Dissociative identity disorder (DID) earlier known as Multiple Personality Disorder

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Dissociative Identity Disorder, a mental abnormality, used to be known earlier as Multiple Personality Disorder, and is characterized by identity fragmentation. This slideshow outlines the diagnostic criteria, course, familial patterns and other parameters pertaining to the condition, and rounds off with a description of the movie - "The Three Faces of Eve" that traces the story of Chris Costner Sizemore, a person known to have been suffering from the disorder.

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Dissociative identity disorder (DID) earlier known as Multiple Personality Disorder

  1. 1. Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) - a brief presentation
  2. 2. Background Diagnostic Criteria Course Specific Culture, Age, an d Gender Features Familial Pattern The Movie The Movie Plot • Background
  3. 3. Background Diagnostic Criteria Course Specific Culture, Age, an d Gender Features Familial Pattern The Movie The Movie Plot • Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) is an Axis I Mental Disorder
  4. 4. Background Diagnostic Criteria Course Specific Culture, Age, an d Gender Features Familial Pattern The Movie The Movie Plot • DID was formerly known as “Multiple Personality Disorder” (MPD)
  5. 5. Background Diagnostic Criteria Course Specific Culture, Age, an d Gender Features Familial Pattern The Movie The Movie Plot • DID is codified 300.14 in DSM IV
  6. 6. Background Diagnostic Criteria Course Specific Culture, Age, an d Gender Features Familial Pattern The Movie The Movie Plot • DID is characterized by identity fragmentation
  7. 7. Background Diagnostic Criteria Course Specific Culture, Age, an d Gender Features Familial Pattern The Movie The Movie Plot • Diagnostic Criteria
  8. 8. Background Diagnostic Criteria Course Specific Culture, Age, an d Gender Features Familial Pattern The Movie The Movie Plot • For a person to be diagnosed for DID, the following four criteria must be met…
  9. 9. Background Diagnostic Criteria Criterion A Criterion B Criterion C Criterion D • Criterion A: There are present two or more distinct identities or personal states in one individual.
  10. 10. Background Diagnostic Criteria Criterion A Criterion B Criterion C Criterion D • The number of identities in such an individual is reported to be from 2 to 100.
  11. 11. Background Diagnostic Criteria Criterion A Criterion B Criterion C Criterion D • The individual finds it challenging to integrate the different aspects of their identity, memory and consciousness.
  12. 12. Background Diagnostic Criteria Criterion A Criterion B Criterion C Criterion D • Each of the identity states has its own distinct personal history, selfimage, and identity – including different age, different gender, and also a different name.
  13. 13. Background Diagnostic Criteria Criterion A Criterion B Criterion C Criterion D • Criterion B: These distinct identities take control over the behavior recurrently.
  14. 14. Background Diagnostic Criteria Criterion A Criterion B Criterion C Criterion D • There usually exists a main, primary identity which carries the individual’s given name.
  15. 15. Background Diagnostic Criteria Criterion A Criterion B Criterion C Criterion D • When this primary identity takes control of the consciousness, the individual usually has a passive, dependent, guilty and depressed personality.
  16. 16. Background Diagnostic Criteria Criterion A Criterion B Criterion C Criterion D • On the other hand, some of the alternate identities may be hostile, dominatin g, aggressive, etc.
  17. 17. Background Diagnostic Criteria Criterion A Criterion B Criterion C Criterion D • The alternative identities emerge and take control over the individual’s consciousness due to some trigger such as psychosocial stress.
  18. 18. Background Diagnostic Criteria Criterion A Criterion B Criterion C Criterion D • The time required to switch between two identities may be a few seconds; or it may be gradual.
  19. 19. Background Diagnostic Criteria Criterion A Criterion B Criterion C Criterion D • Others around may discern that the switch has happened, through specific symptoms such as rapid blinking, facial changes, changes in voice or demeanor, or sudden change of track of the individual’s thoughts.
  20. 20. Background Diagnostic Criteria Criterion A Criterion B Criterion C Criterion D • The alternate identities take control in sequence, one after another.
  21. 21. Background Diagnostic Criteria Criterion A Criterion B Criterion C Criterion D • The alternate identities may deny knowledge of the existence of the other alternate identities altogether.
  22. 22. Background Diagnostic Criteria Criterion A Criterion B Criterion C Criterion D • Or, they may be aware of and be critical of the other alternate identities.
  23. 23. Background Diagnostic Criteria Criterion A Criterion B Criterion C Criterion D • Criterion C: The individual is unable to recall important personal information, and this inability is too severe to be attributed to ordinary forgetfulness.
  24. 24. Background Diagnostic Criteria Criterion A Criterion B Criterion C Criterion D • The individual’s primary identity appears to experience gaps in memory both in recent and remote episodes.
  25. 25. Background Diagnostic Criteria Criterion A Criterion B Criterion C Criterion D • The memory gap may include an overall loss of biographic memory for an extended period of childhood, adolesce nce, or even adulthood.
  26. 26. Background Diagnostic Criteria Criterion A Criterion B Criterion C Criterion D • The passive identity state has the most constricted memory recall. The hostile, controlling, or protecting identity state has near-complete memory recall.
  27. 27. Background Diagnostic Criteria Criterion A Criterion B Criterion C Criterion D • Criterion D: The disturbance is not an outcome of substance abuse or general medical condition.
  28. 28. Background Diagnostic Criteria Criterion A Criterion B Criterion C Criterion D • While differentially diagnosing for DID, it is prudent to ascertain whether the symptoms are manifesting as an episodic outcome of either substance abuse disorder or some general medical condition.
  29. 29. Background Diagnostic Criteria Course Specific Culture, Age, an d Gender Features Familial Pattern The Movie The Movie Plot • Course of the disorder
  30. 30. Background Diagnostic Criteria Course Specific Culture, Age, an d Gender Features Familial Pattern The Movie The Movie Plot • DID has a fluctuating clinical course with tendency to be chronic and recurrent.
  31. 31. Background Diagnostic Criteria Course Specific Culture, Age, an d Gender Features Familial Pattern The Movie The Movie Plot • The average time elapsed between the first time the symptoms present themselves – to actual diagnosis, is 6 to 7 years.
  32. 32. Background Diagnostic Criteria Course Specific Culture, Age, an d Gender Features Familial Pattern The Movie The Movie Plot • The disorder may become less manifest in the late 40s and beyond.
  33. 33. Background Diagnostic Criteria Course Specific Culture, Age, an d Gender Features Familial Pattern The Movie The Movie Plot • However, there may still be relapse due to stressors of trauma, Substanc e Abuse, etc.
  34. 34. Background Diagnostic Criteria Course Specific Culture, Age, an d Gender Features Familial Pattern The Movie The Movie Plot • Specific Culture, Age, and Gender Features
  35. 35. Background Diagnostic Criteria Course Specific Culture, Age, an d Gender Features Familial Pattern The Movie The Movie Plot • DID has been found in individuals in different cultures.
  36. 36. Background Diagnostic Criteria Course Specific Culture, Age, an d Gender Features Familial Pattern The Movie The Movie Plot • Females tend to have more identities than do males. • A DID female may have up to 15+ identities, compare d to about 8 in males.
  37. 37. Background Diagnostic Criteria Course Specific Culture, Age, and Gender Features Familial Pattern The Movie The Movie Plot • Familial Pattern
  38. 38. Background Diagnostic Criteria Course Specific Culture, Age, and Gender Features Familial Pattern The Movie The Movie Plot • DID is more common among st-degree 1 biological relatives of the individual with the disorder.
  39. 39. Background Diagnostic Criteria Course Specific Culture, Age, an d Gender Features Familial Pattern The Movie The Movie Plot • Introducing - The Movie
  40. 40. Background Diagnostic Criteria Course Specific Culture, Age, an d Gender Features Familial Pattern The Movie The Movie Plot
  41. 41. Background Diagnostic Criteria Course Specific Culture, Age, an d Gender Features Familial Pattern The Movie The Movie Plot • Movie “The Three Faces of Eve” is based on the true story of Ms. Chris Costner Sizemore.
  42. 42. Background Diagnostic Criteria Course Specific Culture, Age, an d Gender Features Familial Pattern • Ms. Sizemore receiving fans on The Movie the occasion of the 51st anniversary of the premiere of The Movie Plot the movie, in 2008.
  43. 43. Background Diagnostic Criteria Course Specific Culture, Age, an d Gender Features Familial Pattern The Movie The Movie Plot • The case was studied by Dr. Corbett H. Thigpen and Dr. Hervey M. Cleckley.
  44. 44. Background Diagnostic Criteria Course Specific Culture, Age, an d Gender Features Familial Pattern The Movie The Movie Plot • The movie was made in 1957. • It stars Joanne Woodward in the lead role.
  45. 45. Background Diagnostic Criteria Course Specific Culture, Age, an d Gender Features Familial Pattern The Movie The Movie Plot • The movie was directed by Nunnally Johnson. • It has a running time of 91 minutes (about 1.5 hours).
  46. 46. Background Diagnostic Criteria Course Specific Culture, Age, an d Gender Features Familial Pattern The Movie The Movie Plot • The Movie Plot
  47. 47. Background Diagnostic Criteria Course Specific Culture, Age, an d Gender Features Familial Pattern The Movie The Movie Plot • The movie is about a homemaker and mother who keeps experiencing severe headaches and blackouts very often.
  48. 48. Background Diagnostic Criteria Course Specific Culture, Age, an d Gender Features Familial Pattern The Movie The Movie Plot • During a session with the psychiatrist, a new personality of the protagonist emerges.
  49. 49. Background Diagnostic Criteria Course Specific Culture, Age, an d Gender Features Familial Pattern The Movie The Movie Plot • The psychiatrist diagnoses the case as DID. • The movie revolves around how continued therapy brings out all her other identities, and how she is cured.
  50. 50. -Sanjay Agrawal, MSCP, Kuvempu University, Karnataka, India

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