to prosecute the crimes against Peace &
    crimes against Humanity.
   They sentenced only eleven leading Nazi leaders
    to death & many others were imprisoned.
Six million           Jews (Hitler believed that
                       Jews are the main enemies
                       of Germany)


20 lakh            Gypsies in Europe


One million        Polish civilians


70,000 thousand    Germans mentaly/physically
                   disabled

Brief account of human lose happened in the
           2nd World war
   Nazis introduced lot of unprecedented means
    of killing people.

   Genocidal means killing on large scale of
    people leading to the destruction of large
    section of people.

   Ausch Witz is one of the example of killing
    centre in second W.W.
   The 1st W.W was comes to an end on the base of the Versaille
    treaty.
   Most of the agreement was harsh & humiliating peace
   Germany has lost its overseas colonies.
   Lost its tenth of its population
   13% territory, 7.5% Iron, 26% of its coal forced to pay France,
    Poland, Denmark & Lithuania.
   Allied powers has demiliterised Germany & prevented them
    from the making of weapon.
   Forced to pay a huge war compensation to allied nation
    amount of six billion pound.
   Allied powers occupied rich resources of Germany.
SUPPORTERS       FREE CORPS

   Socialists      Organisation of war
                     veterans in the 2nd
                     W.W.
   Catholics
                    They were supported
                     the Weimar Republic
   Democracts
                     and they were
                     crushed the uprisings
                     in Germany.
   Affected the entire continent both Psychologically
    & Financially.
   From a continent of Creditors Europe turned in to
    Debtors.
   A huge economic crisis emerged all over the
    World.
   The economic crisis led the years of Depression in
    Europe and all over the world.
   Affected the Society & Politics of Europe very
    harmfully.
   The soldiers led a miserable life in the trenches.
   They faced poison gases and shelling witnessed
    their rank reduced rapidly.
    The Weimar republic carried the burden of war
    guilt and national humiliation.
   Germany were forced to pay a huge war
    indemnity.
   The supporters of the Weimar Republic were
    Socialists, Catholics and Democrats became
    very easy target to attack the conservative
    nationalist circle. They were mockingly called
    November criminals.
   Germany fought in the war largely on loans and had to
    pay war reparations in gold.
   This depleted gold reserves at a time recourses were
    scarce.
   In 1923 Germany refused to pay war debt and France
    captured one of their leading industrial area Ruhr,
    claming their coal.
   Germany followed a passive resistance and printed lot of
    paper currency.
   With too much printed money caused the German
    market fell.
   Value of market collapsed.
   This led to the hyper inflation in Germany.
   Reduce or empty      Make up for a
    out                   wrong done.
   Over production led to the economic depression
    and collapse the American Stock market.
   American farmers had greatly increased their
    production during the war period.
   But after the revolt the demand for food reduced
    and price fell.
   The capitalists tried to increase their profit and
    paid low wages to the workers.
   Thus goods remained unsold in America.
   Also not much demand in Europe due to the
    collapse of Economy after the 1 W.W.
   America began to speculate in the stock market
    with borrowed money.
   As a result in October 1929 New york Stock
    Exchange collapsed.
   Value of shares dropped.
   Banks, factories, mining companies and
    business firms went bankrupt.
   There led to a large scale of poverty,
    unemployment and starvation.
   The economic crisis affected the German
    economy very harmfully.
   The industrial production was reduced.
   Workers lost their jobs and paid low wages.
   Un employment emerged in all over Germany.
   It affected the peasants, womans and Childrens
    in Germany
   The First W.W was comes to an end on the
    base of the Versailles treaty.
   But most of its agreements were harsh and
    humiliating peace.
   So the peoples in Germany was not satisfied
    in this agreement.
   Politically and Economically Weimar
    republic was a failure.
   Especially the crisis in the field of Economy,
    Polity and Society formed the background
    the the rise of Hitler in to power.
   Born in 1889 in Austria
   Spent his youth in poverty
   During the time of 1.W.W he joined the army
   Acted as messenger then became a corporal and earned
    the medal for bravery.
   The defeat of Germany horrified him and Versailles
    treaty made him furious.
   In 1919 he joined a small group- German Workers Party.
   Consequently he took over the charge of this
    organisation and renamed as Nationalist German
    Workers Party
   This party came to be known as Nazi party.
   He was a powerful speaker & charismatic leader.
   His passion and words influenced the people.
   He promised to build a strong nation, undo the injustice
    of the V.T and restore the dignity of the German people.
   He promised employment, and secure future for the
    youth.
   He promised to weed out all the foreign influences and
    resist all foreign conspiracies against Germany.
   He devised a new style of politics.
   He tried to make a unity among the people.
   In 1923 he was arrested and imprisoned, in there he
    wrote his autobiography- Mein Kamph, considered the
    Bible of the Nazi Party.
   This influenced the people very much bcz their dignity
    and pride had been shattered, also they were in very
    misserable economic and political condition. So……..
   In 1919 Hitler Hitler joined in a small group
    called German Workers party

   He subsequently took over the charge of the
    organisation and renamed in the National
    Socialist German Workers Party.

   This party came to be known as Nazi Party.
   1923- planned to seize control of Bavaria, march to Berlin
    and capture power.
   It was failed and he was arrested.
   1930 early- Nazis failed to mobilise the people.
   1929- Great Depression, helped the Nazi party to
    mobilise the people.
   1928- Nazis got only 2.6% votes in the Reichstag (German
    parliament)
   1932- It had become the largest party got 37% votes.
   1933- president Hindenburg offered the chancellorship,
    the highest position in the cabinet ministers.
   It was passed on 3 March 1933.
   This Act established dictatorship in Germany.
   It gave Hitler all powers to Sideline parliament
    and rule.
   All political parties and trade unions were
    banned except the Nazi parties.
   The state established control over the
    Economy, Army, Media and Judiciary.
   Special police system and security forces were
    created to control and order society in ways
    Nazis wanted.
   Green Uniform- Already existed police group.
    In addition to this they formed
   Storm Troopers- S A (it included)
   Gestapo- Secret State Police.
   S S- The protection Squads
   S D- Criminal Police & Security Service.
   The police forces acquired powers to rule
    with impunity,
   What was the plans of Hitler after
    becoming the chancellor of Germany to
    consolidate the Nazi power
                   (or)
    Explain the three fold plan of Hitler
    introduced for to bring all the powers
    under his control.

                  (or)
   The ways and circumstances- Hitler from
    the position of Chancellor to president.
   In 1933 Jan 30 president Hindenburg offered
    chancellorship, the highest position of cabinet
    ministers to Hitler.
   Having acquired the power, he dismantled the
    structures of democratic rule.
   In 1933 Feb 28, he suspended the civic rights like-
    freedom of speech, press and assembly, that had
    been granted by the Weimar republic.
   Then he turned his attention against the
    communists- most of whom where hurriedly
    packed off the newly established concentration
    camp.
   Enabling Act- (slide No.31)
   Police System- ( Slide No.32)
   Hitler assigned the economic recovery to the
    economist Hjalmar Schavat.
   They aimed at full production and full
    employment through a state-funded work-
    creation progreamme.
   This product produced the famous German
    superhighways and the peoples car,
    volswagen.
   In Foreign policy Hitler acquired quick success.
   He pulled out of the League of Nation in 1933,
    reoccupied Rhinland in 1936.
   He integrated Austria with Germany under the
    slogan- One people, one Nation and one Leader.
   He went to wrest (capture) German speaking
    Sudentenland from Checkoslovakia
   He earned unspoken support from England, which
    had considered versaille verdict too harsh.
   These quick success at home and abroad seemed to
    reverse the destiny of the country.
   1939 Sep-Germany invaded Poland.
   This started a war with France and England.
   1940 Sep- Tripartite pact was signed- Germany, Italy
    and Japan
   It strengthend the power of Hitler and he became an
    international power.
   Puppet regims, supportive of Nazi, were installed in
    large part of Europe.
   End of 1940- Hitler was at the pinnacle of his power.
   Hitler moved to achieve long term aim of conquering
    Eastern Europe.
   He wanted to ensure food supplies and living space
    for Germans.
   1941 June- attacked Soviet Union.
   In this historical blunder Hitler exposed German
    western front to British aerial bombing and the
    eastern front to powerful Soviet armies.
   The Soviet Red army has defeated Germany in
    Stalingrad.
   They hounded out the retreating German soldiers
    until they reached the Berlin.
   It helped the Soviet to establish their hegemony in
    East Europe.
   USA did not entered the war- they feared a
    economic crisis once again like after the first W.W
   But it could not stay out of the war for long.
   Japan tried to expand their power in the East.
   They occupied French Indo China, they planned
    to attacks on US naval base in Pacific.
   Japan extended their support to Hitler and
    bombed the US base at Pearl Harbor.
   Finally US entered in to the second W.W.
   In May 1945 the Second World war comes to an
    end of the defeat of Germany and Hitler
    committed suicide.
   U S dropped atom bomb on Hiroshima and
    Nagasaki in Japan.
   Briefly explain the major ideologies of Nazism
                          (or)
   Peculiar features of Nazi thinking.
                          (or)
   Explain the idea of racialism put forward by Hitler
                          (or)
   Role of Darwin and Spencer in the Nazi ideology
                          (or)
   The meaning of desirable and undesirable in the Nazi
    thinking.                    (or)
   Why the Nazis considered the Jews and Gypsies are
    the enemies of Germany.
   The Nazi ideology was synonymous with (H) world
    view.
   According to this no equality between the people only
    the racial hierarchy.
   Blue-eyed Nordic German Aryans- at the top & Jews
    located at the lowest rung.
   Jews were considered as anti race or arch enemies of
    Aryans
   Other coloured people were placed in different place
    according to their physical features.
   Hitler idea of racism borrowed from- the thinkers like
    Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer.
   Darwin a natural scientist- father of evolution theory-
    put forward the idea of evolution and natural selection.
   Spencer- Survival of the fittest.
   The Nazi argument was simple the strongest race will
    survive and weak one would perish.
   The Nazis believed that the Aryan race was the
    finest, it had to retain purity, become stronger and
    dominate the world.
   Another aspect of (H) ideology was- concept of
    Lebensraum or living space.
   He believed that new territories need for
    settlement. This enabled the settlers a new land to
    retain an intimate link with place of their origin.
   The German boundaries by moving eastwards,
    concentrated all Germans geographically one place.
   Poland became the laboratory of their
    experimentation.
   Nazis tried to the physical elimination of
    undesirable in the extended empire.
   They wanted only Pure and Healthy Nordic
    Aryans.
   They alone were considered Desirable.
   Only the worthy and prosperous- Desirable and
    others were considered Undesirable.
   This meant even those Germans who were seen
    impure or abnormal had no right to exist.
   Gypsies and Blacks in Germany considered as
    racial inferiors, who threatened the biological
    purity of Superior Aryans race.
   They were widely persecuted.
   Even Russian and Poles- Subhuman, and hence
    undeserving of any humanity.
   Germany- captured Poland and parts of
    Russia- and civilians were forced to work as
    slave labour.
   Many of them died simply through hardwork
    and starvation.
   Jews faced worst sufferings from Nazis.
   They hatred of Jews had a precursor in the traditional
    Christian hostility towards Jews.
   They had been stereotyped (no changing) as killers of
    Christ and usurers (money lenders)
   Medieval times Jews were barred from owning land.
   They survived mainly through trade and money
    lending.
   They lived in separately marked areas- Ghettos
   They were often persecuted through periodic
    organized violence and expulsion from the land.
   Hitler hatred Jews was based on pseudoscientific
    theories of race- no solution to Jewish problem
   It could be solved only through their total elimination.
   Gypsies and Blacks in Germany considered as
    racial inferiors, who threatened the biological
    purity of Superior Aryans race.
   They were widely persecuted.
   Even Russian and Poles- Subhuman, and hence
    undeserving of any humanity.
   Germany- captured Poland and parts of
    Russia- and civilians were forced to work as
    slave labour.
   Many of them died simply through hardwork
    and starvation.
   Jews faced worst sufferings from Nazis.
   They hatred of Jews had a precursor in the traditional
    Christian hostility towards Jews.
   They had been stereotyped (no changing) as killers of
    Christ and usurers (money lenders)
   Medieval times Jews were barred from owning land.
   They survived mainly through trade and money
    lending.
   They lived in separately marked areas- Ghettos
   They were often persecuted through periodic
    organized violence and expulsion from the land.
   Hitler hatred Jews was based on pseudoscientific
    theories of race- no solution to Jewish problem
   It could be solved only through their total elimination.
   1933-1939- Nazis terrorised, pauperised
    (absolute poverty) and segregated the Jews,
    compelling them leave the country.
   1939-1945- aimed at concentrating them in
    certain areas and eventually killing them in gas
    chambers in Poland.
   Genocide and war became two sides of same coin.
   Nazis occupied Poland and divided.
   North western Poland was annexed to Germany.
   Poles were forced to leave their homes and properties
    behind to be occupied by ethnic Germans brought in
    from occupied Europe.
   Poles were then herded like cattle in the other part
    called the general govt, the destination of all
    undesirables of the empire.
   Members of Polish intelligentsia were murdered in
    large number- for to keep the entire people
    intellectually and spiritually servile.
   The Polish children who looked like Aryans were
    forcibly snatched from their mothers and
    examined by race experts.
   If they passed the race test they were raised in
    German families and if not, they were deposited
    in orphanages were most perished.
   Largest ghettos, gas chambers, general govt-
    served as killing field for the Jews.
   The group that were           Money lenders
    classified as Gypsy had        charging excessive
    their own community            interest; often used a
    identity. Sinti and            term abuse.
    Roma were two such
    communities. Many of
    them traced their origin
    in India.
   Reduce to absolute      Systematic, organised
    poverty                  punishment of those
                             belonging to a group
                             or religion.
 1. Only persons or German or related blood would
  henceforth be German citizens enjoying the
  protection of the German empire.
 2.Marriage between Germans and Jews were
  forbidden.
 3.Extramarital relations between Germans and
  Jews became a crime.
 Jews were forbidden to fly the national flag.

Other some legal measures
 Boycott of Jewish business.

 Expulsion from govt services.

 Forced selling and confiscation (take possession as
  punishment) of their properties.
   Stage 1 : Exclusion (1933-1939)
   Stage 2: ghettoisation      (1940- 1944)
   Stage 3: Annihilation (1941 onwards)

Stage 1: Exclusion   (1933-1939)
 Nuremberg Laws of citizenship Sep :1935

 Other Legal measures.



Besides, Jewish properties were vandalised and looted,
  house attacked, Synagogues burnt and men arrested
  in a pogrom (organised massacre) in November 1938,
  remembered as the night of broken glass.
Stage :2 Ghettoisation : 1940-1944
 Sep 1941, all Jews had to wear a yellow star of
   David on their breasts.
 The identity mark was stamped on their passport,
   all illegal documents and houses.
 They were kept in Jewish house in Germany, and
   ghettos like Lodz and Warsaw in the east.
 These became sites of extreme misery and
   poverty.
 Jews had to surrender all their wealth before they
   entered a ghetto.
 Soon the ghettos were brimming with hunger,
   starvation and disease due to deprivation and
   poor hygiene.
Stage 3 :Annihilation -1941 onwards
 Jews from Jewish house, concentration camps and
   ghettos from different parts of Europe were
   brought to death factories by goods train.
 In Poland and elsewhere in East, most notably
   Belzek, Auschwitz, Sobibor, Treblinka, Chelmno
   and majdanek, they were charred in gas chambers
 Mass killing took place within minutes with
   scientific precision.
   The Schooling system under Nazism in Germany
                    (or)
    Hitler thought that Nazi society could be establish
    only by teaching children Nazi ideology- critically
    examine.
                    (or)
   All schools were cleansed and purified by the
    Nazis- Why?
                    (or)
   What happened in schools under Nazism?
   The sports activity in school under Nazi was a
    spirit of violence and aggression- why?
   Hitler thought that a strong Nazi society could be
    establish only by teaching children Nazi ideology
   All schools were cleansed and purified.
   The teachers from Jewish community and
    politically unreliable were dismissed.
   Children were first segregated, Germans and Jews
    could not sit together or play together.
   The undesirable children – Jews, gypsies,
    physically handicapped were thrown out of the
    school.
   Finally 1940’s they were taken to the gas
    champers.
   Good German children were subjected to a
    process of Nazi schooling, a prolonged period of
    ideological training.
   School text books were rewritten.
   Racial science was introduced to justify Nazi ideas
    of race.
   Stereotypes about Jews were popularised even
    through math class.
   Children were taught to be loyal and submissive,
    hate Jews and worship Hitler.
   The function of sports was to nurture a spirit of
    violence and aggression among the children.
   Hitler believed that boxing could make children
    iron hearted, strong and masculine.
   All the boys – 6 to 10 went through a preliminary
    training of Nazi ideology, at the end they take a
    oath of loyalty to Hitler.
“In the presence of this blood banner which
represents our Fuher I swear (promise) to
devote all my energies and my strength to the
saviour of our country, Adolf Hitler. I am
willing and ready to give up my life for him, so
help me God”
   Hitler was fanatically interested in the Youth.
   Youth Organisations were made responsible for
    educating German Youth in the spirit of Nationalism.
   Ten years old had to enter Jungvolk (Nazis Youth group
    for children below 14 years old)
   At 14, had to join nazi Youth organisation Hitler Youth.
   Where they learnt to worship war, glorify aggression and
    violence, condemn democracy, hate Jews, communists,
    Gypsies and all those categorised as undesirable.
   After a period of rigorous ideological and physical
    training they joined the Labour Service. Usually at the
    age of 18.
   Then they had to serve in the Armed Forces and
    enter one of the Nazi organisation.
   The Youth league of Nazis formed in 1922, four
    years later it renamed Hitler Youth.
   To unify the youth movement under Nazi
    control, all other youth organisation were
    systematically dissolved and finally banned.
   Briefly describe the role of women in Nazi rule.
                   (or)
   To encourage produce more children Nazis
    awarded Golden crosses to the women- Verify
    this statement.
                   (or)
   In my sate the mother is the important citizen-
    statement made by Hitler in 1933- critically
    examine this statement.
                   (or)
   I have sulled the honour of the nation- it is a
    punishment given to the women- analyse the
    circumstances.
   Nazis considered that women were radically different
    from men.
   The fight for equal right, part of democratic struggle
    everywhere was wrong and it would destroy society.
   Boys- be aggressive, masculine and steel hearted.
   Girls- become good mothers and rear poor blooded
    Aryan children.
   Girls- maintain purity of the race, keep distance from
    Jews, look after home, teach their children Nazi values,
    for to bear the Aryan race and culture.
   1933- Hitler said “ In my state the mother is the
    important citizen.
   But Nazi Germany all mothers were not treated
    equally.
   Women who bore racially undesirable children
    were punished and those who produced racially
    desirable children were awarded.
   They got good facilities in hospitals and
    concessions in shops, theatre, railway etc..
   To encourage to produce many children Honour
    crosses were awarded.
   Bronze- 4 children, Silver- 6 children, Gold- eight
    and more.
   Aryan women who deviated from the prescribed
    code of conduct were severely punished.
   Those who maintained contact with Jews, Poles
    and Russians were paraded through the town
    with shaved heads, blackened faces and placards
    hanging around their necks announcing “ I have
    sulled the honour of the nation”
   Many received jail and sentences and lost civic
    honour as well as their husbands and families for
    this criminal offence.
   To find out various words used by the Nazis
    for the communication
                  (or)
   Nazis used different labels for the
    communication- draw up a list of labels
                  (or)
   Nazis used the term disinfection areas for to
    address Gas champers- find out some more
    words
   The Nazis used language and media with care, and
    often great effect.
   The terms they used to describe their various
    practices are not only deceptive.
   They are chilling.
   They never used the term kill or murder in thier
    official communication.
   Mass Killing - Special treatment, final solution (Jews)
                 Euthanasia (for the disabled), selection
                  and disinfections.
   Evacuation - deporting people to gas champers.
   Disinfection areas - gas champers (looked like
    bathrooms equipped with fake showerheads)
   Nazis had properly utilised the media for the
    propagation of their ideas- Justify
                   (or)
   The role of media for the propagation of Nazis
    world view- describe
                   (or)
   Nazis ideas spread through- visual images,
    film, radio, posters, catchy slogan, leaflets-
    prove this statement with examples.
   Media was carefully used to win support for the
    regime and popularise its world views.
   Nazis ideas spread through- visual images, film, radio,
    posters, catchy slogan, leaflets.
   In posters- mocked, abused and described as evils to
    the enemies of Germany.
   Socialists and liberals were represented as weak and
    degenerate.
   They were attacked as malicious foreign agents.
   Propaganda films were made to create hatred for Jews.
   The most infamous film was- The Eternal Jew.
   Orthodox Jews were stereotyped and marked.
   They were shown with flowing beards wearing
    kaftans, however in reality it was difficult to
    distinguish German Jews by their outward appearance
    bcz highly assimilated community.
   They were referred- vermin (harmful to society
    animals/humans), rats and pests.
   Their movt compared to those of rodents (animal
    that gnaws).
   Nazism worked on the mind of the people, tapped
    their emotions and turned their hatred and anger
    at those marked as undesirable.
   The Nazis made equal efforts to appeal to all the
    different sections of the population.
   They sought to win their support by suggesting
    that Nazis alone could solve all their problems.

   The Nazis were compelled the farmers
    to belong to Hitler- why?
               (or)
   To write a short note on National
    Socialism Put forward by Nazis
               (or)
   The Nazis were against Capitalism and
    Marxism- why?
   The Nazis warned the farmers of Germany that
    you are standing in between two great dangerous
   One is the danger of American Economic System-
    Big Capitalism.
   The other is the Marxist economic system of
    Bolshevism
   The Big capitalism and Marxism work hand in
    hand ; they are born of Jewish thought and serve
    the master plan of world jewery.
   So the Nazis propagated that only the National
    Socialism can rescue from this dangerous.
   Briefly describe the approach of common
    people towards the Nazis
                    (or)
   The reaction of common people towards
    Nazim
                    (or)
   In Germany had many organised
    resistance against Nazism- Discuss
   Many people saw the World through the Nazi eyes
    and spoke their mind in Nazi language.
   The felt hatred and anger those who looked like Jews.
   They marked the house of Jews and reported
    suspicious neighbours.
   They genuinely believed Nazism would bring
    prosperity and improve general well-being.
   But not every German was not Nazi.
   Many organised active resistance to Nazism, braving
    police repression and death.
   The large majority of Germans, however were passive
    and apathetic witness.
   They were too scared to act, differ, to protest.
   Pastor Niemoeller- a resistance fighter and he write
    about this silence……………………
   First they came for the communist
      well, I was not a communist
      So I said Nothing.
   Then they came for the socialist
      well, I was not a socialist.
      So I said nothing
   Then they came for the trade Unionist
      But I was not a trade unionist
   And then they came for the Jews
      But I was not a Jew- so I did little
   Then when they came for me
      There was no one left who could stand up for
                                           me
To write a short note on Charlotte Beradt and
  her book- Third Reich of Dream
              (or)
The Jewish people feared their dreams- Examin

   She secretly recorded people’s dream in her diary and later
    published a book called Third Reich of Dream.
   In this book she describing the Jews themselves believed Nazi
    stereotypes about them.
   They dreamt of their hooked noses, black hair and eyes,
    Jewish looks and body movts.
   The images publicised in the Nazi press haunted the Jews
   They troubled them even in their dreams.
   The Jews many deaths even before they reached the gas
    chambers.
   The information about Nazi practices had trickled
    out of Germany during the last years of the war.
   Germany defeated the world war and realised the
    horrors of what had happened.
   The Germans preoccupied with their own plight.
   The Jews wanted the world to remember the
    atrocities and sufferings they had endured the
    during Nazi killing operations- called Holocaust.
   The spirit to bear witness and to preserve the
    document can be seen in many ghettos and camp
    inhabitants who wrote diaries, kept note books
    and created archives
   On the other hand when the war seemed to lost,
    Nazi leadership distributed petrol to its
    functionaries to destroy all incriminating
    evidences available in offices.
   The history and memory of the Holocaust live on
    in our memoirs(short life history of a person),
    fictions, documentaries, poetry, memorials and
    museums in many parts of world today.

   (plz seen the pictures page No. 72)
Lijin Golden
   First World War (1914 to 1918)
   Period in between First and Second World War
                              (1919 to 1939)
   Second World War (1939 to 1945)
   Nazism (1922 to 1939) and (1939 to 1945)
   Hitler (1922 to 1933) and (1933 to 1939)
                     and (1939 to 1945)
I
   What is Nazism
   First World War
      Period
      Course of the war
       Allies and Central Powers
      Results of I W.W - World level and Germany
      Economic - World level and Germany
2
   Weimar Republic
      Circumstances of the birth of Weimar Republic
       Supporters of Weimar Republic
       How they achieved stability – Rentenmark
       Problems faced by the Weimar Republic
       Politically it was a failure
   Woodrow Wilson and his 14 points
   Formation of League of Nation
   Versailles Treaty
            major agreements and aspects
3
   Economic Crisis in USA
           Causes
           Effects
           Great Depression
           Effects in Germany
           Inflation in Germany
   Meaning – Allies, Genocidal, November
    Criminals,    Reparation, Deplete and Wall street
    Exchange
4
   Adolf Hitler
          Early Life
          Formation of Nazi Party
          Initial attempts made by the Nazis
          Promises made by Hitler
          Elections attended by the Nazi party
          Calibers of Adolf Hitler
          Mein Kamph
          Hitler achieved the throne of
                      chancellorship and president.
5
   Hitler and his Dictatorship
           Destruction of Democracy
           Communists and their condition
           Banned the civic rights and media
           Enabling Act
           Police System under Nazis

   Recovery methods of Hitler
          Economic plan and Economist
          Economic plan- S F W C P and Results
          Foreign Policy- Austria, Sudentenland and
                                            Brittain
   Second World War
      Allied and Axis power blocks
     Course of the War
     Time Line
     Result of the War
     Death of Hitler
     Formation of UNO
   Meaning- Nordic German Aryans,
    Concentration    camp, Propaganda
   IDEOLOGY OF NAZISM

         Superior and Inferior
         Human and Subhuman
         Desirable and undesirable
         Pure and Impure
         Role of Darwin and Spencer
         Theory of Racialism
         Theory of Geography- lebensrum
         No alternative – Physical elimination
         Condition- Jews, Gypsies, Russians,
                      Black and Poles
   Nuremsberg Law of Citizenship- 1935
   Stages of Death
           Exclusion
           Gettoisation
           Annihilation
   Meaning- Usurers, pauperised,
    Concentration camp, Gypsies, Gas
    Champers
   Nazis Approach
         Jews- Ghettos
         Undesirables
         Poles- Government general
   Nazis Approach
         Children- Schools, Text book,
         Separation, race test, sports activity
         Oath after preliminary training
         Youths- Organisations, Hitler Youth
         Women- Girl students, Honor of Cross and
         Punishments
   Nazis Approach
          Language
          Media
   Approach of Common people towards Nazism
   Resistance Movements
   National Socialism
            Capitalism
            Bolshevism
   The third Reich of Dream
   Holocaust

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Nazism

  • 1.
  • 2. What is Nazism?  Weimar Republic  The First World War (1914 to 1918)  The Period in between 1st & 2nd World War  The Second World War (1939 to 1945)  Period of Hitler & Nazism in Germany  End of Nazism & Second World war
  • 3.
  • 4. Nazism is a System and structure of ideas about world and politics.
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7. ALLIED POWER BLOCK AXIS POWER BLOCKS (ALLIES)  USSR  Germany  USA  Jappan  UK  Ittaly  FRANCE (In the initial stage U K and France took the leadership, 1941 U S A and U S S R joined)
  • 8.
  • 9. Germany was Powerful in the earliest of 20th centuary.  They fought in 1st W.W with Austria against Allied powers……. England, France, Russia.  Had a hope they can gain a quick victory.  Germany gained initial gains & captured France and Belgium.  In 1917 U S entered in Allied power block they become much strong.  Germany completely defeated in the 1st W.W in 1918  The defeat of Germany & Abdiction of Monarchy gave an opportunity to Parliamentary parties to recast their politics.  A National assembly met at Weimar & they estd a Democratic Constitution with Federal Structure.  Deputies were elected to the German Parliament- Reichstag on the base of equal and universal votes cast by all adults including womens.
  • 10.
  • 11. The communists backed by the Bolshevik used the instability of the country a stage of revolution.  It was led by Luxemburg they tried to organise a revolution.  But the army crushed the attempt.  The right wing Kapp Pustch (Army wing) tried to back the country Prussian aristocratic domination.  It failed but all the officers fled from Berlin it created a vacuum to be filled by the workers. This was followed by strikes in all cities.  Finally army suppressed all the revolution.
  • 12. In 1923 they introduced a new currency.  Its name was Rentenmark  It strengthened Germany’s monetary system.  It helped them to create a political stability in Germany.
  • 13. Politically it was a fragile.  The weimar constitution had some defects, which made unstable and vulnerable to dictatorship.  Another one was proportional representation.  This made achieving a majority by any one party a near impossible task, leading a rule of coalitions.  Article 48 which gave the president the powers to impose emergency, suspend civil rights.  They failed to manage this situations.  The peoples they have lost their confidence in the Democratic system.
  • 14. It was formed after the 2nd W.W.  Its duty was to prosecute Nazi war criminals.  Also to prosecute the crimes against Peace & crimes against Humanity.  They sentenced only eleven leading Nazi leaders to death & many others were imprisoned.
  • 15.
  • 16. Six million  Jews (Hitler believed that Jews are the main enemies of Germany) 20 lakh Gypsies in Europe One million Polish civilians 70,000 thousand Germans mentaly/physically disabled Brief account of human lose happened in the 2nd World war
  • 17.
  • 18. Nazis introduced lot of unprecedented means of killing people.  Genocidal means killing on large scale of people leading to the destruction of large section of people.  Ausch Witz is one of the example of killing centre in second W.W.
  • 19.
  • 20. The 1st W.W was comes to an end on the base of the Versaille treaty.  Most of the agreement was harsh & humiliating peace  Germany has lost its overseas colonies.  Lost its tenth of its population  13% territory, 7.5% Iron, 26% of its coal forced to pay France, Poland, Denmark & Lithuania.  Allied powers has demiliterised Germany & prevented them from the making of weapon.  Forced to pay a huge war compensation to allied nation amount of six billion pound.  Allied powers occupied rich resources of Germany.
  • 21.
  • 22. SUPPORTERS FREE CORPS  Socialists  Organisation of war veterans in the 2nd W.W.  Catholics  They were supported the Weimar Republic  Democracts and they were crushed the uprisings in Germany.
  • 23. Affected the entire continent both Psychologically & Financially.  From a continent of Creditors Europe turned in to Debtors.  A huge economic crisis emerged all over the World.  The economic crisis led the years of Depression in Europe and all over the world.  Affected the Society & Politics of Europe very harmfully.
  • 24. The soldiers led a miserable life in the trenches.  They faced poison gases and shelling witnessed their rank reduced rapidly.  The Weimar republic carried the burden of war guilt and national humiliation.  Germany were forced to pay a huge war indemnity.
  • 25. The supporters of the Weimar Republic were Socialists, Catholics and Democrats became very easy target to attack the conservative nationalist circle. They were mockingly called November criminals.
  • 26. Germany fought in the war largely on loans and had to pay war reparations in gold.  This depleted gold reserves at a time recourses were scarce.  In 1923 Germany refused to pay war debt and France captured one of their leading industrial area Ruhr, claming their coal.  Germany followed a passive resistance and printed lot of paper currency.  With too much printed money caused the German market fell.  Value of market collapsed.  This led to the hyper inflation in Germany.
  • 27. Reduce or empty  Make up for a out wrong done.
  • 28. Over production led to the economic depression and collapse the American Stock market.  American farmers had greatly increased their production during the war period.  But after the revolt the demand for food reduced and price fell.  The capitalists tried to increase their profit and paid low wages to the workers.  Thus goods remained unsold in America.  Also not much demand in Europe due to the collapse of Economy after the 1 W.W.
  • 29. America began to speculate in the stock market with borrowed money.  As a result in October 1929 New york Stock Exchange collapsed.  Value of shares dropped.  Banks, factories, mining companies and business firms went bankrupt.  There led to a large scale of poverty, unemployment and starvation.
  • 30. The economic crisis affected the German economy very harmfully.  The industrial production was reduced.  Workers lost their jobs and paid low wages.  Un employment emerged in all over Germany.  It affected the peasants, womans and Childrens in Germany
  • 31.
  • 32. The First W.W was comes to an end on the base of the Versailles treaty.  But most of its agreements were harsh and humiliating peace.  So the peoples in Germany was not satisfied in this agreement.  Politically and Economically Weimar republic was a failure.  Especially the crisis in the field of Economy, Polity and Society formed the background the the rise of Hitler in to power.
  • 33. Born in 1889 in Austria  Spent his youth in poverty  During the time of 1.W.W he joined the army  Acted as messenger then became a corporal and earned the medal for bravery.  The defeat of Germany horrified him and Versailles treaty made him furious.  In 1919 he joined a small group- German Workers Party.  Consequently he took over the charge of this organisation and renamed as Nationalist German Workers Party  This party came to be known as Nazi party.
  • 34. He was a powerful speaker & charismatic leader.  His passion and words influenced the people.  He promised to build a strong nation, undo the injustice of the V.T and restore the dignity of the German people.  He promised employment, and secure future for the youth.  He promised to weed out all the foreign influences and resist all foreign conspiracies against Germany.  He devised a new style of politics.  He tried to make a unity among the people.  In 1923 he was arrested and imprisoned, in there he wrote his autobiography- Mein Kamph, considered the Bible of the Nazi Party.  This influenced the people very much bcz their dignity and pride had been shattered, also they were in very misserable economic and political condition. So……..
  • 35. In 1919 Hitler Hitler joined in a small group called German Workers party  He subsequently took over the charge of the organisation and renamed in the National Socialist German Workers Party.  This party came to be known as Nazi Party.
  • 36. 1923- planned to seize control of Bavaria, march to Berlin and capture power.  It was failed and he was arrested.  1930 early- Nazis failed to mobilise the people.  1929- Great Depression, helped the Nazi party to mobilise the people.  1928- Nazis got only 2.6% votes in the Reichstag (German parliament)  1932- It had become the largest party got 37% votes.  1933- president Hindenburg offered the chancellorship, the highest position in the cabinet ministers.
  • 37. It was passed on 3 March 1933.  This Act established dictatorship in Germany.  It gave Hitler all powers to Sideline parliament and rule.  All political parties and trade unions were banned except the Nazi parties.  The state established control over the Economy, Army, Media and Judiciary.
  • 38. Special police system and security forces were created to control and order society in ways Nazis wanted.  Green Uniform- Already existed police group. In addition to this they formed  Storm Troopers- S A (it included)  Gestapo- Secret State Police.  S S- The protection Squads  S D- Criminal Police & Security Service.  The police forces acquired powers to rule with impunity,
  • 39. What was the plans of Hitler after becoming the chancellor of Germany to consolidate the Nazi power (or)  Explain the three fold plan of Hitler introduced for to bring all the powers under his control. (or)  The ways and circumstances- Hitler from the position of Chancellor to president.
  • 40. In 1933 Jan 30 president Hindenburg offered chancellorship, the highest position of cabinet ministers to Hitler.  Having acquired the power, he dismantled the structures of democratic rule.  In 1933 Feb 28, he suspended the civic rights like- freedom of speech, press and assembly, that had been granted by the Weimar republic.  Then he turned his attention against the communists- most of whom where hurriedly packed off the newly established concentration camp.  Enabling Act- (slide No.31)  Police System- ( Slide No.32)
  • 41.
  • 42. Hitler assigned the economic recovery to the economist Hjalmar Schavat.  They aimed at full production and full employment through a state-funded work- creation progreamme.  This product produced the famous German superhighways and the peoples car, volswagen.
  • 43. In Foreign policy Hitler acquired quick success.  He pulled out of the League of Nation in 1933, reoccupied Rhinland in 1936.  He integrated Austria with Germany under the slogan- One people, one Nation and one Leader.  He went to wrest (capture) German speaking Sudentenland from Checkoslovakia  He earned unspoken support from England, which had considered versaille verdict too harsh.  These quick success at home and abroad seemed to reverse the destiny of the country.
  • 44. 1939 Sep-Germany invaded Poland.  This started a war with France and England.  1940 Sep- Tripartite pact was signed- Germany, Italy and Japan  It strengthend the power of Hitler and he became an international power.  Puppet regims, supportive of Nazi, were installed in large part of Europe.  End of 1940- Hitler was at the pinnacle of his power.  Hitler moved to achieve long term aim of conquering Eastern Europe.  He wanted to ensure food supplies and living space for Germans.
  • 45. 1941 June- attacked Soviet Union.  In this historical blunder Hitler exposed German western front to British aerial bombing and the eastern front to powerful Soviet armies.  The Soviet Red army has defeated Germany in Stalingrad.  They hounded out the retreating German soldiers until they reached the Berlin.  It helped the Soviet to establish their hegemony in East Europe.  USA did not entered the war- they feared a economic crisis once again like after the first W.W  But it could not stay out of the war for long.
  • 46. Japan tried to expand their power in the East.  They occupied French Indo China, they planned to attacks on US naval base in Pacific.  Japan extended their support to Hitler and bombed the US base at Pearl Harbor.  Finally US entered in to the second W.W.  In May 1945 the Second World war comes to an end of the defeat of Germany and Hitler committed suicide.  U S dropped atom bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan.
  • 47.
  • 48.
  • 49.
  • 50. Briefly explain the major ideologies of Nazism (or)  Peculiar features of Nazi thinking. (or)  Explain the idea of racialism put forward by Hitler (or)  Role of Darwin and Spencer in the Nazi ideology (or)  The meaning of desirable and undesirable in the Nazi thinking. (or)  Why the Nazis considered the Jews and Gypsies are the enemies of Germany.
  • 51. The Nazi ideology was synonymous with (H) world view.  According to this no equality between the people only the racial hierarchy.  Blue-eyed Nordic German Aryans- at the top & Jews located at the lowest rung.  Jews were considered as anti race or arch enemies of Aryans  Other coloured people were placed in different place according to their physical features.  Hitler idea of racism borrowed from- the thinkers like Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer.  Darwin a natural scientist- father of evolution theory- put forward the idea of evolution and natural selection.  Spencer- Survival of the fittest.  The Nazi argument was simple the strongest race will survive and weak one would perish.
  • 52. The Nazis believed that the Aryan race was the finest, it had to retain purity, become stronger and dominate the world.  Another aspect of (H) ideology was- concept of Lebensraum or living space.  He believed that new territories need for settlement. This enabled the settlers a new land to retain an intimate link with place of their origin.  The German boundaries by moving eastwards, concentrated all Germans geographically one place.  Poland became the laboratory of their experimentation.
  • 53. Nazis tried to the physical elimination of undesirable in the extended empire.  They wanted only Pure and Healthy Nordic Aryans.  They alone were considered Desirable.  Only the worthy and prosperous- Desirable and others were considered Undesirable.  This meant even those Germans who were seen impure or abnormal had no right to exist.
  • 54. Gypsies and Blacks in Germany considered as racial inferiors, who threatened the biological purity of Superior Aryans race.  They were widely persecuted.  Even Russian and Poles- Subhuman, and hence undeserving of any humanity.  Germany- captured Poland and parts of Russia- and civilians were forced to work as slave labour.  Many of them died simply through hardwork and starvation.
  • 55. Jews faced worst sufferings from Nazis.  They hatred of Jews had a precursor in the traditional Christian hostility towards Jews.  They had been stereotyped (no changing) as killers of Christ and usurers (money lenders)  Medieval times Jews were barred from owning land.  They survived mainly through trade and money lending.  They lived in separately marked areas- Ghettos  They were often persecuted through periodic organized violence and expulsion from the land.  Hitler hatred Jews was based on pseudoscientific theories of race- no solution to Jewish problem  It could be solved only through their total elimination.
  • 56. Gypsies and Blacks in Germany considered as racial inferiors, who threatened the biological purity of Superior Aryans race.  They were widely persecuted.  Even Russian and Poles- Subhuman, and hence undeserving of any humanity.  Germany- captured Poland and parts of Russia- and civilians were forced to work as slave labour.  Many of them died simply through hardwork and starvation.
  • 57. Jews faced worst sufferings from Nazis.  They hatred of Jews had a precursor in the traditional Christian hostility towards Jews.  They had been stereotyped (no changing) as killers of Christ and usurers (money lenders)  Medieval times Jews were barred from owning land.  They survived mainly through trade and money lending.  They lived in separately marked areas- Ghettos  They were often persecuted through periodic organized violence and expulsion from the land.  Hitler hatred Jews was based on pseudoscientific theories of race- no solution to Jewish problem  It could be solved only through their total elimination.
  • 58. 1933-1939- Nazis terrorised, pauperised (absolute poverty) and segregated the Jews, compelling them leave the country.  1939-1945- aimed at concentrating them in certain areas and eventually killing them in gas chambers in Poland.
  • 59. Genocide and war became two sides of same coin.  Nazis occupied Poland and divided.  North western Poland was annexed to Germany.  Poles were forced to leave their homes and properties behind to be occupied by ethnic Germans brought in from occupied Europe.  Poles were then herded like cattle in the other part called the general govt, the destination of all undesirables of the empire.  Members of Polish intelligentsia were murdered in large number- for to keep the entire people intellectually and spiritually servile.
  • 60. The Polish children who looked like Aryans were forcibly snatched from their mothers and examined by race experts.  If they passed the race test they were raised in German families and if not, they were deposited in orphanages were most perished.  Largest ghettos, gas chambers, general govt- served as killing field for the Jews.
  • 61.
  • 62. The group that were  Money lenders classified as Gypsy had charging excessive their own community interest; often used a identity. Sinti and term abuse. Roma were two such communities. Many of them traced their origin in India.
  • 63. Reduce to absolute  Systematic, organised poverty punishment of those belonging to a group or religion.
  • 64.
  • 65.  1. Only persons or German or related blood would henceforth be German citizens enjoying the protection of the German empire.  2.Marriage between Germans and Jews were forbidden.  3.Extramarital relations between Germans and Jews became a crime.  Jews were forbidden to fly the national flag. Other some legal measures  Boycott of Jewish business.  Expulsion from govt services.  Forced selling and confiscation (take possession as punishment) of their properties.
  • 66. Stage 1 : Exclusion (1933-1939)  Stage 2: ghettoisation (1940- 1944)  Stage 3: Annihilation (1941 onwards) Stage 1: Exclusion (1933-1939)  Nuremberg Laws of citizenship Sep :1935  Other Legal measures. Besides, Jewish properties were vandalised and looted, house attacked, Synagogues burnt and men arrested in a pogrom (organised massacre) in November 1938, remembered as the night of broken glass.
  • 67.
  • 68. Stage :2 Ghettoisation : 1940-1944  Sep 1941, all Jews had to wear a yellow star of David on their breasts.  The identity mark was stamped on their passport, all illegal documents and houses.  They were kept in Jewish house in Germany, and ghettos like Lodz and Warsaw in the east.  These became sites of extreme misery and poverty.  Jews had to surrender all their wealth before they entered a ghetto.  Soon the ghettos were brimming with hunger, starvation and disease due to deprivation and poor hygiene.
  • 69.
  • 70.
  • 71. Stage 3 :Annihilation -1941 onwards  Jews from Jewish house, concentration camps and ghettos from different parts of Europe were brought to death factories by goods train.  In Poland and elsewhere in East, most notably Belzek, Auschwitz, Sobibor, Treblinka, Chelmno and majdanek, they were charred in gas chambers  Mass killing took place within minutes with scientific precision.
  • 72.
  • 73.
  • 74.
  • 75. The Schooling system under Nazism in Germany (or)  Hitler thought that Nazi society could be establish only by teaching children Nazi ideology- critically examine. (or)  All schools were cleansed and purified by the Nazis- Why? (or)  What happened in schools under Nazism?  The sports activity in school under Nazi was a spirit of violence and aggression- why?
  • 76. Hitler thought that a strong Nazi society could be establish only by teaching children Nazi ideology  All schools were cleansed and purified.  The teachers from Jewish community and politically unreliable were dismissed.  Children were first segregated, Germans and Jews could not sit together or play together.  The undesirable children – Jews, gypsies, physically handicapped were thrown out of the school.  Finally 1940’s they were taken to the gas champers.  Good German children were subjected to a process of Nazi schooling, a prolonged period of ideological training.
  • 77. School text books were rewritten.  Racial science was introduced to justify Nazi ideas of race.  Stereotypes about Jews were popularised even through math class.  Children were taught to be loyal and submissive, hate Jews and worship Hitler.  The function of sports was to nurture a spirit of violence and aggression among the children.  Hitler believed that boxing could make children iron hearted, strong and masculine.  All the boys – 6 to 10 went through a preliminary training of Nazi ideology, at the end they take a oath of loyalty to Hitler.
  • 78. “In the presence of this blood banner which represents our Fuher I swear (promise) to devote all my energies and my strength to the saviour of our country, Adolf Hitler. I am willing and ready to give up my life for him, so help me God”
  • 79.
  • 80.
  • 81. Hitler was fanatically interested in the Youth.  Youth Organisations were made responsible for educating German Youth in the spirit of Nationalism.  Ten years old had to enter Jungvolk (Nazis Youth group for children below 14 years old)  At 14, had to join nazi Youth organisation Hitler Youth.  Where they learnt to worship war, glorify aggression and violence, condemn democracy, hate Jews, communists, Gypsies and all those categorised as undesirable.  After a period of rigorous ideological and physical training they joined the Labour Service. Usually at the age of 18.
  • 82. Then they had to serve in the Armed Forces and enter one of the Nazi organisation.  The Youth league of Nazis formed in 1922, four years later it renamed Hitler Youth.  To unify the youth movement under Nazi control, all other youth organisation were systematically dissolved and finally banned.
  • 83.
  • 84. Briefly describe the role of women in Nazi rule. (or)  To encourage produce more children Nazis awarded Golden crosses to the women- Verify this statement. (or)  In my sate the mother is the important citizen- statement made by Hitler in 1933- critically examine this statement. (or)  I have sulled the honour of the nation- it is a punishment given to the women- analyse the circumstances.
  • 85. Nazis considered that women were radically different from men.  The fight for equal right, part of democratic struggle everywhere was wrong and it would destroy society.  Boys- be aggressive, masculine and steel hearted.  Girls- become good mothers and rear poor blooded Aryan children.  Girls- maintain purity of the race, keep distance from Jews, look after home, teach their children Nazi values, for to bear the Aryan race and culture.  1933- Hitler said “ In my state the mother is the important citizen.
  • 86. But Nazi Germany all mothers were not treated equally.  Women who bore racially undesirable children were punished and those who produced racially desirable children were awarded.  They got good facilities in hospitals and concessions in shops, theatre, railway etc..  To encourage to produce many children Honour crosses were awarded.  Bronze- 4 children, Silver- 6 children, Gold- eight and more.  Aryan women who deviated from the prescribed code of conduct were severely punished.
  • 87. Those who maintained contact with Jews, Poles and Russians were paraded through the town with shaved heads, blackened faces and placards hanging around their necks announcing “ I have sulled the honour of the nation”  Many received jail and sentences and lost civic honour as well as their husbands and families for this criminal offence.
  • 88. To find out various words used by the Nazis for the communication (or)  Nazis used different labels for the communication- draw up a list of labels (or)  Nazis used the term disinfection areas for to address Gas champers- find out some more words
  • 89. The Nazis used language and media with care, and often great effect.  The terms they used to describe their various practices are not only deceptive.  They are chilling.  They never used the term kill or murder in thier official communication.  Mass Killing - Special treatment, final solution (Jews) Euthanasia (for the disabled), selection and disinfections.  Evacuation - deporting people to gas champers.  Disinfection areas - gas champers (looked like bathrooms equipped with fake showerheads)
  • 90. Nazis had properly utilised the media for the propagation of their ideas- Justify (or)  The role of media for the propagation of Nazis world view- describe (or)  Nazis ideas spread through- visual images, film, radio, posters, catchy slogan, leaflets- prove this statement with examples.
  • 91. Media was carefully used to win support for the regime and popularise its world views.  Nazis ideas spread through- visual images, film, radio, posters, catchy slogan, leaflets.  In posters- mocked, abused and described as evils to the enemies of Germany.  Socialists and liberals were represented as weak and degenerate.  They were attacked as malicious foreign agents.  Propaganda films were made to create hatred for Jews.  The most infamous film was- The Eternal Jew.  Orthodox Jews were stereotyped and marked.  They were shown with flowing beards wearing kaftans, however in reality it was difficult to distinguish German Jews by their outward appearance bcz highly assimilated community.
  • 92. They were referred- vermin (harmful to society animals/humans), rats and pests.  Their movt compared to those of rodents (animal that gnaws).  Nazism worked on the mind of the people, tapped their emotions and turned their hatred and anger at those marked as undesirable.  The Nazis made equal efforts to appeal to all the different sections of the population.  They sought to win their support by suggesting that Nazis alone could solve all their problems. 
  • 93.
  • 94. The Nazis were compelled the farmers to belong to Hitler- why? (or)  To write a short note on National Socialism Put forward by Nazis (or)  The Nazis were against Capitalism and Marxism- why?
  • 95. The Nazis warned the farmers of Germany that you are standing in between two great dangerous  One is the danger of American Economic System- Big Capitalism.  The other is the Marxist economic system of Bolshevism  The Big capitalism and Marxism work hand in hand ; they are born of Jewish thought and serve the master plan of world jewery.  So the Nazis propagated that only the National Socialism can rescue from this dangerous.
  • 96. Briefly describe the approach of common people towards the Nazis (or)  The reaction of common people towards Nazim (or)  In Germany had many organised resistance against Nazism- Discuss
  • 97. Many people saw the World through the Nazi eyes and spoke their mind in Nazi language.  The felt hatred and anger those who looked like Jews.  They marked the house of Jews and reported suspicious neighbours.  They genuinely believed Nazism would bring prosperity and improve general well-being.  But not every German was not Nazi.  Many organised active resistance to Nazism, braving police repression and death.  The large majority of Germans, however were passive and apathetic witness.  They were too scared to act, differ, to protest.  Pastor Niemoeller- a resistance fighter and he write about this silence……………………
  • 98. First they came for the communist well, I was not a communist So I said Nothing.  Then they came for the socialist well, I was not a socialist. So I said nothing  Then they came for the trade Unionist But I was not a trade unionist  And then they came for the Jews But I was not a Jew- so I did little  Then when they came for me There was no one left who could stand up for me
  • 99. To write a short note on Charlotte Beradt and her book- Third Reich of Dream (or) The Jewish people feared their dreams- Examin  She secretly recorded people’s dream in her diary and later published a book called Third Reich of Dream.  In this book she describing the Jews themselves believed Nazi stereotypes about them.  They dreamt of their hooked noses, black hair and eyes, Jewish looks and body movts.  The images publicised in the Nazi press haunted the Jews  They troubled them even in their dreams.  The Jews many deaths even before they reached the gas chambers.
  • 100. The information about Nazi practices had trickled out of Germany during the last years of the war.  Germany defeated the world war and realised the horrors of what had happened.  The Germans preoccupied with their own plight.  The Jews wanted the world to remember the atrocities and sufferings they had endured the during Nazi killing operations- called Holocaust.  The spirit to bear witness and to preserve the document can be seen in many ghettos and camp inhabitants who wrote diaries, kept note books and created archives
  • 101. On the other hand when the war seemed to lost, Nazi leadership distributed petrol to its functionaries to destroy all incriminating evidences available in offices.  The history and memory of the Holocaust live on in our memoirs(short life history of a person), fictions, documentaries, poetry, memorials and museums in many parts of world today.  (plz seen the pictures page No. 72)
  • 103. First World War (1914 to 1918)  Period in between First and Second World War (1919 to 1939)  Second World War (1939 to 1945)  Nazism (1922 to 1939) and (1939 to 1945)  Hitler (1922 to 1933) and (1933 to 1939) and (1939 to 1945)
  • 104. I  What is Nazism  First World War Period Course of the war Allies and Central Powers Results of I W.W - World level and Germany Economic - World level and Germany
  • 105. 2  Weimar Republic Circumstances of the birth of Weimar Republic Supporters of Weimar Republic How they achieved stability – Rentenmark Problems faced by the Weimar Republic Politically it was a failure  Woodrow Wilson and his 14 points  Formation of League of Nation  Versailles Treaty major agreements and aspects
  • 106. 3  Economic Crisis in USA Causes Effects Great Depression Effects in Germany Inflation in Germany  Meaning – Allies, Genocidal, November Criminals, Reparation, Deplete and Wall street Exchange
  • 107. 4  Adolf Hitler Early Life Formation of Nazi Party Initial attempts made by the Nazis Promises made by Hitler Elections attended by the Nazi party Calibers of Adolf Hitler Mein Kamph Hitler achieved the throne of chancellorship and president.
  • 108. 5  Hitler and his Dictatorship Destruction of Democracy Communists and their condition Banned the civic rights and media Enabling Act Police System under Nazis  Recovery methods of Hitler Economic plan and Economist Economic plan- S F W C P and Results Foreign Policy- Austria, Sudentenland and Brittain
  • 109. Second World War Allied and Axis power blocks Course of the War Time Line Result of the War Death of Hitler Formation of UNO  Meaning- Nordic German Aryans, Concentration camp, Propaganda
  • 110. IDEOLOGY OF NAZISM Superior and Inferior Human and Subhuman Desirable and undesirable Pure and Impure Role of Darwin and Spencer Theory of Racialism Theory of Geography- lebensrum No alternative – Physical elimination Condition- Jews, Gypsies, Russians, Black and Poles
  • 111. Nuremsberg Law of Citizenship- 1935  Stages of Death Exclusion Gettoisation Annihilation  Meaning- Usurers, pauperised, Concentration camp, Gypsies, Gas Champers
  • 112. Nazis Approach Jews- Ghettos Undesirables Poles- Government general  Nazis Approach Children- Schools, Text book, Separation, race test, sports activity Oath after preliminary training Youths- Organisations, Hitler Youth Women- Girl students, Honor of Cross and Punishments
  • 113. Nazis Approach Language Media  Approach of Common people towards Nazism  Resistance Movements  National Socialism Capitalism Bolshevism  The third Reich of Dream  Holocaust

Editor's Notes

  1. h