Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

CEN launch, Andrew Tolmie

819 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

CEN launch, Andrew Tolmie

  1. 1. Conceptions of learning within psychology of education: frameworks and issues Andy Tolmie Dept of Psychology and Human Development Institute of Education University of London Contact details 25 Woburn Square London WC1H 0AA Tel +44 (0)20 7612 6888 Fax +44 (0)20 7612 6304 Email a.tolmie@ioe.ac.uk
  2. 2. Overview of presentation <ul><ul><li>What might educational neuroscience be aiming to achieve? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What needs to be integrated? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers’ conceptions of learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conceptions of learning among developmentalists working in education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some key issues where computational modelling/neuroscience might augment our understanding </li></ul></ul>CEN Workshop 29.10.08
  3. 3. Neuroscience and reduction <ul><ul><li>What is the relationship between neuroscience and educational research? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common assumption of reduction, raising version of classic mind-body problem and critiques of ‘brainism’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Varma, McCandliss & Schwartz (2008), Bakhurst (2008) – is it meaningful/ helpful to reduce accounts of educational/psychological events to neural level? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Varma et al. – reductionism is unproblematic provided not eliminative (i.e. doesn’t replace higher level description) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But is reductionism even the goal? Focus on learning suggests an alternative conception </li></ul></ul>CEN Workshop 29.10.08
  4. 4. Learners as multi-level systems <ul><ul><li>Nature of learning processes, optimal coordination of these with teaching, are central concerns for educational research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversity of theorising about learning underscores complexity involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence of work that attempts to integrate cognitive/social dimensions (e.g. Cole & Engestrom’s sociocultural perspective, research on dialogue and learning, EPPE/EPPSE project), addressing aspects of this complexity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full account of complexity of learning also needs to consider how brain function shapes – and may be shaped by – learning in typical and atypical contexts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerging framework is system that operates at neural, cognitive and social levels, with extensive interactions between these </li></ul></ul>CEN Workshop 29.10.08
  5. 5. Aims of educational neuroscience <ul><ul><li>Implied objective is to map this system, understand nature of interactions between levels – which is not a reductionist enterprise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To do this, need to build bridges between </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- descriptions/explanations at different levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- methodologies that generate data relating to these </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- perceptions of phenomena/issues that merit investigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bruer (1997) – a bridge too far? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Varma (2008) – need for multiple bridges </li></ul></ul>CEN Workshop 29.10.08
  6. 6. Role of developmental psychology <ul><ul><li>Implication: need to use variety of methods to address defined sets of strategically selected issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developmental psychology as (necessary) common orienting framework: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- concern with models of cognition/neural function in educationally salient populations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- history of application to educational issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- widely shared knowledge of range of relevant theories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- acceptance of diverse methodologies, including those usable in RWEs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- explicit inclusion in theorising of social as well cognitive/neural processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- if any psychological framework is understood by teachers, it is this one </li></ul></ul>CEN Workshop 29.10.08
  7. 7. Teachers’ conceptions of learning <ul><ul><li>Gradual decline in psychological input to teacher training, though offset by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- psychology graduates going into primary teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- uptake of post-training qualifications in psychology (of education) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conceptions of learning informed by some basic frameworks, overlaid with much experientially-derived insight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Piaget, especially stage theory, concepts of construction, disequilibration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Vygotsky, especially ZPD, notion of intermental to intramental shift </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- knowledge taxonomies/curricular organisation between/within disciplines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- issues of extension/generalisation, skill/concept/knowledge relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- formalised knowledge of some types of learning difficulty (dyslexia etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- recognition of the complex role of classroom processes </li></ul></ul>CEN Workshop 29.10.08
  8. 8. Frameworks in psychology of education <ul><ul><li>Conceptions of learning within psychology of education can be seen as elaborations of same concerns, reflecting continuity with teacher experience (both training and teaching) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Despite specific concerns with educational issues, basic orientation is that of developmental psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So, well-positioned to serve as one kind of bridge from research into practice (though scale of task should not be underestimated) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key advantage is that much current research is already concerned with interactions between levels of the ‘learner system’ – at least implicitly </li></ul></ul>CEN Workshop 29.10.08
  9. 9. Piaget’s genetic epistemology + <ul><ul><li>Origin/organisation of knowledge remains central concern, following work of Piaget & Inhelder, though notion of stages/global structures now discredited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key research themes include </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- relationships between procedural and conceptual knowledge (Karmiloff- Smith’s RR model, Siegler’s overlapping waves model) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- nature of representations and representational organisation, role of language (RR model, Siegler’s rule-based schemes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- triggers for conceptual/representational change (RR model/stability vs overlapping waves/instability vs Howe on priming effects of conflict) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing interest in relation between cognitive/computational/neural levels </li></ul></ul>CEN Workshop 29.10.08
  10. 10. Vygotsky’s social constructivism + <ul><ul><li>Issue of enculturation also remains key concern, though concept of ZPD has been widened, role of mediation by signs/tools has become less focal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key research themes include </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- relationships between social practice and apprenticeship/situated learning in and out of clasrooms (Rogoff, Lave, Resnick) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- nature of/constraints on scaffolding and co-construction, especially in classroom context (Wood, Cole & Engestrom, Mercer, Webb) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- role of guided action and dialogue, especially explicit explanation, in representational change at different levels (Howe, Wegerif, Tolmie) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasingly explicit concern with relation between social/cognitive levels </li></ul></ul>CEN Workshop 29.10.08
  11. 11. Domain specificity <ul><ul><li>Idea of knowledge domains (circumscribed areas of conceptual/procedural understanding) widely accepted, if not precise division and origin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key issues here include </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- potential influences of modular/evolutionary vs ontological processes, development vs learning (Tomasello, Spelke, Carey) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- relationships/tensions between domains/natural conceptions and discipline-based knowledge (Vosniadou, Hatano) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Considerable work on area-specific processes of development/learning: reading, number/maths, science (biology, physics, psychology) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Varying degrees of explicit linkage between social/cognitive/neural levels </li></ul></ul>CEN Workshop 29.10.08
  12. 12. Domain-general processes <ul><ul><li>Contemporary theorising points to diverse range of processes that appear to impact on learning in relatively consistent fashion across domains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key strands of investigation include </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- attention, executive control and working memory (Gathercole) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- dialogue and representational change (cf. earlier points) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- metacognition and self-regulated learning (Pintrich, Boekaerts) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- motivation, self-determination and self-concept (Deci, Dweck, Marsh) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety of explicit linkages between neural/cognitive/social levels – though connection between strands limited as yet </li></ul></ul>CEN Workshop 29.10.08
  13. 13. Potentially strategic research issues <ul><ul><li>Effects of early exposure to print/reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- evidence of general relation between exposure and literacy (e.g. EPPE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- poor language comprehenders show problems learning to read exception words (Ricketts), WM deficits, SES gradient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- evidence on trainability of WM in children with ADHD (Gathercole) – route for exposure effect? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extension and generalisation in curricular contexts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- gap between work on prototype extraction and analogical reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- possible applicability of RR model (Tolmie & Tenenbaum), but why the differences between low-level abstraction/high-level connection? </li></ul></ul>CEN Workshop 29.10.08
  14. 14. Potentially strategic research issues <ul><ul><li>Relative efficacy of different triggers for representational growth/change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- consistent evidence of impact of dialogue on conceptual change (Howe, Mercer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- effect of dialogue content more pronounced when initial representation is more elaborated (Philips & Tolmie) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- why is dialogue apparently (differentially) privileged over experience? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- possible clue in work on shared activation in joint tasks (Sebanc)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List subject to individual preference/interest, but NB attempt here to identify issues of mainstream educational concern: work on atypically developing children important, but crucial to broaden application of multi-level analysis </li></ul></ul>CEN Workshop 29.10.08

×