formative e-assessment: cases, patterns and scenarios


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formative e-assessment: cases, patterns and scenarios

  1. 1. formative e-assessment: case stories, design patterns, and future scenarios Caroline Daly, Harvey Mellar, Yishay Mor, Norbert Pachler, Institute of Education, University of London
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Scoping study commissioned by JISC </li></ul><ul><li>Short term, small budget, intended to inform future funding frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>Established a commited user group of higher-education teachers & researchers </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted and adapted the Planet Project's Participatory Methodology for Practical Design Patterns, and used the Planet platform </li></ul>
  3. 3. Methodology <ul><li>Desk research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Literature review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparing frameworks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5 Practical Enquiry Days </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination of collaborative reflection, report back from team, and guest plenaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Launch day, 3 Planet workshops, developers' day </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. What is formative e-assessment? <ul><li>No consistent view in the literature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From “anything test before the final” to “synonymous with learning” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The use of digital means to support formative assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Formative features of assessment, which are afforded by specific features of digital media </li></ul>
  5. 5. OK, so what is Formative Assessment? <ul><li>“ An assessment functions formatively when evidence about student achievement elicited by the assessment is interpreted and used to make decisions about the next steps in instruction that are likely to be better, or better founded, than the decisions that would have been made in the absence of that evidence” </li></ul><ul><li>(Dylan Wiliam)‏ </li></ul>
  6. 6. Formative = feedback + moments of contingency <ul><li>&quot;... These create &quot;moments of contingency,&quot; in which the direction of the instruction will depend on student responses. Teachers provide feedback that engages students, make time in class for students to work on improvement, and activate students as instructional resources for one another.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>(Leahy, Lyon, Thompson, and Wiliam 2005)‏ </li></ul>
  7. 7. Teacher Learner Peer Instruction Tasks Actions Tasks Actions
  8. 8. Wiliam's 5 stratagies
  9. 9. Conversational Framework (Laurillard)‏
  10. 10. Evidence Centred Design (Mislevy)‏ <ul><li>Highly developed </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern based </li></ul><ul><li>Oriented to large scale, automated systems </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement centric </li></ul><ul><li>Light on theory </li></ul><ul><li>Less suitable for open activity designs </li></ul>
  11. 11. A few cases <ul><li>Creature of the week </li></ul><ul><li>CoMo </li></ul><ul><li>Post 16 String Comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Open Mentor </li></ul><ul><li>... </li></ul>
  12. 12. Creature of the week (Judy Robertson)‏ <ul><li>Situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>large class (138), first and second year computer science students. assignment: create a virtual pet in Second Life. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engage and motivate the students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>show examples of good work which others could learn from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>show students their work is valued. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>build a sense of community. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. CoMo (Niall Winters, Yishay Mor)‏ <ul><li>Situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Royal Vet College. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hospital rotations as part of their training. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow students to capture critical incidents in text and image. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support sharing of clinical experiences and co-reflection. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Post 16 string comparison (Aliy Fowler)‏ <ul><li>Situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grammar school been piloting the ‘string comparison’ approach to language teaching at post-16 for AS and A2 level students. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sixth Form level, grammatical consolidation and whole-sentence translation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow students to practise written language independently and receive feedback on errors in order to improve their language skills. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Solution <ul><li>A bespoke string (sequence) comparator was designed; uses fine-granularity sequence comparison to compare correct language strings to a user’s answer. Students answer questions and the comparator marks up errors in their input using colour coding (and font style) to highlight the different types of error. If an answer contains errors the student is given a second attempt in which to correct the submission based on the feedback received. </li></ul>
  16. 18. Open mentor (Denise Whitelock)‏
  17. 19. A few patterns.. <ul><li>Try Once, Refine Once </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback on Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom display </li></ul>
  18. 20. Try Once, Refine Once (Aliy Fowler)‏
  19. 21. Problem Lack of immediate feedback for students leads to fossilisation of errors and misconceptions providing immediate feedback in an iterative fashion can also hinder effective learning since students are able to &quot;grope their way&quot; step-by-step to a correct solution without necessarily having to think about each answer as a whole.
  20. 22. Context <ul><li>Class size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large (30-300)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills facts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mode of instruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blended / on-line. Computer tested. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Solution
  22. 24. Feedback on Feedback (Linda McGuigan)‏
  23. 25. Problem <ul><li>Good feedback should - </li></ul><ul><li>Alert learners to their weaknesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnose the causes and dynamics of these. </li></ul><ul><li>Include operational suggestions to improve the learning experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Address socio-emotive factors. </li></ul>Tutors know this, but are pressed for time. Or not aware of their feedback strategies Large teaching organisations are not equipped to provide tutors with personal feedback on their teaching
  24. 26. Context <ul><li>Large scale, technology supported, graded courses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>many tutors instructing many students. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feedback is mediated by technology that allows it to be captured and processed in real time </li></ul><ul><li>Topic of study is subject to both grading and formative feedback. </li></ul>
  25. 27. Solution <ul><li>Embed a mechanism in the learning and teaching system that regularly captures tutor feedback, analyses it, and presents them with graphical representation of the types of feedback they have given. Ideally, this should also include constructive advice as to how to shift from less to more effective forms. </li></ul><ul><li>In computer supported environments (e.g. VLEs), this mechanism could be integrated into the system, providing tutors with immediate analysis of their feedback, as well as long-term aggregates. </li></ul>
  26. 28. Classroom Display
  27. 29. Problem <ul><li>Rewards participation. </li></ul><ul><li>Relates to learner's personal experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Window on student conceptions . </li></ul>Using learner generated content.. <ul><li>Needs to collate works in a single easy to access location. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners uncomfortable about presenting their work in public </li></ul><ul><li>Legal or other restrictions on sharing work. </li></ul>
  28. 30. Context <ul><li>Class size: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small / medium (6-60)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mode of instruction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blended (preferable)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Time frame </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous, over a period </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pedagogy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves construction / media production </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. Solution
  30. 32. Augmented domain map
  31. 33. Example scenario <ul><li>When using Try Once Refine Once , there is a risk that high-achievers do not receive feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>So - </li></ul><ul><li>Use Showcase Learning to celebrate students’ work and provoke feedback from peers and tutors. </li></ul><ul><li>Use Feedback on Feedback to alert tutors to the problem. </li></ul>
  32. 34. Conclusions <ul><li>Tip of the iceberg </li></ul><ul><li>Practitioners (educational / software) acknowledge the value of patterns, when served with side dishes of cases + scenarios </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative elicitation of patterns from cases could be a potent form of professional development. </li></ul>
  33. 35. Thank you The Formative e-Assessment project: Final report Yishay Mor This presentation