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assistive technology


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assistive technology

  1. 1. Assistive Technology Y. Gendelman ITEC 7530 Fall 2013
  2. 2. ADHD  Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition that affects millions of children and often persists into adulthood. ADHD includes a combination of problems, such as difficulty sustaining attention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior.  Children with ADHD also may struggle with low self- esteem, troubled relationships and poor performance in school. Symptoms sometimes lessen with age. However, some people never completely outgrow their ADHD symptoms. But they can learn strategies to be successful.
  3. 3. Symptoms and Signs of ADHD  has difficulty paying attention or staying focused on a task or activity  has problems finishing assignments at school or home and jumps from one activity to another  has trouble focusing on instructions and difficulty following through  loses or forgets things such as homework  is easily distracted, even when doing something fun has problems paying close attention to details or makes careless mistakes  has trouble organizing tasks and activities, has difficulty waiting one's turn  interrupts or intrudes on other people  feels restless  talks excessively and has trouble engaging in activities quietly
  4. 4. Assistive Technology for ADHD  Electronic math worksheet software enables students to organize and work through problems on a computer screen. Numbers that appear onscreen can be read aloud by a speech synthesizer.  Talking calculators have a built-in speech synthesizer that reads aloud each number, symbol, or operation key a student presses, as well as the answer. The aural feedback lets an attention deficit student know whether he pressed the right keys and verifies the answer before he transfers it to paper.  Optical character recognition (OCR) programs allow a student to scan printed material into a computer or handheld unit. The scanned text is then read aloud by a speech synthesis/screen reading system. OCR is available in stand-alone units, as software, and as portable, pocket-sized devices that display words on an easy-to-read screen. Scanning pens are perfect for library research and other reading that doesn’t involve a computer. This device scans text as it’s dragged along the page. The pen displays the words on an easy-to-read screen, speaks them aloud, and provides definitions.
  5. 5. Assistive Technology for ADHD  Portable word processors are lightweight devices that look like a computer keyboard with a screen. They can be helpful to ADHD children who have trouble with handwriting. These battery-powered machines can be brought to school for note-taking and writing assignments. At home, files can be transferred to a PC or Mac. Some portable word processors come pre-loaded with word prediction and text-to-speech software.  Audio books and reading software. Recorded books allow users to listen to text, and they are available in a variety of formats: audiocassette, CD, and MP3 download. Special playback units allow users to search and bookmark pages and chapters.
  6. 6. Assistive Technology for  speech synthesizers/screen reader systems can display and read aloud text on a computer screen, including text that has been typed by a student, scanned in from printed pages (books, letters), or material from the Internet.  Speech-recognition programs allow a student to read aloud into a microphone and see his words appear on a computer screen. The software is especially helpful for students whose oral language skills are superior to their writing skills.
  7. 7. Auditory Disability Auditory processing is the term used to describe what happens when your brain recognizes and interprets the sounds around you. Humans hear when energy that we recognize as sound travels through the ear and is changed into electrical information that can be interpreted by the brain. The “disorder” part of auditory processing disorder (APD) means that something is adversely affecting the processing or interpretation of information.
  8. 8. Symptoms and Signs of APD  Have trouble paying attention to and remembering information presented orally  Have problems carrying out multistep directions  Have poor listening skills  Need more time to process information  Have low academic performance  Have behavior problems  Have language difficulty (e.g., they confuse syllable sequences and have problems  developing vocabulary and understanding language)  Have difficulty with reading, comprehension, spelling, and vocabulary
  9. 9. Assistive Technology for APD Apple is aware of this accessibility issue and has created Quick Time 4.0, which is software that allows captions and descriptions to be incorporated into a movie or audio clip using either a Macintosh or PC. If captions are present, the viewer is still able to follow the presentation without missing any content. Additionally, captions can also be a remarkable tool for increasing reading skills.
  10. 10. Assistive Technology for APD Speech recognition software allows a hearing disabled student to understand most of what a teacher is saying because the micro-computer can print what is being spoken. An FM auditory training system is one more piece of equipment that may be a wonderful asset to a hearing impaired student in a regular classroom. The FM system directly links the student's hearing aid to a microphone worn by the classroom teacher. The sound is transmitted into a student's hearing aid. The system allows the student to hear an auditory presentation at a consistent loudness level from wherever the speaker is located in the classroom.
  11. 11. Assistive Technology for APD Other devices, such as, flashing lights or vibrators are of great importance to hearing impaired people. These types of devices flash or vibrate when a telephone, doorbell, alarm clock, fire alarm, tornado alarm sound. Lights have also been manufactured to flash to alert a hearing impaired student when the class period is over.
  12. 12. Mild learning disability  The World Health Organization classifies general learning disabilities into mild, moderate, severe and profound. The definitions of the degrees of disability are usually expressed in terms of IQ, behavioral competence and/or the need for special service. Children with mild general learning disabilities (MLD) typically have verbal and performance IQ scores in the 50-70 range, i.e., two to three standard deviations below the population mean. They often have significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social and practical adaptive skills. Specific cognitive deficits often exist in such areas as memory, attention or language.
  13. 13. Symptoms and Signs for mild learning disability  Delayed conceptual development  Limited ability to abstract and generalize  Difficulties with memory  Slow speech and language development  Limited social skills  Inappropriate or immature personal behavior  Limited attention span and poor retention ability  Decreased motivation, Low self-esteem  Poor self-concept  General clumsiness  Lack of coordination and of gross and fine motor skills  Emotional disturbance  A minority may also have varying degrees of hearing or visual impairment
  14. 14. Writing barriers for students with mild disabilities include  Mechanics: spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors.  Process: generating ideas, organizing, drafting, editing, revising, and producing a neat, clear final copy.  Motivation: interest in writing.
  15. 15. Assistive Technology for Mild learning disability READING: Poor decoding/fluency  ReadPlease interferes with comprehension (Free software; teach students to copy and paste text so they can listen)  Key to Access (Accessibility software on a pocket-size USB drive goes everywhere)  Kurzweil 3000 (A scan and read system that converts printed text into digital text)  Read and Write Gold (A software suite designed to support the struggling reader/writer)  Solo (A software suite designed to support the struggling reader/writer)
  16. 16. Assistive Technology for Mild learning disability WRITING : Difficulty planning/organizing the tasks associated with a research project  Assignment Calculator (An innovative tool to break a large project into manageable daily tasks) So You Have to...  (A teacher created web site with step by step guidance and resources) Difficulty getting ideas on paper to get started  Inspiration, Kidspiration (Graphic organizers provide a great way to brainstorm and organize)  Graphic organizers (Ready to reproduce graphic organizers)
  17. 17. References  An Educator's Guide to Hearing Disability Issues. Retrieved 9-10-2013 from html  Kristin Stanberry and Marshall H. Raskind, Ph.D . (2009) The Best Software and Gadgets for ADHD Students. ADDitude. Retrieved 9-10-2013 from  American Speech-language- Hearing Association Retrieved 9-10-2013 from Aid-Technology/
  18. 18. References  ScoilNET : portal for Irish education Retrieved 9-10-2013 from  Edyburn, D.L. (2006). Assistive technology and mild disabilities. Special Education Technology Practice, 8(4), 18-28. Retrieved 9-10-2013 from hqX2xmV1k/Day%2006%20(weekend%20reading!)/AT MildDisabilities.pdf