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Reactivity with metals


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This .pps will show you how metals react with water and different things

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Reactivity with metals

  1. 1. 07/03/12Reactivity of Metals
  2. 2. 07/03/12 Reactions of metals with oxygenWhen a metal reacts with oxygen it will form a METALOXIDE. This is what happens when a metal rusts. We canmake this reaction happen quicker by burning the metal. METAL + OXYGEN METAL OXIDECopy and complete the following reactions:• Magnesium + oxygen• Copper + oxygen• Calcium + oxygen• Iron + oxygen
  3. 3. 07/03/12 Reactions of metals with waterWhen a metal reacts with water hydrogen is always givenoff. The other product will be either a metal hydroxide ora metal oxide. METAL + WATER METAL OXIDE + HYDROGEN METAL + WATER METAL HYDROXIDE + HYDROGENCopy and complete the following reactions:• Sodium + water• Potassium + water• Calcium + water• Iron + steam
  4. 4. 07/03/12 Reactions of metals with acidsWhen a metal reacts with an acid it gives off hydrogen(which can be “popped” using a lit splint). The otherproduct is a salt. METAL + ACID SALT + HYDROGENe.g. magnesium + hydrochloric acid magnesium chloride + hydrogenCopy and complete the following reactions:• Calcium + hydrochloric acid• Zinc + hydrochloric acid• Iron + hydrochloric acid• Lithium + sulphuric acid
  5. 5. 07/03/12 Complete the following reactions:• Lithium + water Lithium hydroxide + hydrogen• Lithium + hydrochloric acid Lithium chloride + hydrogen• Silver + oxygen Silver oxide• Magnesium + sulphuric acid Magnesium sulphate + hydrogen• Potassium + oxygen Potassium oxide• Aluminium + oxygen Aluminium oxide• Manganese + water Manganese oxide + hydrogen• Sodium + sulphuric acid Sodium sulphate + hydrogen• Lithium + oxygen Lithium oxide• Nickel + hydrochloric acid Nickel chloride + hydrogen
  6. 6. 07/03/12An example question on reactivityMetal Reaction with Reaction Reaction dilute acid with water with oxygen Some reaction Slow reaction Burns brightly A No reaction No reaction Reacts slowly B No reaction No reaction No reaction C Violent reaction Slow reaction Burns brightly D Reasonable Reacts with Reacts slowly E reaction steam only
  7. 7. 07/03/12 The Reactivity Series Potassium Sodium Calcium MagnesiumThe Reactivity Series lists Aluminiummetals in order of reactivity: Carbon Zinc Iron Lead Copper Silver Gold
  8. 8. Displacement reactions 07/03/12A displacement reaction is one where a MORE REACTIVE metal will DISPLACE a LESS REACTIVE metal from a compound.Magnesium Copper sulphate Mg Cu SO4 The magnesium DISPLACES the copper from copper sulphate Mg SO4 Cu Magnesium sulphate Copper
  9. 9. 07/03/12 Displacement reactionsA displacement reaction is one where a MORE REACTIVEmetal will DISPLACE a LESS REACTIVE metal from acompound.For example, if you drop some magnesium into coppersulphate a reaction will happen because magnesium is morereactive than copper, so the reaction is: Magnesium + copper sulphate copper + magnesium sulphateHowever, if you drop some copper into magnesium sulphateNOTHING will happen.
  10. 10. 07/03/12 Some example reactions… Reaction Prediction ObservationsZinc + copper sulphateZinc + lead nitrateCopper + lead nitrateCopper + silver nitrateExtension work – write down the equations for thesereactions
  11. 11. 07/03/12 Some example reactions… Reaction Prediction ObservationsZinc + copper sulphate Reaction DID happenZinc + lead nitrate Reaction DID happenCopper + lead nitrate Reaction DID NOT happenCopper + silver nitrate Reaction DID happenExtension work – write down the equations for thesereactions
  12. 12. 07/03/12 Extracting MetalsSome definitions:A METAL ORE is a mineral or mixture of minerals fromwhich it is “economically practical” to extract somemetal.Most ores contain METAL OXIDES (e.g. rust = ironoxide).To “extract” a metal from a metal oxide we need toREDUCE the oxygen. This is called a REDUCTIONreaction.
  13. 13. How do we do it? 07/03/12Potassium Sodium Metals ABOVE CARBON, because Calcium of their high reactivity, areMagnesium extracted by ELECTROLYSISAluminium Carbon Metals BELOW CARBON are Zinc extracted by heating them with Iron carbon in a BLAST FURNACE Tin Lead Copper These LOW REACTIVITY metals blatantly won’t need to be extracted Silver because they are SO unreactive you’ll Gold find them on their own, not in a metal Platinum oxide
  14. 14. 07/03/12 Extracting metals• What is an ore?• In what form are metals usually found in the Earth?• How do you get a metal out of a metal oxide?• What is this type of reaction called? Type of metal Extraction process Examples High reactivity (i.eanything above carbon) Middle reactivity (i.e.anything below carbon) Low reactivity
  15. 15. 07/03/12 The Blast Furnace 1) HAEMATITE (iron ore), limestone and coke (carbon) are fed in here 2) Hot air is 3) The carbon reacts with blasted in oxygen from the air to form here carbon dioxide. 4) The carbon dioxide reacts with more carbon to form carbon monoxide6) Molten slag 5) Carbon monoxide reduces(waste) is iron oxide to iron. Thetapped off here molten iron is tapped off here Iron oxide + carbon monoxide iron + carbon dioxide
  16. 16. 07/03/12 Electrolysis Molecule of solid copper chloride Molecule of solid copper chloride after being dissolvedChloride Copper ion ion
  17. 17. 07/03/12 ElectrolysisElectrolysis is used to extract a HIGHLY REACTIVE metal. When we electrolysed copper chloride the negative chloride ions moved to the positive electrode and the positive copper ions moved to the negative electrode – OPPOSITES ATTRACT!!! = chloride ion = copper ion
  18. 18. Redox reactions 07/03/12These happen during electrolysis: At the positive electrode the negative ions LOSE electrons to become neutral – this is OXIDATION At the negative electrode the positive ions GAIN electrons to become neutral – this is REDUCTION These two processes are called REDOX REACTIONS OILRIG – Oxidation Is Loss of electrons Reduction Is Gain of electrons
  19. 19. 07/03/12PurifyingAluminiumAluminium has to be extracted from its ore (called ________) byelectrolysis. This is because aluminium is very ___________. Theore is mixed with cryolite to lower its ________ ________. The oreis then melted so that the ions can ______. The positively chargedaluminium ions gather at the ___________ electrode. Oxygen formsat the positive electrode and causes it to wear away, which means thatthey have to be __________ frequently.Words – melting point, replaced, negative, bauxite, reactive, move
  20. 20. 07/03/12 Rusting ExperimentRUST NO RUST – NO RUST – no water no oxygen
  21. 21. Rusting 07/03/12Rust is formed when iron reacts with water AND oxygen. It’s an example of an oxidation reaction which can be sped up using salt. There are several ways of dealing with rust:• Regular painting or oiling• Galvanising – this is when iron objects are coated with zinc• Making objects out of a non-rusting metal, such as stainless steel• Attaching zinc bars to ships – the water will react with the zinc before it reacts with the iron, because zinc is more reactive