Libro Innovative Hospitality ASP


Published on

Published in: Career, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Libro Innovative Hospitality ASP

  1. 1. Innovative Hospitality TypologiesWALL_S Ana Victoria Faría Delfino Martina Gallia Yanina Guerzovich Vincenzo Mongiello Louena Shtrepi Principal Tutor: Corinna Morandi
  2. 2. Ana Victoria Faría DelfinoMartina GalliaYanina GuerzovichVincenzo MongielloLouena Shtrepi
  3. 3. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality M U LT I D I S C I P L I NA RY PROJECT FINAL REPORT E X P - H O S T _ Great events and hospitality Milan Expo 2015 and Turin Italia 150: new concepts and formats for new populations WALL_S Innovative Hospitality Typologies Ana Victoria Faria Delfino, Architecture (Construction) , Politecnico di Torino (signature)________________________ Martina Gallia, Architecture, Politecnico di Torino (signature)________________________ Yanina Guerzovich, Product-Service System Design, Politecnico di Milano (signature)________________________ Vincenzo Mongiello, Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Politecnico di Milano (signature)________________________ Louena Shtrepi, Architecture (Construction), Politecnico di Torino (signature)________________________ Principal Academic Tutor: Corinna Morandi, Dept. of Architecture and Planning, Politecnico di Milano (signature)________________________________________ Other Academic Tutors: Flavio Boscacci, Dept. of Architecture and Planning, Politecnico di Milano Alberto De Marco, Dept. of Production System and Business Economy, Politecnico di Milano Fabrizio Leoni, Dept. of Architecture and Planning, Politecnico di Milano Francesco Prizzon, Dept. of Building Engineering and Territorial Systems, Politecnico di Torino Paola Pucci, Dept. of Architecture and Planning, Politecnico di Milano Andrea Rolando, Dept. of Architecture and Planning, Politecnico di Milano Luca Tamini, Dept. of Architecture and Planning, Politecnico di Milano Cino Zucchi, Dept. of Architecture and Planning, Politecnico di Milano External Tutor(s): Maria Teresa Broggini Moretto, Comune di Milano – Direzione Attività Produttive Leonardo Cavalli, One-Works Elena Milanesi, Assolombarda – Settore Territorio Giorgio Rabajoli, Ferrino S.p.A. 4
  4. 4. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and HospitalityINDEX1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 82. INTRODUCTION2.1 General description of the problem of hospitality during great events – Milan 2015 EXPO as a case study 92.2 Quotations of interesting examples of hospitality or problems 10 noticed during previous great events2.2.1 Hannover 2000 102.2.2 Zaragoza 2008 112.2.3 Turin events: Torino 2006 and Torino 20112.3 Shanghai 2010, test on the field of failures and good practice examples 132.4 Why is it better to face the hospitality with temporary structures and not with new massive buildings 162.5 What do we intend as “Temporariness” and “Hospitality” 173. USERS’ REQUIREMENTS3.1 Milano Expo 2015 and its receptivity 183.2 Data (visitors, site plan) 193.3 Stakeholders 204. DESIGN PROCESS4.1 First ideas on possible solutions: Annexes, Pay per Sleep, First booking, Temporary Hosting Camps 224.2 Places Where to Locate our Hospitality Offer 244.3 Different Definitions of Temporariness Related to Accommodation Solutions 254.4 Stakeholders present in Disaster Response (a possible scenario where to use the hosting units) 264.5 A reflection on the Creative Dynamics of our Design Process 27 5
  5. 5. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality5 . S TAT E O F T H E A R T5.1 State of the Art of Temporary Shelters Comparison Table with Focus Characteristics for Each Examples 296. TOWARDS THE SOLUTION6.1 Key words 316.2 First Explorations and Approaches to the Cell Concept 317. WALL_S7.1 Destination of use 377.2 Dimensions 397.3 Equipment 407.4 Structure 417.5 Transport 427.6 Assembly 437.7 Aggregation 447.8 Plants 467.9 Durability 467.10 PCM7.10.1. Classification of PCM 477.10.2. PCMs’ Properties 487.10.3. Thermal Storage Unit and Air Exchanger Applications 487.11 Comparison between Wall_s and Already Existing Solution in the Temporary Shelters’ Market Share 497.12 Wall_s Experience 518. BUSINESS PLAN8.1 Executive Summary 548.2 Product Description 548.2.1 Destination of use 558.2.2 Dimensions 55 6
  6. 6. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality8.2.3 Equipment 558.2.4 Plants 558.2.5 Structure 568.2.6 Transport 568.2.7 Assembly 568.2.8 Durability 568.2.9 Aggregation 578.2.10 Pros and Cons 578.3 Strategic Plan 588.3.1 Mission 588.3.2 Objectives 588.3.3 Business Analysis 588.3.4 Strength & Weaknesses 588.3.5 Opportunities and Threats 588.3.6 Strategy 598.3.7 Positioning (Brand) 608.3.8 Location 608.4 Marketing Plan 608.4.1 Expo Visitors 608.4.2 Travellers (Afetr Expo) 618.4.3 Temporary Exhibitions 618.4.4 Disasters 618.5 Market strategy 618.5.1 Product 618.5.2 Promotion & Places 618.5.3 Price 648.6 Operating and Organization Plan 648.7 Financial Plan 658.7.1 Income Statement 678.7.2 Cash Flow Analysis 678.7.3 Investment Analysis 678.7.4 Sensitivity Analysis 679. CONCLUSIONS 71REFERENCES 73 7
  7. 7. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Great events are happenings of high profile and con- tents that even if they only last limited period, they have significant implications on the economic, social, institutional and territorial pattern of the hosting re- gion. Great events vary on scale, content, media cover- age and target but for the interested area, they always present an opportunity to gain visibility, to create new relations and usually, for urban regeneration. However, they do pose important challenges on hospitality mat- ters which involve often a necessary dialogue between public and private institutions. The legacy of a Great Event can be as beneficial as harmful for the region and its citizens. Thus, it should be taken well thought holis- tically. The World Exhibition (EXPO) to be celebrated in 2015 in Milan is an example of this typology and will be considered as a case study for the research and the further concept development. The first part of the work reviews an extensive research carried out by the team in the first phase of the proj- ect. The group examined the implications of hospital- ity solutions and problems in relation to the Milanese macro-region enlightening the state of the art and the perspective towards 2015. In parallel, symbolic mean- ings, impacts and implications of big events have been thoroughly discussed. We present a study on previous cities that carried out great events based on existing bibliography and meet- ing with academic and professionals on the topics. Spe- cial attention is paid to the Shanghai Expo 2010, where on-site research was carried on, which included a visit to the hosting city and surroundings, a visit to the Expo and meetings with local experts. Locally, we met with the actors involved in the Expo 2015. Resulting from those debates and analysis about the issue of accommodation for the hosting of the tem- porary visitors of Expo Milan 2015, has emerged as an unsolved problem. The hospitality market sector in Mi- lan has been studied. The temporariness of the event asked for innovative solutions that have this term as one of the main goals of the project. The next chapters and annex report a benchmark comparison of tempo- rary structures. Finally, a concept to attend Milano 2015 Expo’s hos- pitality demand and its post event use is presented, along with a business plan that demonstrate its feasi- bility and strategy of management. 8
  8. 8. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality2. INTRODUCTION2.1 General description of the problem of cs and management of the increasing demand of hospitality during great events – Milan goods and, receptivity in terms of accommodation 2015 EXPO as a case study and other serv ices like restaurants and informa- tion. Preparing the city for a Great Event meansIn 2015 Milan will be part of a long history of World to find solutions to reduce the gap between theExhibitions as the hosting city of the EXPO. Since the existing and forecasted offer and demand. This is a1851 Great Exhibition at London’s Crystal Palace, very complex matter.World Expositions have been a platform to displayhistorical experience and the best global practices.“A world Fair or Expo is a infrequently occurring Looking at the strategies taken in Hanover 2000,celebration that typically showcases the latest or Zaragoza 2008 and Shanghai 2010 allowed us tofuture advances in arts, culture and technology”* . understand how these cities approached theseThey foster the exchange of innovative ideas that themes, and in particular hospitality offer and de-seek to tackle the problems facing mankind in the mand. However, to propose solutions to reach thefuture. Expo-sites have left incredible infrastruc- needs of the coming visitors and to avoid the over-tures in the city such as the Tour Eiffel as well as load, a clear idea about the demand is necessary. **redeveloped areas such as the La Cartuja Leisure Even if the focus of this research is not that onePark created after Seville, 1992. Another recent , it is important to remark that the forecasted vi-example is multifunctional urbanized area of the sitors for the Milanese Expo have decreased byPuxi Section of the 2010 Shanghai Expo, which is 10 million during the development of the project.a promising heritage for the city. Most Expos have Another important element is that the origin ofshown positive effects. For instance, they create the expected visitors and their interests. Thus, wenew investments and temporary employment to should underline the current offer of the hostingbuild infrastructure as was seen in the past (Anda- region as well as its opportunities for the future.lusia, 1992) and nowadays with the enlargement of Nowadays, Milan lacks a clear strategy in termsthe transportation system and belted parks in the of hospitality and self-promotion as a tourist de-Milanese macro-region. Another important impact stination compared for instance with other majoris the creation of networks based on new cultural, node cities such as Berlin in Germany or Rome inscientific and technological exchanges and confe- Italy. The EXPO brings a great opportunity to buildrences which bring new commercial opportunities a renovated image of the city and its macro-regionfor both hosts and visitors. Furthermore, an Expo in the international context. Valuable legacy of theregion, usually situated on 1.5 million m2, provides event could promote the territory in several areasan excellent opportunity to expand its possibilities as sustainable pole for tourism, business and re-for tourism and self-promotion during the opera- search.tional period (6 months) and after. The EXPO*** preparation and event is controlledA hosting city must deal with several critical issues by the BIE. However, the main issues about the re-liked to the overload of the existing hospitality gional development are decided by the local pu-infrastructure. This means potential problems in ** The team A had approach this topic, feeding our pathterms of accessibility and transportation, logisti- with useful and updated information on the visitors profile. *** Regulations and further information on Expos can be* Goldblatt, J. Nelson, K.S. (2001), The International Dictio- found on the Bureau Interanal des Expositions BIE website as wellnary of Event Management, John Wiley & Sons, New York, p. 279. as in the 2015 Milano Expo website. 9
  9. 9. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitalityblic administrators. Thus they must be considered for the future event of Turin a key stakeholder in any project which involvesthe coming World Exhibition. As highlighted by theMunicipality of Milan in the meetings, Expo shouldbe an opportunity for further development for thecity. It should be a vehicle to accelerate the crea-tion of new relations with the visitors and territo-rial transformations, increasing the region’s value.In this context, some first general questions wereraised in the group: Which are the possible pro-blems to solve in general? Who owns the pro-blem? To whom is the problem-solution relevant?In which stakeholder/s are we going to focus on?What can technology do for the problem in a cre-ative and innovative way? From a multidisciplina-ry view, how can we approach the problem? And,some possible problems to solve in general cameout: explore innovative typologies of hospitalityof new populations; develop a sustainable solu- Picture 1: Prevvous EXPO and Turin Events’ Logostion; develop a solution thinking of the impact andopportunities: Before - During - After the Expo; A special chapter will be dedicated to Shanghaidevelop a solution that will be beneficial for the 2010 Expo, which we visited, getting a real idea ofcommunity afterwards; find a fast and feasible so- the life in a hosting city and the exhibition.lution of business model that will be ready for theevent. 2.2.1 Hannover 2000 In order to remain true to its own urban develop-2.2 Quotations of interesting examples of ment, a completely new-generation district called hospitality or problems noticed during Kronsberg was build. It aimed to serve the Expo previous great events needs for hospitality as well as the existing se- rious housing shortage in Hannover at the time.Past EXPOs provide a good resource of both good The Kronsberg district is an example of forwardpractices and failures during the great event. Mo- planning and building which represents the 2000reover they allow us to see their post-effect over Expo theme “Humankind – Nature – Technology”.time. This chapter gives an overview of interesting It was strategically located along the new tramli-examples, strengths and weaknesses of hospita- ne which links the city centre with the Expo-site.lity, successful and unsuccessful solutions of past The development followed the regional planningWorld Exhibitions. Over the traditional hosting principle, expanding along the local public railwaystructures like hotels, “Bed and Breakfast”, tou- concentrating at the stations. Thus, it has a com-ristic residences, hostels etc., we went through pact structure and high building density organizedexamples of great sustainable constructions of in a grid layout. In terms of sustainability, it hasentire residential districts like those in Hannover exceptionally high ecological standards, offering2000 and Zaragoza 2008, innovative service sy- semi-natural open spaces and above-average qua-stems like those promoted in Zaragoza 2008,and lity accommodation. Due to the forecasted over- 10
  10. 10. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitalityload of visitors which will create a discomfort in and standardized system where citizens made theirthe population, the building of new apartments homes available to accommodate visitors. It provi-was appropriate. The projects were funded by a ded an additional and alternative offer. To manage,wide range of public and private institutions, in- control and market the service, selecting suitablecluding the government and a great participation housings, building relationships and training ow-of the State of Lower Saxony. The Expo staff and ners and managing the booking service, EXPOA-exhibitors were hosted in about 2.500 apartments. GUA picked a responsible company. 3100 unitesBeing one of the largest and most advanced pro- with the minimum number of room and locationgrams in Europe by the end of 2000 these tempo- followed the program’s requirements. Two servi-rary housing facilities were available for rent again. ces were offered. One, named “shared hosting”,Nowadays, Kronsberg is home of 6600 people with where the owner shares his house with the visi-3000 residences and near-by work placements. tors and a second one, called “lodging attended”The architectural style was designed by over forty where the owner offers the use of the house andarchitectural and planning studios. Today, it is not facilities. In both cases, the owner was responsibleonly linked to the city by public transportation but of providing assistance, cleaning and maintenan-it stimulates other services like car-sharing, pede- ce. Plus, after the event the houses had to be re-strian and bike riding. Furthermore, to reduce the turned to the owners.CO2 emissions it encourages sustainable buildingmeasures for heating, water and electricity use aswell as the design of more open public spaces. Picture 3: Zaragoza Expo Site Picture 2: Kronsberg District Villa Expo, the second project developed by Expo- agua society, aimed to manage 3 new sets of re-2.2.2 Zaragoza 2008 sidences near the Expo-site: the “House of WaterZaragoza’s international exhibition EXPOAGUA Tower”: an over 100 single/double/triple room’sanswered to the hospitality demand with two in- accommodation, the “House Bridge Pavillion”:novative solutions. Besides from new hotels built 194 beds including studios and one-bedroomnear the Expo-site, the managing organization pro- apartments, and the “River House Aquarius”: 102moted on one hand the setting up of a Bed and rooms, mostly singles. A public call was developedBreakfast system and on the other hand, the buil- to select the managing and marketing compa-ding of dorms next to the Exposition area. nies which would present a quality proposal that would meet the minimum quality and fixed price.The first program, called “Programa Alojamiento y The winning organizations had to provide furni-Desayuno”, focused on developing a well-thought ture, manage the service billing, host the visitors 11
  11. 11. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitalityand train the staff. This program as well as the first shbasins, toilets, laundry rooms, etc, one contai-one followed a Quality Plan which included mini- ning fourteen double rooms, and the last for en-mum requirements, rules and fixed prices (e.g. 60 trance, reception, supermarket, Internet access,euro per day for a double room in the B&B and 75 sick bay, etc, together with other minor uses. Ar-euro in Expo Villa). This temporary management chitecturally, the renovated buildings maintainedwas agreed taking into account that they will have their appearance as faithfully as possible, so as notto return the running facilities after the Expo was to alter the style of the property drastically. Inte-over. Following the Expo, the buildings were used riors were kept the same criterion and philosophy,as student dormitories or were sold to special ca- but with adaptations for the proposed use.tegories of citizens. Two general criteria were fundamental for theTo complement the Expo Accommodation Net- new buildings: creating a space between the exi-work, Zaragoza City Council offers alternatives sting buildings and the new ones while achieving asuch as El Canal Campsite, located in the Ecocity, harmonious blend between the architecture of theValdespartera, 4 km from the Expo site. The con- two areas. Brise-soleil, use of light and shade, usedition for building was that the ground could be of compatible materials, blurring of the boundaryused for various alternatives. The camping spaces between interior and exterior, compatibility withhave a flexible layout so that they can be used in other uses, versatility, cleaning and maintenancean ordered or dispersed way. The green and spor- provisions, etc. amongst other things, are aspectsting areas together with the camping facilities can that have been taken into account for its con-be used in different ways, adapting to diverse si- struction. Besides the accommodation, it workstuations. as a campsite with a large surface area and servi- ce infrastructure that includes roadways and car parking. Environmentally, the accommodation was equipped with a solar energy system, a high-per- formance solar water heater located on the roof and a hydraulic unit. Additionally, new buildings also featured louvred facades to control light and heat, and to provide good ventilation in the sum- mer. These simple but carefully thought environ- mental solutions included also recycling and reu- sing materials, integrating them with nature. Picture 4: El Canal Campsite, ZaragozaFinally, main residential building refurbished for 2.2.3 Turin events: Torino 2006 and Torino 2011use as a hostel and restaurant and the Warden’s In the Italian panorama, 2006 Torino Winterresidence renovated to house the campsite ma- Olympic Games give us an overview of the appro-nager and storage facility. Stables were reused for ach on the issue of hospitality taken by the region.service installations and storage. Services block This is the only event held in Italy that was compa-turned into sports equipment storage and green rable in terms of complexity and international visi-areas were consolidated and restored as a recre- bility to the Expo. Even if it presents many differen-ational area, children’s playground and camping ces in relation to an Expo in terms of content andspaces. Indoor football courts were restored as a extension, it is interesting to see some of the solu-multi-purpose sports facility and other courts up- tions provided by public and private stakeholdersgraded. Moreover, new buildings were designed: at the time. Some of the alternatives developed,three service blocks, one housing showers, wa- 12
  12. 12. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitalityprovide quality accommodation and preserve the agree that the 2011 occasion, as the other inter-environment. A great number of structures were national events like Expo 2015 can be a successfulbuilt such as “Yes!” hostels and “Doc” Bed & Brea- tool to develop and promote the Italian tourist sy-kfast showing the enthusiasm, even if the policies stem. For the past 20 years, the city of Turin anddid not always promote the image of the Olympic the surrounding region of Piedmont have beenreceptivity. Anyways, some innovative typologies doing an impressive job of bringing about an ar-explored were linked to the territory and the loca- chitectural, cultural and social transformation,lity, such as Agroturism and Second-home market. concentrating all their efforts on reaching their fullThis last one was a sadly successful since it held potential in 2011. The aim is not to offer the clas-back the growth of private companies. But it inspi- sic cultural tourism, characterized by passive andred innovative diffuse receptivity linked with athle- standardized enjoyment, but about real “experien-tes, guaranteeing subletting contracts. Unluckily, ces” as much active and customized as possible.the projects came to an end after the Olympics. Many restorations and works on infrastructuresThe image of the city was improved, but the lack were completed by 2011 on royal palaces, histori-of a strategic coordination of public and private cal buildings, parks and green areas. Those placesactors didn’t encourage the diversification of de- were the venues of the event and will host expos,mand and offer. The lesson was learnt and some shows, conferences and performances.efforts remained like the training on receptivityand volunteering which was active towards the 2.3 Shanghai 2010, test on the field of fail-2011 Italian Unity celebrations. ures and good practice examples From the 1st to the 16th of May 2010 our project team, together with some tutors of the ASP project, made a study journey to China, during which we participated on a workshop in Shanghai at the Ton- gji University, partner of the Politecnico di Milano, to evaluate the local policies in the field of hospita- lity in preparation of the Shanghai Expo 2010. The visit to the city and Expo allowed us to experience a great event first hand, to live the city and to see its transformation in terms of infrastructure and Picture 5: Olympic Village, Turin 2006 economic growth.To celebrate Italy’s 150th anniversary, Turin andPiedmont are prepared a grand international hap-pening, as there was in 1911 and in 1961: an op-portunity to look back at past glories, but also toconsider the present and take a look at the futureof “the best of Italy”. Three years prior to this ap-pointment, the Comitato Italia 150 (the committeethat will organize the events in Piedmont) partne-red with the Tourist Trade Fair in Rimini - TravelTrade Italia and TTG Incontri to discuss with touroperators about ideas on how to design touristtheme packages and holiday offers in Italy. They all Picture 6: EXPO Site’s Maquette at the Shanghai Urban Center 13
  13. 13. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and HospitalityShanghai Expo 2010 is the largest Expo ever seen. visitors. The only innovative intent is representedIts theme is “Better City, Better Life”. As 55% of the by Chongming Island – not well promoted at all -world population lives in cities, the Expo’s theme which links accommodation with agricultural ac-promoting sustainable urban development re- tivities, entertainment and industry, thanks to anflects a central policy-making concern of the inter- important link made of brand new transport infra-national community. More than 200 countries and structures with the organizations are presenting theircreative experience. Any one of the 70 million vi-sitors expected to attend the Expo is likely to beoverwhelmed by the possibilities. Our visit to theExpo, the hosting city and surroundings such asthe Chong Ming Island Project allowed us to seeits approach to the theme and to live a great eventfirst hand. Picture 8: Project Team during the visit at the ChongMing Island Links between the Expo and the city, in terms of activities related to the theme, were completely absent. Considering that as international visitors, out of 8 days, we spent just one day at the Expo, its experience was very limited and left us few insights related to the theme “Better City, Better Life”. It could have been interesting the creation of strong activities and networks such as “fuori Expo”. Picture 7: Project Team during the visit at the International For example the Urban Center of Shanghai, being Shanghai EXPO so involved in the theme of the Expo, should haveAfter the visit to the Shanghai EXPO site, we had been a stronger promoter of activities.a couple of meetings in the Tongji University, afterwhich some critical remarks were drawn: Solutions like the reuse of buildings at the Expo’sIn terms of Hospitality, one of the problems identi- site are interesting because they integrat existingfied was the lack of info: the Expo info points give structures with new technologies and services.very basic information about the Expo and no in- Some examples of services structures (toilets, wa-formation about how to find accommodation in ter providers, bars, info points, souvenir shops,the city. A good suggestion for future events could etc.) were designed with interesting features, inbe the creation of a system of info points that have those examples the skin has also a big importanceinformation about Expo and tourism, both digi- but a structural function as well.tal and face-to-face. In addition, we haven’t seeninnovative typologies of accommodation. Big ho- The content of the Expo and its potential. We con-tels seem to be the only solution to this problem. sistently found a lack of contents related to theMaybe the extremely rapid growth of the city can theme of the Expo. Inside the pavilions the ex-provide conventional accommodation for all the perience was more related to communicate “the 14
  14. 14. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitalitypower of the country” than the real effort of it in but it is interesting the mechanisms used to finan-developing a better life style. In the North area ce the tool with plenty of commercials. To impro-of the Expo, the theme was expressed better but ve this subject, real time information concerningstill it was not very innovative and only cases were the content of the Expo, pavilions and events onshown. The level of deepening of the examples digital screens, internet, and personal mobile pho-was very basic; it was not expected to be shown nes would have been preferable instead of totemsto a public of experts in that sector but just to eve- and volunteers. Looking at the huge distances inry people. Also, there was a weak application of the site these kinds of services would have helpedthe concept of “Better City, Better Life” in terms of in moving around in an efficient way. It would betransportation and energy use in the Expo. There nice to receive instant information (for example onwere ecological buses, new green areas, recycling Bluetooth devices) about what is going on in thebins but not significant use of others like photovol- pavilions in order to be able to decide either to vi-taic sources or services like bike sharing. We think sit it or not, hence optimizing the experience andit is important to develop meaningful content that the queue time.allows the visitor to interact with the theme, brin-ging home some new learning. Another elementmissing was an active interaction of the visitors.We believe that everyone should have been ableto input his own “better city” experience to lea-ve a footprint (at the event should be a progressand deep learning) and maybe leave to the visitora souvenir of experiences.Information and Communication. We noticed a ge- Picture 9: Digital Screen, Equipment of some Taxis in Shanghaineral lack of information and communication tools In relation of innovative solutions we felt that noboth in the city and in the Expo site; contents, or- unitary action and cohesive use of innovation wi-ganization, events, accommodations, facilities and thin the Expo intervention was present; neitherlogistic info were not clearly and easily conveyed. conceptual nor technological intervention uponTraditional info points have been placed throu- the theme has been realized, for example two “in-ghout the whole site; but the volunteers working novative” experiments have proved to have beenthere were not efficient. Furthermore, paper ba- unsuccessful: 1. Taxi screens giving only touristsed documentation was limited and incomplete oriented information (shopping, leisure, etc.) 2.and it didn’t give any useful information about the The ICT Pavilion proposing a superficial personalcontents of the pavilions, so that the choice of en- device oriented interactive experience. From ourtering in a pavilion was only decided upon the ex- viewpoint, concrete, accurate and user-orientedterior appeal, and in this way useless queue were technological devices, in order to personalize pe-often done. Moreover no interaction between the ople’s experience, activities and mobility patternspavilions and the hosted events, if present, becau- should be incorporated in this type of there was no real time communication aboutwhat was happening in the different pavilions andin general in Expo site. The only working interactive The problem of the scale of the Expo. The Expo sitecommunication tool has been placed in taxis, whe- is in the city centre, so it is easily to reach by visi-re a digital screen gives very few static information tors thanks to a well connected transport networkabout the Expo and the city, it doesn’t give any both into the Expo site and Shanghai city. Further-help with the communication with the taxi driver, more, in this case, the Expo site is closed to a cre- 15
  15. 15. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitalityative area, so that the opportunity of reusing is colossus. Since a new bridge/tunnel connectingimproved. However, although the Expo is near the Chongming to Shanghai has being planned, thecity centre, there is no interface between the city island has been placed directly in the path of theand the site. In fact there are no events in Shanghai seemingly unstoppable Shanghai sprawl. For thisthat involve citizen and visitors together. Even if reason, in 2004 a competition for the urban de-the masterplan is well organized the perception of sign of the island was promoted and the SOMthe visitor is confused. That situation is due to a (Skidmore, Owings and Merrill LLP) team won itgap between the Expo scale and the human sca- with a “green” proposal based almost completelyle. Regarding Milan Expo 2015, even if the scale is on best-practices principles of sustainability. SOMnot comparable, the masterplan should consider uniquely focused on Chongming’s agrarian orien-the perception of the site from the visitor point of tation as the key to sustainable plans for new envi-view and consider better the post Expo phase. ronmentally-based communities that allowed the preservation of farming as the core function.In relation to the visitors target, the Shanghai Expo Among the objectives planned for this new urbanhas a didactical aim for Chinese people and other expansion there is the creation of a new offer in“common” tourist, in order to make them know the tourism field addressed to a target of peoplemore about the other countries and cultures of who enjoy the outdoors and new contexts. Speci-the world. To improve this aim the exhibition could fic structures like European country’s houses arejoin learning and make experience, while for ex- about to be built. In the original plan a good per-pert visitors the exhibition should give more tech- centage of them should have been ready to hostnical and technological information and innovative the flow of Expo’s visitors but some delays made itprojects. impossible. We managed to visit anyway the only one almost complete. It’s real news for the Chine- se touristic market and it seems to be able to inter- cept a very big portion of it. The tendency already clear in the western countries of the “coming back to nature” spirit is fashionable even in the less en- vironmental eastern country. It has been for us the confirmation that the investments in the sector have well perspectives of success. 2.4 Why is it better to face the hospitality Picture 10: UK Pavillion at the Shanghai International EXPO 2010 with temporary structures and not with new massive buildingsChong Ming Island: During the trip to Shanghai, oneday has been dedicated to the visit of Chongming We analyzed deeply the pros and cons betweenIsland, the seat of a new utopian urban plan, which the two proposals, which are two options thatinvolves also an innovative offer in terms of holi- the actual hosting situation offers to users. Theseday accommodation. Located some 20 miles east analyses aimed to get the best features of both so-of Shanghai’s downtown Financial District and se- lutions by integrating them in the design processven miles across the Yangtze by ferry, Chongming’s and in the creation of the entire service system.extraordinarily rich, flood-replenished soil had fordecades made the island-district the agricultural With the description “massive buildings” we refer“rice bowl” for China’s burgeoning commercial to the common hosting structures like hotels, re- 16
  16. 16. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitalitysidences which are located inside buildings as we invitation and is happy to get in a deep relation-usually are used to think about. The pros of these ship with him/her. The hosting place is a physical,structures are those of durability of construction social and cultural context that is generated by thematerials through time, static and permanent po- host and that may be enriched by the guest. Publicsition on the urban territory which is seen as a kind spaces in this perspective recover the role of phy-of guaranty to people who think about hotels as sical and symbolic meeting place between guestsa temporary home, the costs of construction and and hosts: beautiful places, expression of the lo-material transportation is done once while buil- cal historical and cultural values, but also placesding the project, but there are also some cons like for relaxation, entertainment and for events. Ho-the stability of the offer to the increasing demand sting during great events is a temporary action butof hosting, so presented as a limited capacity of should be thought as an opportunity for furtheraccommodation and on the contrary to a low de- development. Thus, we think temporariness not asmand the offer is high and so these structures be- an isolated provisory moment for the city but as ancome useless and the maintenance costs raise up. explosion that could leave meaningful blueprints.Now days, when green and recreation areas are We approach the design for temporary hospitalityfew and very important and very required places as regenerative solutions that valorizes the hostingthat give value to the territory, it becomes impor- places (i.e. the local existing resources), offers thetant not to occupy them with impacting structures residents new opportunities (i.e. new services forof concrete or other common construction mate- the residents and for the guests), promotes new,rials. In order to go through all these existing ne- deep forms of intercultural relationships like bet-gative aspects we saw in the temporary structures ter understanding of the place and people, on thethe flexibility due to the management and design guests’ side, and more open and cosmopolitanprocess; the synchronized system offer-demand; ideas, on the hosts’ side. Contemporary cities thatthe fair impacting aspects on the urban and ru- want to remain attractive in the global competitionral areas; the low maintenance costs in terms of and play a welcoming role internationally have tostorage, transport and assemblage; and, the most equip themselves in response to the new tourisminteresting aspect that this solution allows was behaviors and demands. The goal of welcomingthe experiencing of new accommodation forms by cities should be: to include the heterogeneous,camping near unusual contexts like city centers, individual demands rather than select and foca-rural houses, parks etc. It also offers a new way of lize just on one specific (high) target; to developoptimizing the relation of the user in approaching new solutions that are economically accessible,the city and its activities. The temporariness of the to find ways of integrating local communities andhosting structures becomes coherent to the tem- foreigners rather than keeping them in two diffe-porariness of the event itself allowing to the ho- rent environments without contact and sharingsting cities to enlarge their accommodation capa- of experiences; to spread the tourist flows overcity without risking to build great structures which the territory rather than limiting them to the citywould be empty and useless structures once the centers. Accommodation strategies in welcomingevent finishes. cities have to offer a system of solutions that is: highly differentiating and able to answer to the in- creasingly heterogeneous demand; “flexible”, able2.5 What do we intend as “Temporariness” to adapt with the changing flows of arrivals during and “Hospitality” the whole year; “inclusive” and “disseminated”, able to connect visitors of different ages and fromFor us ideally, a host is an actor living in a place in different backgrounds and link them to the localwhich he/she is happy (and proud) to invite some- community and to different local realities.body else. A guest is an actor that accepts the host’s 17
  17. 17. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality3. USERS’ REQUIREMENTSIn order to elaborate an adequate problem setting landscape and environmental interest. Moreover,from the general topic proposed “EXP-HOST: Great the region is promoting new environmental andevents and hospitality. Milan Expo 2015 and Tu- landscape paths strictly linked with national andrin Italia 150: new concepts and formats for new international initiatives that will bring new touri-populations”, great events experienced have been stic attractiveness to the area.studied through dedicated bibliography, web in-formation and on-site visits. The previous events The Milan Expo will not occur in an isolated man-information as well as the meetings with academic ner. Its program of events will integrate seamlesslyand external tutors who follow the project allowed into the overall national program of events in to understand their approach to hospitality, the The country is already planning a great number oflegacies and its main impacts on the city and eco- activities of international scope during the Exponomy. After the problem setting phase, the rese- period that will exert a strong draw both for Italiansarch was focused on the selected specific theme: and for visitors from abroad. The Expo will offer ex-the design of innovative hospitality structures for cellent opportunities for partners hips with otherMilan Expo 2015. We decided to narrow the project Italian cities or sister events that will catalyze theto Milan Expo 2015 because we think it presents interest of millions of potential visitors. Exampleslarger unsolved issues to absorb the demand on range from food events in Rome to Music and Li-hospitality. Thus we aim to propose a system that terature events in Umbria, in the period from Maycould be adapted to smaller events such as Turin to October.Italia 150 but we find that Milan Expo 2015 wouldbe a better context, due to the resources and time-frame, to explore new concepts. Other important projects are being developed for the great event, which include the revalorization of existing areas and the building of new infrastruc-3.1 Milano Expo 2015 and its receptivity ture. An interesting example is this project, loca- ted away from the main Expo site, is based on theThe Expo provides important opportunities for idea of creating a post-Expo learning park, wherethe city and region. Its urban region has 9 millions users will be able to pick up appealing informationof inhabitants and economy devoted to services about water and nutrition. Water as a primary ele-and knowledge with an interconnected net of ex- ment of the life and food cycle is the topic that willcellences. The exceptionality of the functions al- be developed along this route. A vast network ofready active in the area create a great source of green areas (around 800 hectares) will be createdattractiveness in different sectors such as busines- along and around a trail of around 20 km, whichses and fairs, health and research, creativity and can be covered on foot, by bicycle, by low-energyinnovation and, education and culture. Today the vehicle, on horseback (in some stretches in greentouristic system is focused on the business sector, areas) or by boat (along the Naviglio Grande). Aleaving with no answer big segments of demand second project called the “Land Way” consists ofand bringing in action only a minimal part of the a visitor and theme trail which connects a num-potential positive synergies with the territories. ber of locations and buildings of special note, andThus, the Expo with its theme “Feeding the pla- which leads from the Darsena (the docks on the Ponet, energy for life” brings significant opportuni- river) to the future Expo-site, a symbol of tomor-ties to promote the territory attractiveness and a row’s Milan.sustainable form of tourism through the growthof a hospitality offer linked with the places with a 18
  18. 18. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and HospitalityMilan maintains a very widespread and far-rea- we think that a competitive, touristic and syner-ching network of international relations whose gic strategy is necessary and innovative receptivitycomplexity defies exhaustive description. Milan models have to be interconnected with the rest of the world via aquantity of active relations that cannot possibly be 3.2 Data (visitors, site plan)listed in their entirety. However, we shall cite someof the best known. La Scala theatre is a world re- The Exposition, which will cover a total area of ap-ference point and symbol of lyric opera. Milan’s proximately 210 hectares, of which 110 hectarestwo powerhouse football teams, Inter and Milan shall be for Exposition areas and other activities,are always a force to be reckoned with at any in- will be located on a stretch of land adjacent to theternational soccer event. Leonardo da Vinci’s Last new fairground complex in Rho Pero. The eventSupper is a primary destination for myriads of tou- will open on May, 1st 2015 and close definitely onrists from all over the world. Milan is also enga- October, 31st 2015. One or more visiting days willged in flourishing international business relations be organized before the official opening date, forvia its outstanding and universally recognized special categories of guests such as press repre-fashion houses. Its public institutions, such as the sentatives.Milan Trade Fair and the Chamber of Commerce,are very active in developing international trade According to BIE** estimates, the number of exhi-relations. Fiera di Milano has established 43 fo- bitors requesting to participate in Expo 2015 Milanreign offices, which maintain stable relations with will fall into the range of 175 to 190. The above64 different countries around the world. Through total includes at least 120 guest countries, the Ita-its Promos network in 17 different countries, the lian Government, 20 Italian Regions and nationalMilan Chamber of Commerce implemented more organizations, 10 international organizations, andthan 100 internationalisation initiatives. 25 corporate exhibitors, for a total of 175 partici- pants.According to Istat* , in Lombardy, tourist come infirst place for Business travels, second for 1 to 3 As a general quantitative reference, we take intodays trips and just then the region is recognized account the information in the Dossier from BIE ofas an attractive pole for leisure activities with an the expected demand for the Expo 2015 (29 mil-over 4-day stay. Milan offers in terms of hospitality lion visitors), updating it with the last news on thearound 1000 receptivity structures including ho- expected demand. Focusing on our target definedtels, Bed and Breakfast, Renting Housing, Hostels as “new populations” we will use as a referenceand Farm Accommodation, which represent a very the research done by the Team A about the visi-small part of the total. In Lombardy, 4 to 5 stars ho- tors’ profile and forecast. From our focused rese-tels represent 54 per cent of the offer (Rome 48%), arch, we have found that these “new populations”while 1 to 2 stars hotels represent just 8% of the are interested in non-traditional accommodationtotal accommodation (Rome 15%). such as camping or couch surfing in cities like Milan mainly because they seek a different experience.Summing up, there is a significant gap between Other reasons expressed are related to the lowerdemand and supply. In the urban regions most cost, to way to socialize and meet new people andof the touristic structures are not adequate both an enjoyment of the outdoors and new contexts.from a qualitative and quantitative point of viewfor all targets. Moreover, there is a lack of abili- Observationsty in answering to new populations’ needs. Thus, This chapter has pointed out the existence of an* ** Bureau International des Expositions 19
  19. 19. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitalityunsolved demand of a new kind of accommoda- • Chamber of Commerce of Milan and Turintion to host the emergency situation of Expo 2015 Private Companies:visitors in the macro-region Milan-Turin that till • Oneworks (private construction company) has been seen as a potential developer of the solutiontoday isn’t answered. The request is bounded to proposed and is therefore interested in its feasibil-“new populations” who are looking for an alterna- ity in technical and economical terms.tive solution to their needs: experience, engage-ment and networking. Expo 2015 is an opportunity Public/Private Partnerships:for the city to promote its image of host-city in a • Assolombarda (institution gathering industry andmeaningful way that will leave a trace for future entrepreneurship organizations in the territory)development. Thus it must build up an accommo- has the aim of increasing the economical, social and cultural value of the macro-region to attractdation system to satisfy the demand of its tempo- new investments.rary citizens but giving an answer to the after-Expo • Investorsscenario. In the present work, an innovative an-swer to such question is proposed; sketching out Developers and Consultants:the main characteristics of an innovative typology • Boston Consulting Group, Accenture, Mc Kinsey.that could be added to existing resources of the They would confirm the effectiveness of the busi-macro-region to expand their hospitality offer but ness plan proposed and therefore the return on the investment.also that could be a flexible asset for the region forfuture needs. Users • Macro-region citizens, who have been considered the true owners of the output, especially in its3.3 Stakeholders post-event phase. For them it is necessary to cal- culate the after event legacy so to maximize its op-Since the first meetings we were asked to identi- portunities and reduce the costsfy the stakeholders of our project, some of them • Visitors, who are the temporary owners of the out-were already involved in our meetings as external put of the project; they have expectations regard-tutors and started contributing on the definition ing their Expo experience that need to be fulfilledof the project since the beginning, it was therefo- through a particular (customized/ personalized)re just during the 2010 ASP Winter School, leaded product-service Professor Bruno Dente, that we made a more Together with that it was listed also a series ofrefined analysis about that. The actors that at that practices, useful to improve the Expo positive ef-stage we had identified as involved in our project fects also in long term perspective:are the followings:Government: Public Policies to encourage Territorial Develop-• Ministry of Tourism, which will have to pro- ment:mote the Milan macro-region, spread information Territorial Promotion: Valorization of Milan territo-about the event and the macro-region opportuni- ryties, especially in terms of accommodation. Transportation: Encourage public transport, inte-Local Administration: grate public/private transport, develop ecological• Municipality of Milan (governmental institution in means of transport (bike sharing, car pooling, taxi the region) which will have to deal with the loca- sharing). tion of the solution according with the Urban Plan laws, will have to promote the Milan macro-region Guarantee a Certain Level of Demand: Strong mar- and optimize the already existing resources on the keting commitment with effective advertising. territory. 20
  20. 20. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and HospitalitySecurity: Provide more forces to face the possible about the definition of new populations to whichrisks incresed by the flow of visitors in the city. address our proposal. The requests of this target had emerged from the questionnaire sent to theEconomical incentives: Encourage in an economi- selected sample of respondents*** .cal point of view the different iniciatives proposedby the private investors.Some of the stakeholders listed have shown duringthe further development of the project an increa-sing active participation and interest.Dr. Maria Teresa Broggini (Municipality of Milan)raised up the possibility of the creation of a societyof services for the management of the hospitalitysolution which, she stressed, couldn’t be done bythe Municipality itself by just financing it; moreo-ver she approved our idea of a link between theexisting Cascine’s network and the new hospitali-ty structures, and encouraging us to deepen thatpath she put us in contact with people working inthe census of all the existing structures.Assolombarda as well has always been very care-ful in noticing the feasibility of our project and haspointed up to us the importance of some steps ofthe business plan.EXPO2015 S.p.A., the institution in charge of thedevelopment of the Expo site, was moreover con-sulted when it was under discussion the potentiallocation of our interventions. The meeting wasuseful to have a better understanding of the Expo-site in its extended urban planning and approach.Together with them, other external tutors were in-terviewed according with the new aspects arisenby the deepening of the project. It is the case ofthe firm Ferrino with which we get in touch du-ring the design phase, when we start facing sometechnical problems. Thanks to the meeting withDr. Rabajoli (Ferrino S.p.A.), who gave us the con-solidated experience of who works in the field, wesolved important doubts. The visit to the 50° Salo-ne Nautico in Genoa helped us as well about parti-cular technical solutions.For what concerns our users we decided to adopt *** A broader explanation of the target was done by Team Athe results of the research conducted by Team A and is further developed under the title “Target” 21
  21. 21. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality 4. DESIGN PROCESS 4.1 First ideas on possible solutions: An- nexes, Pay per Sleep, First booking, Temporary Hosting Camps Objectives assigned to the team The project explores a topic which will be in the agenda of public actors and at the same time at the attention of private developers in the next ye- ars. The Milan Expo 2015 event will attract millions of people (20 millions are expected according to the official documents of the Expo board) and the impact on public policies - on one side - and on real estate sector strategies- on the other side - will be very strong. In 2011 Torino (together with Milano, Firenze, Roma) will host the celebrations for the 150th anniversary of the Unity of Italy. The- se events will be characterized by important urban transformation and by exceptional incoming of vi- sitors. Our object of study, the theme of Innovative ho- spitality typologies, has been introduced in the Project program raising the following questions: how can we experiment innovative formats of structures for hospitality, which allow to better match the demand of different people attracted by great events, especially non-traditional “popu- lations”? Can we think about new typologies of physical structures, integrating different functions and activities, with characters of flexibility, possibi- lity of re-use according to the changing demand? From the starting point to the different phases of the problem setting of the project we were fasci- nated by key words like flexibility, innovation, ho- spitality, sustainability in relation to the architec- tural and business aspects of the project. In the contemporary city community dynamics are very strong, with difficult effects to forecast on traffic and mobility services and on tourism services. We were as well intrigued to understand which new, non traditional actors could be included in an in- 22
  22. 22. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitalitynovative pattern of profit and non-profit entrepre-neurship to realize innovative typologies. This kindof project may be faced as a typical innovationprocess: the focus is on the actors that may helpus to design something new and not only on thefinal users.The present Milanese region does not provide ahospitality option to “new populations” in order tohost the visitors during Expo Milan 2015. Moreo-ver we understood that there is a need for true su-stainable solutions in terms of absorbing the peak Picture 11: System Map_Cell Managementdemand in great events thinking in the future ofthe investments done. We see that, it is an oppor-tunity for the city to improve its offer. We aim todevelop a long-term strategy for re-using the ho-sting structures built up for the event, promotinga sustainable paradigm of receptivity based on exi-sting resources, building a legacy in terms of cul-tural exchange among young people, citizens andforeigners, connecting new stakeholders.First possible outputs related to the specific themeof our ASP project Picture 12: System Map_Cell Re-use• Meta-projects of innovative hospitality structures• Repertoires of innovative formats• Site specific projects in Milan and Turin and in their metropolitan areas• Low budget innovative and non-traditional hospi- tality proposals for specific targets of users• Innovative models of hospitality structures man- agementStarting from this first attempt of explaining thetheme of hospitality and temporariness, we cameup with different scenarios as possible approachesto the issue of hosting the temporary Milan Expo Picture 13: Overelevation - Annexes Conceptvisitors but also thinking on the future implicationsfor the city. Chain ReservationWe brainstorm about innovative hospitality solu-tions thinking about the impact and opportunities:Before-During-After Expo scenarios. We came outwith different proposals of architectural configura-tions and services : Picture 14: Chain Reservation Concept• Annexes, Over-Elevations, Attached Spaces. Use the 23
  23. 23. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and Hospitality top of the buildings to set either fixed of temporary ry Hosting Camps. hospitality structures, according with the “Piano Casa” new prescriptions, which attract particular 4.2 Places Where to Locate our Hospitality targets of visitors and make the locations part of a Offer circuit of interest for the callers. Some areas have been found that could be promi-• Pay per Sleep Service. Basic accommodation to give sing for the location of the proposed accommoda- accommodation on the move paying just for the usage time for short time visitors. tion solutions during the Expo. The chosen areas are interesting due to the relation with the theme,• Full Booking. Develop a way to manage booking us- the possibilities to create new relations and renew ing strategies like last minute - low rates in order to the image of the region looking towards new pos- be able to absolve the demand changes. sibilities in the future. Moreover, these areas are currently developing projects on hospitality for the• Macro-region Chain Reservation. Development of 2015 Expo Milano and are backed by our reflection a chain of hotels located in the macro-region that gives the opportunity to have access to the differ- on the research done together by the Team A who ent branches while discovering the macro-region focus on the target and the localization. After the circuit-tour. meeting with Dr. Maria Teresa Broggini (Munici- pality of Milan), potential localization place were• Temporary Hosting Camping. Basic structures easy suggested could be some selected farmhouses to assemble, for the accommodation of groups. An out of the 58 cases* as well as the park areas as accommodation in between the already existing the Green Way Lombardia or Parco della Via d’Ac- basic tents or the more fixed containers, both from the structural point of view and in terms of costs. qua, which are part of the valorization research A new concept of unit that will go to compose the projects of the Municipality of Milan. Our propo- emergency camps, reusable for great events or as sed solution will act as a support to existing activi- first shelter for immigrants / refugees / militaries. ties to extend the offer and give a better response to the peak demand. The locations where to set-Our first idea was to create a business model which tle it could be promising points to set temporaryallows us to develop all of the five concepts in pa- hospitality offers, expanding the knowledge of therallel fulfilling the total amount of hosting demand visitors about the region and creating new localthrough different percentages of each proposed opportunities for future development.solution. However, after deepening the approa-ches, we have realized that each proposal was toodifferent from the others and needed a separatestudy. We found conflicting elements and very di-verse objectives. For instance, the solution whichinvolves the Piano Casa would need a legal consul-tancy to understand how we could take advantageof it in our idea of annexes and over-elevations inthe Piemonte-Lombardia macro-region. We soonrealized that its feasibility would be compromisedby the difficulty of the management of a multipli-city of private micro-intervention all different onefrom the others. Picture 15: Settlements’ TyphologiesThe proposal that, together with the tutors we de- * Stefano Boeri (Multiplicity.lab), Le Cascine di Milano Ver-cided to follow was finally the one of the Tempora- so e Oltre Expo 2015, AGF, Milan 2009 24
  24. 24. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and HospitalityThe Expo will be a great opportunity to exploit the Transitional shelter: shelter which provides a ha-experiential marketing, that means to leverage on bitable covered living space and a secure, healthythe Expo as a window to guarantee visibility to the living environment, with privacy and dignity, tosolution proposed and the places where it will be those within it, during the period between a con-located. The customers hosted in those places may flict or natural disaster and the achievement of awant, after their stay, to come back in the future or durable shelter least share their experience to a bigger networkof people. Settlement: a community of covered living spa- ces providing a healthy, secure living environment with privacy and dignity to those groups, families, and individuals residing within them.4.3 Different Definitions of Temporariness Related to Accommodation Solutions Shelter sector: abbreviation of the term ‘site selec- tion, planning and shelter sector’, describing thatThe term ‘transitional settlement’ (TS) has been part of the ‘transitional settlement sector’ whichdefined by a peer review process initiated by Shel- responds to the transitional settlement and shelterter Project and continued by Shelter Centre. It me- needs of refugees, within the mandate of UNHCR.ans: Shelter: a habitable covered living space, providing“settlement and shelter resulting from conflict and a secure, healthy living environment with privacynatural disasters, ranging from emergency respon- and dignity to those within it.Shelter system: these to durable solutions.”** combination of structural shelter items and ‘shel-The word originates from an approach which ex- ter NFIs’ (non-food items) which create shelter,tends beyond the traditional response, with its such as tents with locally procured blankets andlimited focus on the provision of planned camps. mattresses, and possibly stoves, appropriate to aThe new approach considers the wider impacts cold climate.of settlement and the options for settlement, em- Provisional: that is not definitive, long-lasting, sta-phasizing the need for a transition to durable set- ble, to be replaced or modified.tlement solutions and local development. Temporary: that has limited duration, which is notTransitional settlement: settlement and shelter final.resulting from conflict and natural disasters, fromemergency response to durable solutions. Temporary home: can be regarded as such a home lived in temporarily for a specified period, you canTransitional settlement sector: the field of pro- identify it with the holiday home or the rentedviding settlement and shelter in the context of houseconflict and natural disasters, from emergencyresponse to durable solutions. Aim: communi- Provisional home: is an answer to an emergencyties, families, and individuals affected by conflict (floods, earthquakes), to an exceptional event. It’sand natural disasters should be afforded, together an emergency home, prefabricated, built quicklywith any hosting populations, TS support to ensu- and destined to their security, good health, privacy, and dignity,appropriate to their needs. Ephemeral home: is a prototype, a model that can be real or virtual, and retaining an image always new. It uses perishable materials because it has to** Sphere Project, Humanitarian Charter and Minimum last a short time, such as prefabricated houses andStandards in Disaster Response, Genève 2004 demountable exhibition pavilions. 25
  25. 25. W A L L _ S Innovative Hospitality TypologiesEXP-HOST_ Great Events and HospitalityTransitional Home: is a dynamic evolving system, al, and international relations;the transition from a conventional to a new way • Specialists sector effectiveness; strategic, govern-of living.*** ment, and donor relations • Other sectors of response sector effectiveness, de- pendent on settlement options4.4 Stakeholders present in Disaster Re- • Development workers operational continuity and sponse (a possible scenario where to use the assessment, monitoring, and evaluations hosting units ) • Suppliers / contractors economic stability; capac- ity; government and international relations • Media economic stability; local, national and inter-It is useful to consider the similarities and differen- national relationsces in the interests of stakeholder groups affectedby transitional settlement. This might help to de- International:velop common operational guidelines which could • Donors, which control strategic effectiveness, local,improve co-ordination and co-operation between national, and international relationsdifferent organizations in the field. • United Nations bodies, that lead strategic effective- ness; local, national, and international relationsStakeholder groups which stake in transitional set- • International non-government organizations (IN-tlement includes: GOs), which focus on local, national and strategic effectiveness; impact through sector range; local,Local: national, and international relations with popula-• Displaced and local populations, whose stake in tions, governments, donors, and the media transitional settlements includes: security; surviv- • Peace-keeping forces, which guarantee internal al and health; social needs, including privacy and and external security and stability; population mo- dignity; livelihoods, including economic stability; bility. natural-resource management; communal service infrastructure, including transport. In the year 2004, the United Nations High Commis-• Community-based organizations (CBOs), which sioner for Refugees (UNHCR) estimated that there have: capacity and skills; relations with local popu- were 20 million refugees living worldwide . In ad- lation, local and national government, national and international aid community, and donors. dition, 25 million people were displaced within the borders of their own countries and were thus clas-National: sified as Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs). The• Host governments, which stakes internal and ex- provision of well-planned settlement solutions for ternal security and stability; political and economic people who have been displaced by conflict or na- stability; national service infrastructure; national tural disasters is crucially important. construction industry• Police and military, which provides internal and ex- ternal security and stability; population mobility• Local non-government organizations (LNGOs), which have capacity and skills; relations with popu- lations, CBOs, local and national government, in- ternational aid community, and donorsNational and international:• Coordinators strategic effectiveness; local, nation-*** Daniela Cardace, Elisabetta Quaglino, Dall’esperienza diautocostruzione ad Arcosanti alla progettazione di un modulo abi-tativo, Master Thesis, Politecnico di Torino, Relator: Comoglio Mari-tano N., Correlatore Aghemo C., Turin, July 2008 26