Educational Research as Design Science <ul><li>Design science: </li></ul><ul><li>Value laden </li></ul><ul><li>Functional axis of decomposition </li></ul><ul><li>Attention to Representation </li></ul>"everyone designs who devises courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into desired ones" (Herbert Simon, 1969, p 129)
The “gap” Theory (abstractions) Practice (anecdotes) Design Knowledge
Wanted: an “algebra” for a design science of learning <ul><li>Systematisation </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul>ab + (a-b) 2 /4 = (a+b) 2 /4 A notational framework that enables:
Design patterns [describe] a problem which occurs over and over again in our environment, and then describes the core of the solution to that problem, in such a way that you can use this solution a million times over, without ever doing it the same way twice (Alexander et al., 1977) C o n t e x t Problem Solution
Problem Keep the rain out Context Cold, wet, poor. Method of solution Thatched roof Related Timber frame, Slanted roof, Chimney
example: activity nodes Design problem Community facilities scattered individually through the city do nothing for the life of the city. Design solution Create nodes of activity throughout the community, spread about 300 yards apart. http://www.uni-weimar.de/architektur/InfAR/lehre/Entwurf/Patterns/030/ca_030.html
Example pattern: Mathematical game pieces Mathematical content is often injected artificially into games or other activities, as sugar-coating . This has a dual effect of ruining the game and alienating the mathematics. By contrast, for many mathematicians, mathematics is the game. Problem / Intent Context Games for mathematical learning.
Mathematical game pieces (II) <ul><li>Identify an element of the mathematical content you wish to address in this game. </li></ul><ul><li>Find a visual, animated or tangible representation of this element which is consistent with the game metaphors. </li></ul><ul><li>Design your game so that these objects have clear purpose and utility as game elements in the gameplay structure. </li></ul>
Example Pattern: Objects to talk with <ul><li>Natural discourse makes extensive use of artefacts: we gesture towards objects that mediate the activity to which the discussion refers. This dimension of human interaction is often lost in computerized interfaces. </li></ul>Problem / Intent interfaces which allow learners to converse about a common activity. Context
Objects to talk with (II) <ul><li>Learning activities often involve the use or construction of artefacts. When providing tools for learners to discuss their experience, allow them to easily include these artefacts in the discussion. </li></ul><ul><li>If the activity is mediated by or aims to produce digital artefacts, then the discussion medium should allow embedding of these artefacts. The medium should support a visual (graphical, symbolic, animated or simulated) 1:1 representation of these objects. </li></ul>
Objects to talk with: Example <ul><li>This is the real graph that was produced by the cumulate total of the halving-a-number robot. It looks like the top of my graph but </li></ul>I made the fatal mistake of thinking it started at zero. I also said it wouldn’t go over 100, which was very wrong.
Example pattern: try once, refine once Problem Lack of immediate feedback for students leads to fossilisation of errors and misconceptions providing immediate feedback in an iterative fashion can also hinder effective learning since students are able to "grope their way" step-by-step to a correct solution without necessarily having to think about each answer as a whole.
Problem: telling a good story is not so easy <ul><li>Inexperienced story-tellers might - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take the context for granted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preach, apologise, market, or generalise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid inconvenient details </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interactive feedback should help, but peers might - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be reluctant to criticize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attribute misunderstanding to their own faults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loose attention </li></ul></ul>