Secondary School # 4,Students Center for Creative Development Olekminsk, Sakha Republic, Russia
The Sakha Republic (Yakutia) is one of the biggest in the Russian Federation. It is situated in the north-east of the Russian Federation and occupies one fifth of the total territory of Russia, its area is 3.1 million square kilometers! The whole area of the republic is covered by permafrost. Winter temperatures here drop to 60 C below zero, the summer temperature may reach + 40 C. Sakha is a multinational republic, over 110 different nationalities were registered in the republic.
The National Emblem of the Sakha Republic combines a few symbols of the early sakha people: it is a circle symbolizing the sun; in the center of the circle there is a horseman with the banner. This image was taken from the rock paintings found on the Lena river rocks. In the upper part of the Sun disk there is a traditional ornamental pattern consisting of seven dark-blue diamond-shaped crystals, which stand for diamonds, the main wealth of Yakutia’s land. The number seven has magic meaning for Yakuts.
The national flag of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) consists of four colour stripes and a white circle in the middle of the flag: that’s the white north sun shining on the blue sky. The white colour is the symbol of wisdom, purity. All what was good early Yuakuts connected with the white colour. Green – is the colour of hope, friendship and vast expanses of taiga. Red is the symbol of friendship between the nations and tribute to preceding generations.
We live in the town of Olekminsk. On the 25th of August, 2005 a new emblem of the region was established. The emblem depicts the powerful Lena river, which has been honoured by people for centuries and called Mother Lena. The wheat sheaf above the river is the symbol of the fertile soil of the region – a farming land of Yakutia. Seven diamonds symbolize the connection of the region with the whole Sakha Republic.
Cattle husbandry, reindeer husbandry, fishing and hunting have always been the main occupation of the local population. For the Sakha indigenous people reindeer was one of the main source for making living: it’s still being used in the north remote areas for transportation; people make warm winter clothes of reindeer skin – hats, mittens, boots, coats, rugs. Reindeer skin is used as a home heat insulation material. Reindeer meat and milk is a nutritious food for local people.
Squirrel – is the symbol of smartmind.Sable – is the symbol of welfare.Choron - a jar made of wood is thesymbol of hospitality.Lily – is the symbol of the localnature’s beauty.Silver ornaments – protection fromthe evil spirits.Gold – the symbol of luck.
We live in a small town located on the left bank of the beautiful Lena River. The town has a rich history. It was founded in 1635. People of different nations: Yakuts, Russians, Tatars, Ukrainians, Buryats and Evenks live here. Tatars appeared in Olekminsk in 1816. Those were Tatar rebels exiled to a cold and remote Yakutia because of their disobedience to the power of Russian tsar. Soon a tatar district appeared in Olekminsk. Farming, trade, handicraft were their main occupations. They lived in peace and friendship following the Koran, Muslims’ sacred book, and their national traditions. Tatars contributed a lot into the culture of Olekminsk: they built a theatre and performed Tatar classic plays; they organized Sabantuy (national holiday) celebrations; founded Tatar school.
The national Tatar emblem depicts a shield – a symbol of security, and eight petal aster – the symbol of the sun and a long life. A winged snow leopard is depicted inside the three-colour circle – the colours of Tatar flag. The red stripe – is the colour of the sun, early people considered it as the colour of power and life triumph. Green stripe – is the colour of summer nature, the symbol of the youth. The white colour – is the symbol of purity, good will and benevolence.
Running weasel in the silver field was the symbol of this animal which was abundant in the early Ufa region. Weasel fir was important at that time and was often exchanged for iron and other necessary products with the other tribes. Silver gulls with extended wings symbolized the location of the place and belonging it to the Volga River basin. Gull’s extended wings look like human open palms – symbol of work hands.
Koran is a sacred Muslims book. The letters on the early Koran front cover are gold as gold was the symbol of the highest value. Crescent (lunnitsa) on the top of the mosque, ornaments and amulets is the symbol of Islam, and matrimony as well. The tradition of wearing crescent in Tatar costume was lost in XIII century, during the period of Mongol oppression. Besides, wide spread of Christianity might contribute to the process of neglecting some traditions. But today young generations of many countries try to revive old symbols and traditions.
You can often find the image of a wolf in the early Tatar painting. Wolf is a symbol of freedom, independence, intrepidity, purity. The white wolf is the protector of the tribe. As the old legend says, he saved his tribe from death. Women jewellery was mainly the sign of richness or was worn as a protection. Copper dishes were the symbol of welfare and hospitality. Housing ornaments also served as protection from evil.
Symbolic meaning of color: Green – symbol of spring, joy, hope, nature, welfare, stability. Golden – symbol of the highest value, richness, permanency, greatness, pow er, generosity, intelligence, intuition and foresight, the colour of the sun. Silver colour – is the symbol of perfection, nobleness, purity of mind, peace. Dark red – is the symbol of wisdom, courage, energy, maturity, vitality. Black – is the symbol of wisdom and discretion, honesty, resignation, eternity of being.
Every spring Tatar people have folk festival called Sabantuy. On this day people carry embroidered towels on the staff. Those towels are the symbol of the holiday.
Symbols of different nations can tell a lot about the people,they can be called small historical monuments of our country.Symbols research and study help us understand our nationbetter and make us think about the peoples’ fate and culture.