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  1. 1. Breathings of a H e a r t ( A Booklet of The Nobel Prize w i n n e r s (laureate) i n English Literature B y the students of Th i rd Ye a r (2017 –2020) Second Ye a r (2018 –2021) First Ye a r (2019 –2022)
  2. 2. Preface Among the five prizes provided for in Alfred Nobel’s will (1895), one was intended for the person who, in the literary field, had produced “the most outstanding work in an ideal direction”. The Laureate should be determined by “the Academy in Stockholm”, which was specified by the statutes of the Nobel Foundation to mean the Swedish Academy. These statutes defined literature as “not only belles-lettres, but also other writings which, by virtue of their form and style, possess literary value”. At the same time, the restriction to works presented “during the preceding year” was softened: “older works” could be considered “if their significance has not become apparent until recently”. It was also stated that candidates must be nominated in writing by those entitled to do so before 1 February each year. Alfred Nobel had broad cultural interests. During his early youth, he developed his literary interests which lasted throughout his life. His library consisted of a rich and broad selection of literature in different languages. During the last years of his life, he tried his hand as an author and began writing fiction. Literature was the fourth prize area Nobel mentioned in his will. (Nobel Prize organization) “Breathings of a Heart” contains basic information about Nobel laureates who won Nobel Prize in literature from the year of 1901 to 2019. There are 112 Literature prizes, 15 women got awarded, 41 youngest laureates and 88 oldest laureates, total there 116 laureates who received Nobel Prize in literature. Nobody has received Nobel Prize in literature in the years of 1935, 1940, 1941, 1942, and 1943. “Breathings of a Heart” is prepared by the students of B.A. English literature, under the guidance of Nucleus club, Nandkunvarba Mahila Arts College. It is prepared by the three batches – TY (2017 – 2020), SY (2018 – 2021) and FY (2019 – 2022) using Wikipedia sources. Dedicated to: All the students of English literature in Nandkunvara Mahila College. English Department, Nandkunvarba Mahila Arts College. Title courtesy: “Fill y o u r p a p er w i t h the breathings of y o u r heart” - William Wo r d s w o r t h Booklet Launch date: 14th February, 2020.
  3. 3. Nobel Prize in literature - 1901 “The great are only great because w e are on our knees. Let us rise up.” -Sully Prudhomme Born: 16 March 1839 Died: 6 September, 1907 Background: He received first Nobel Prize in literature (1901).Born in Paris, Prudhomme originally studied to be an engineer, but turned to philosophy and later to poetry; he declared it as his intention to create scientific poetry for modern times. In character sincere and melancholic, he was linked to the Parnassus school, although, at the same time, his work displays characteristics of its own. Nobel Prize French poet, who won the first Nobel Prize for Literature in 1901 “in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart and intellect” The decision stirred controversy at the time – Sully-Prudhomme had not published much poetry after 1888.
  4. 4. Nobel Prize in literature –1902 "The lot fell upon Matthias, a n d he w a s counted w i t h the eleven apostles." - Christian Matthias. Born: 30 November 1817 Died: 1 November 1903 Background: Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen was a German classical scholar, historian, jurist, journalist, politician and archaeologist. He was one of the greatest classicists of the 19th century. His work regarding Roman history is still of fundamental importance for literature. Nobel Prize The Nobel Prize in literature 1902 was awarded to Christian Matthias Theodore Mommsen "The greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, a history of Rome."
  5. 5. Nobel Prize in literature–1903 “The t im e is a l w a y s right, To do w h a t is right.” - Bjornstjerne Martins Bjornson Born: December 8, 1832 Died: April 26, 1910 Background: Bjørnson was born at the farmstead of Bjørgan in Kvikne, a secluded village in the Østerdalen district, some sixty miles south of Trondheim. In 1837 Bjørnson's father PederBjørnson, who was the pastor of Kvikne, was transferred to the parish of Nesset, outside Molde in Romsdal. It was in this scenic district that Bjørnson spent his childhood, living at the Nesset Parsonage. Nobel Prize He received Nobel Prize “as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has always been distinguish by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of its spirit.”
  6. 6. Nobel Prize in literature – 1904 "Aioli epitom izes the heat, the power, a n d the joy of the Provencal sun, but it has another v i r t u e -- it drives a w a y flies." - Frederic Mistral Born: 8 September, 1930 Died: 25 March 1914 Background: Mistral was born in Maillane in the Bouches-du-Rhône département in southern France. His parents were wealthy landed farmers. His father, François Mistral, was from Saint-Rémy-de-Provence. His mother was Adelaide Poulinet. As early as 1471, his paternal ancestor, Mermet Mistral, lived in Maillane. By 1588, the Mistral family lived in Saint-Rémy-de-Provence. Nobel Prize He received Nobel Prize, “In recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a provencal philologist.
  7. 7. Nobel Prize in literature – 1904 – (2) “I cannot die, because if I a m going to w r i t e m y m athem atical physics encyclopaedia, I need a t least 25 m ore years.” - José Echegaray Born: April 19, 1832 Died: 4 September, 1916 Background: Theater had always been the love of José Echegaray's life. Although he had written earlier plays (La Hija natural and La ÚltimaNoche, both in 1867), he truly became a dramatist in 1874. His plays reflected his sense of duty, which had made him famous during his time in the governmental offices. Dilemmas centered on duty and morality are the motif of his plays. Nobel Prize José Echegaray, was honored for his Spanish dramas for, “in recognition of the numerous and brilliant compositions which, in an individual and original manner, have revived the great traditions of the Spanish drama"
  8. 8. Nobel Prize in literature – 1905 "He a l w a y s smiles, e v e n w h e n contemplating nothing good." - Henryk Sienkiewicz Born: May 5, 1846 Died: 15 November 1916 Background Sienkiewicz’s family owned a small estate but lost everything and moved to Warsaw, where Sienkiewicz studied literature, history, and philology at Warsaw University. He left the university in 1871 without taking a degree. He had begun to publish critical articles in 1869 that showed the influence of Positivism, a system of philosophy—popular in Poland and elsewhere at the time— emphasizing in particular the achievements of science. Nobel Prize Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius Sienkiewicz, won Nobel Prize "because of his outstanding merits as an epic writer"
  9. 9. Nobel Prize in literature – 1906 "Art a n d literature are the m oral e m anation of civilization, the spiritual eradication of peoples." - GIOSUE CARDUCCI Born: July 27, 1835 Died: February 16, 1907 Background The son of a republican country doctor, Carducci spent his childhood in the wild Maremma region of southern Tuscany. He studied at the University of Pisa and in 1860 became professor of Italian literature at Bologna, where he lectured for more than 40 years. He was made a senator for life in 1890 and was revered by the Italians as a national poet. Nobel Prize He received Nobel Prize "not only in consideration of his deep learning and critical research, but above all as a tribute to the creative energy, freshness of style, and lyrical force which characterize his poetic masterpieces"
  10. 10. Nobel Prize in literature – 1907 "He travels the fastest w h o travels alone." - RUDYARD KIPLING Born: December 30, 1865 Died: January 18, 1936 Background Rudyard Kipling, in full Joseph Rudyard Kipling, (born December 30, 1865, Bombay [now Mumbai], India—died January 18, 1936, London, England), English short-story writer, poet, and novelist chiefly remembered for his celebration of British imperialism, his tales and poems of British soldiers in India, and his tales for children. He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1907. Nobel Prize He received Nobel Prize "in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration that characterize the creations of this world-famous author"
  11. 11. Nobel Prize in literature – 1908 "The transform ation of e n v i ronm e nt has become the purpose of h u m a n life, life seems real only insofar as it deals w i t h things." -RUDOLF CHRISTOPH EUCKEN Born: 5 January, 1846 Died: 15 September, 1926 Background Rudolf Christoph Eucken, (born Jan. 5, 1846, Aurich, East Friesland [now in Germany]—died Sept. 14, 1926, Jena, Ger.), German Idealist philosopher, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature (1908), interpreter of Aristotle, and author of works in ethics and religion. Nobel Prize He received Nobel Prize "in recognition of his earnest search for truth, his penetrating power of thought, his wide range of vision, and the warmth and strength in presentation with which in his numerous works he has vindicated and developed an idealistic philosophy of life"
  12. 12. Nobel Prize in literature – 1909 “Nothing on earth can m a ke u p for the loss of one w h o has loved you.” ― SELMA LAGERLÖF Born: November 20, 1858 Died: March 16, 1940 Background: Selma Lagerlöf (1858-1940) was born in ÖstraEmterwik, Värmland, Sweden. She was brought up on Mårbacka, the family estate, which she did not leave until 1881, when she went to a teachers’ college at Stockholm. In 1885 she became a teacher at the girls’ secondary school in Landskrona. She had been writing poetry ever since she was a child, but she did not publish anything until 1890. Nobel Prize She was the first female writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature, which she was awarded in 1909 "in appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterize her writings"
  13. 13. Nobel Prize in literature – 1910 “If w e e v e r t r a v e l far in the universe to another planet w i t h intelligent life, let's just m ak e patterns in their crops a n d leave.” - PAUL JOHANN LUDWIG VON HEYSE Born: 15 March, 1830 Died: 2 April, 1914 Background: German writer and prominent member of the traditionalist Munich school who received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1910.Heyse studied classical and Romance languages and travelled for a year in Italy, supported by a research grant. After completing his studies he became an independent scholar and was called to Munich by Maximilian II of Bavaria. Nobel Prize He received Nobel Prize "as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories"
  14. 14. Nobel Prize in literature – 1911 "All our knowledge m e r e ly helps to us to die a m or e painful death animals t h a t k n o w nothing." - Maurice Maeterlick Born: 29 August, 1862 Died: 6 May, 1949 Background: Maurice Maeterlindk (29 August 1862- 6 may 1949) was a Belgian playwright, poet and essayist who was Flemish but wrote in French. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature in 1911.He was born in the Ghent ( Belgium) Maurice maeterlink studied law at the University of ghent and was admitted to the bar in that city in 1886. In Paris in 1885-1886 he met Augste Villiers de l'lsle - Adam and the leaders of the symbolist movement, and he soon abandoned law for literature. Nobel Prize The noble prize in literature 1911 was awarded to Maurice Maeterlink "In appreciation of his many - sided literary activities, and especially of his dramatic works."
  15. 15. Nobel Prize in literature – 1912 Po et r y evokes out of wo r d s the resonance of the primordial world. - Gerhart Hauptmam Born: 15 November, 1862 Died: 6 June, 1946 Background Gerhart Hauptmann was a German dramatist and novelist. He is counted among the most important promoters of literary naturalism, thought he integrated other styles into his works as well. He received the Nobel Prize in literature in 1912. Nobel Prize The Nobel Prize in 1912 was awarded to Gerhart Hauptmann "primarily in recognition of his fruitful, varied and outstanding production in the realm of dramatic art."
  16. 16. Nobel Prize in literature – 1913 "Faith is the bird t h a t feels the light W h e n the d a w n is still dark." - Rabindranath Tagore Born: 7 May, 1861 Died: 7 August 1941 Background Rabindranath Tagore also known by his pen name Bhanusingh Thakur (Bonita) and also known by his Gurudev, Kabiguru, and Biswakbi was a polymath, poet musician and artist from the Indian subcontinent. A Brahmo Hindu from Calcutta with ancestors’ gentry’s roots in Burdwan district and Jessare, Tagore wrote poetry as am eight years old at the age of sixteen. Nobel Prize The Nobel Prize in 1913 was awarded to Rabindranath Tagore. "Elegant phrase and magical poetry." Remain largely unknown outside Bengal.
  17. 17. Nobel Prize in literature – 1915 "A hero is one w h o does w h a t H e can, the others don't." - Romain Rolland. Born: 29 January, 1866 Died: 30 December, 1944 Background Romain Rolland was a French dramatist, novelist, essayist, art historians and mystic who was awarded the Nobel prize in literature in 1915. Romain Rolland was born in Clamecy, France his life spanned two centuries and he played a notable part in the history of his time, Involving himself frequently in public debate Rolland's family left Clamecy in 1880 so that he could study in Paris. Nobel Prize The Nobel Prize in 1915 was awarded to remain Rolland. "As a tribute to the lofty idealism of literary productions and to the sympathy and love of truth which he has described different types of human being"
  18. 18. Nobel Prize in literature – 1916 "Always s t a y arounded a n d enjoy E v e r y thing t h a t comes y o u r way." - Verner von Heidenstam Born: 6 July, 1859 Died: 20 May, 1940 Background Verner von Heidenstam was a Swedish poet, novelist and laureate of the Nobel Prize in literature in 1916. He was a member of the Swedish academy from 1912. His poem and prose work are filled with a great joy of life, sometimes imbued with a love of Swedish history and scenery, particularly its physical aspects. Nobel Prize The Nobel Prize in 1916 was awarded to Verner von Heidenstam "in representative of a new era in our literature."
  19. 19. Nobel Prize in literature – 1917 “Thor sang; W h o is svend am ong the attendants, w h o beyond Sundet stand? - Karl Adolph Gjellerup Born: 2 June, 1857 Died: 11 October, 1919 Background Karl Adolph Gjellerup was a Danish poet and novelist who together with his compatriot Henrik Pontoppidan won the Nobel Prize in literature in 1917.He is associated with the modern breakthrough period of Scandinavian literature. He occasionally used the pseudonym Eigons. Nobel Prize The Nobel Prize in literature 1917 was awarded to Karl Adolph Gjellerup "for his varied and rich poetry which is inspired by lofty ideals."
  20. 20. Nobel Prize in literature –1917 (2) “I t u r ne d to the novel, a n artistic form which had in form er d a y s neglected a n d has thus acquire a b a d reputation” - Henrik Pontoppidan Born: 24 July, 1857 Died: 11 October, 1919 Background Henrik Pontoppidan realist writer who shared with Karl Gjelleryp.The novel prize for literature in 1917 for "his authentic description of present day life in Denmark." Pontoppidan's novels and short stories - informed with a desire for social progress but despairing later in his life of itsvealization present an unusually comprehensive picture of his country and his epoch. Nobel Prize He gotthe Nobel Prize for Literature in 1917 for "his authentic descriptions of present-day life in Denmark."
  21. 21. Nobel Prize in literature –1919 "Im o v e d to lucerne w h e r e i h a v e lived H a p p i l y w i t h m y f am ily e v e r since." - Carl Friedrich Georg Spitteler Born: 24 April, 1845 Died: 29 December 1924 Background: Spitteler was a private tutor for eight years in Russia and Finland. After he returned to Switzerland in 1879. He made his living as a teacher and journalist. He contributed articles to der Knustwart and was an editor of the Neue Zurcher Zeitung. In 1892 a legacy enabled him to settle in Lacerne and devote himself to creative work. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in 1919 was awarded to Carl Spitteler "In special appreciation of his epic, Olympian spring."
  22. 22. Nobel Prize in literature – 1920 “In old age w e are like a batch of letters t h a t someone has sent. We are no longer in passing, w e h a v e arrived” - Knut Jamsun Born: 4 August, 1859 Died: 19 February, 1952 Background: The young Hamsun objected to realism and naturalism. He argued that the main object of modernist literature should be the intricacies of the human mind, the writers should describe the" Whisper of blood, and the pleading of bone marrow. Nobel Prize: The noble prize in literature -1920 was awarded to Knut Pedersen Hamsun" for his monumental work, growth of the soil"
  23. 23. Noble Prize in Literature - 1921 'To accomplish great things, w e m us t not only act, but also dream , not only plan, but also believe'. - Anatole France Born: 16 April 1844 Died: 12 October 1924 Background: Anatole France, pseudonym for Jacques Anatole Thibault was the son of a Paris book dealer. He received a thorough classical education at the college Stanislas, a boys' school in Paris and for a while he studied at the Ecole des Chartes. For about twenty years he held diverse position, but he always had enough time for his own writings, especially during his period as assistant librarian at the Senate from 1876 to 1890. Nobel Prize: The Noble Prize in Literature 1921 was awarded to Anatole France "in recognition of his brilliant literary achievements, characterized as they are by a nobility of style, a profound human sympathy, grace and a true Gallic temperament."
  24. 24. Noble Prize in Literature - 1922 “Everyone thinks t h a t having a talent is a m a t t e r of luck, no one thinks t h a t luck could be a m a t t e r of talent". - Jacinto Benavente Birth: 12 August 1866 Died: 14 July 1954 Background: Jacinto Benavente Martinez was born in Madrid, the son if a celebrated pediatrician, he returned drama to reality by way of social criticism, declamatory verse giving way to prose, melodrama to comedy, formula to experience, impulsive action to dialogue and the play of minds, Benavente showed a preoccupation with aesthetics and later with ethics. Noble prize: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1922 was awarded to Jacinto Benavente "for the happy manner in which he has continued the illustrious traditions of the Spanish drama"
  25. 25. The Nobel Prize in literature – 1923 "An aged m a n is but a p a l t r y thing, a t a t t e re d coat upon a stick". - William butler Yeats Born: 13 June 1865 Died: 28 January 1939 Background: William butler Yeats was an lrish poet and one of the foremost figure of 20th- century's literature. A pillar of the lrish literary establishment, he helped to found the "Abbey Theatre", and in his later years served two terms as a senator of the lrishFree State. Nobel Prize: The Nobel prize in literature 1923 was awarded to William butler Yeats" for his always inspired poetry which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation".
  26. 26. The Nobel Prize in literature - 1924 "An Irresistible fascination w i t h terrifying death killed m e ahead of time". - Wladystaw Stanislaw Reymont Born: 7 may 1867 Died: 5 December 1925 Background: Reymont was born in the village of kobielevielkie, near Radomsko, Reymont spent his children in 'Tuszyn, near Lodz, to which his father had moved to work at a richer Church Parish. Reymont was defiantly Stubborn; after a few years of education in the local school, he was sent by his father to Warsaw into the care of his eldest sister and her husband to teach his vocation. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in literature 1924, for his great national epic, “The peasants".
  27. 27. Nobel Prize in literature - 1925 “Life isn't about finding yourself. Life is about creating yourself.” - George Bernard Shaw Born: 26 July 1856 Died: 2 November 1950 Background: George Bernard Shaw known at his insistence simply as Barnard Shaw, was an lrish playwright, critic, polemicist and political activist, His influence on western theatre, culture and politics extended from the 1880s to his death and beyond. Nobel Prize: TheNobel Prize in literature 1925 was awarded to George Bernard Shaw “For his work which is marked by both idealism and humanity, its stimulating satire often being infused with a singular poetic beauty.” George Bernard Shaw received his Nobel Prize one year later, in 1926.
  28. 28. Nobel Prize in literature – 1926 “According to a n ancient sardinianlegend , the bodies of those w h o are born on Christmas Eve will hever dissolve into dust but are preserved unit the end of time”. -Grazia Deledda Born: 28 September 1871 Died: 15 August 1936 Background: Grazid Maria cosimadamiana was an ltalian writer who received the Nobel Prize for literature in 1926 "for her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native is land and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general" Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in literature 1926 was awarded to Grazia Deledda " for her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity.
  29. 29. The Nobel Prize in literature - 1927 "Think like a m a n of action act like a m a n of thought" - Henri Bergson Born: 18-october- 1859 Died:4- January- 1941 Background: Henri Bergson was born in a tiny house. His father was a farmer and railway man. Henri Bergson was the first French speaking host appearing on air in 1952, when radio- Canada, the French service of CBC, inaugurated its T.V. broadcast. Noble Prize: The noble prize in literature 1927 was awarded to Henri Bergson in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented
  30. 30. The Nobel Prize in literature - 1928 "I'm not a good a m a n as y o u are, I can't so easily forgive those I h a v e wronged" - Sigrid Undset Born: 20- May- 1882 Died: 10- June- 1949 Background: Undset was born in Kalundborg, Denmark but her family moved to Norway when she was two years old.In 1925, she converted to Catholicism. She fled Norway for the United States in 1940 because of her opposition to Nazi Germany and the German invasion and occupation of Norway, but returned after World War II ended in 1945 Noble Prize: The Nobel Prize in literature 1928 was awarded to Sigrid Undset prize motivation: "principally for her powerful description of northern life during the middle ages.
  31. 31. The Nobel Prize in literature - 1929 "War is only a c o w a r d l y escape from the problem of peace." - Thomas Mann. Born: 6 June 1875 Died: 12 august Background: Mann was a member of the Hanseatic Mann family and portrayed his family and class in his first novel. Buddenbrooks. When Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933. Mann field to Switzerland. Nobel Prize Prize motivation is "principally for his great novel, budded brooks which has won steadily increased recognition as one of the classic works of contemporary literature."
  32. 32. The Nobel Prize in literature - 1930 "Sinclair Lewis w i n t e r is not a season, it’s a n occupation." - Sinclair Lewis Born: 7 February, 1885 Died: 10 January, 1951 Background: In 1930 he became the first writer from the United States to receive the Nobel Prize in literature. His works are known for their critical views of American capitalism and materialism. Between the wars. Nobel Prize: The NobelPrize in literature 1930 was awarded to Sinclair Lewis."For his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humour, new types of characters."
  33. 33. The Nobel Prize in Literature in - 1931 “It whispers; all is w a i t i n g here K e p t safe for thee, y e a r after year, Beautiful songs in thousands; Where hast thou been, where, where?” - Erik Axel Karlfeldt Birth: 20 July 1864 Died: 8 April 1931 Background: Karlfeldt was born into a farmer's family in Karlbo, in the province of Dalarna. Initially, his name was Erik Axel Eriksson, but he assumed his new name in 1889, wanting to distance himself from his father, who had suffered the disgrace of a criminal conviction. In 1904 Karlfeldt was elected a member of the Swedish Academy. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1931 was awarded to Erik Axel Karlfeldt "The poetry of Erik Axel Karlfeldt."
  34. 34. The Nobel Prize in Literature in - 1932 “Idealism increases in direct proportion to one's distance from the problem.” - John Galsworthy Birth: 14 August 1867 Died: 31 January 1933 Background: Galsworthy was born at what is now known as Galsworthy House (then called Parkhurst) on Kingston Hill in Surrey, England, the son of John and Blanche Bailey (née Bartleet) Galsworthy. His family was prosperous and well established, with a large property in Kingston upon Thames. Later he trained as a barrister and was called to the bar in 1890. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1932 was awarded to John Galsworthy "for his distinguished art of narration which takes its highest form in The Forsyte Saga."
  35. 35. The Nobel Prize in Literature - 1933 “Nothing is worse a n d m or e hurtful t h a n a happiness t h a t comes too late. ..." -Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin Born: 22 October 1870 Died: 8 November 1953 Background: Ivan Bunin was born on his parental estate in Voronezh province in Central Russia, the third and youngest son of Aleksey Nikolayevich Bunin (1827–1906) and Lyudmila AleksandrovnaBunina (née Chubarova, 1835–1910). He had two younger sisters: Masha (Maria Bunina-Laskarzhevskaya, 1873–1930) and Nadya (that latter died very young) and two elder brothers, Yuly and Yevgeny. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1933 was awarded to Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin "for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing.
  36. 36. The Nobel Prize in Literature - 1934 "Life is full of infinite absurdities, which, strangely enough, do not e v e n need to a p p e a r plausible, since t h e y are true." -Luigi Pirandello Born: 28 June 1867 Died: 10 December 1936 Background: Luigi Pirandello was an Italian dramatist, novelist, poet, and short story writer whose greatest contributions were his plays. He was awarded the 1934 Nobel Prize in Literature for "his almost magical power to turn psychological analysis into good theatre." Pirandello's works include novels, hundreds of short stories, and about 40 plays, some of which are written in Sicilian. Pirandello's tragic farces are often seen as forerunners of the Theatre of the Absurd. Nobel Prize: He was awarded the 1934 Nobel Prize in Literature for "his almost magical power to turn psychological analysis into good theatre.
  37. 37. The Nobel Prize in Literature - 1936 "Man is born broken. H e lives b y m ending. The grace of God is glue." - Eugene O'Neill Born: 16 October1888 Died: 27 November 1953 Background: O'Neill was born in a hotel, the Barrett House, at Broadway and 43rd Street, on what was then Longacre Square (now Times Square).A commemorative plaque was first dedicated there in 1957.The site is now occupied by 1500 Broadway, which houses offices, shops and the ABC Studios. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1936 was awarded to Eugene Gladstone O'Neill "for the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic works, which embody an original concept of tragedy."
  38. 38. Nobel Prize in Literature - 1937 “I a l w a y s h a v e a p a d of p a pe r a n d a pencil w i t hin reach, to catch on the w i n g this t u r n of phrase which strikes m e as felicitous, t h a t idea which I hope to be able to e x a m ine m ore closely in the light of day.” - Roger Martin du Gard Born: 23 March 1881 Died: 22 August1958 Background: He trained as a palaeographer and archivist, he brought to his works a spirit of objectivity and a scrupulous regard for detail, and because of his concern with documentation and the relationship of social reality to individual development, his fiction has been linked with the realist and naturalist traditions of the 19th century. His sympathy for the humanist socialism and pacifism of Jean Jaurès is evident in his work. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1937 was awarded to Roger Martin du Gard"for the artistic power and truth with which he has depicted human conflict as well as some fundamental aspects of contemporary life in his novel-cycle Les Thibault."
  39. 39. Nobel Prize in Literature - 1938 "The secret of joy in w o r k is contained in one w o r d - excellence. To k n o w h o w to do something well is to enjoy it." -Pearl Buck Born: 26 June 1892 Died: 6 March 1973 Background: Originally named Comfort by her parents,Pearl Sydenstricker was born in Hillsboro, West Virginia, United States, to Caroline Maude (Stulting) (1857– 1921) and Absalom Sydenstricker. Her parents, Southern Presbyterian missionaries, traveled to China soon after their marriage on July 8, 1880, but returned to the United States for Pearl's birth. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1938 was awarded to Pearl Buck "for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces."
  40. 40. The Nobel Prize in Literature - 1939 “How sad t h a t love is still a w a kening of the finest a n d m ost pure, a n d in m ost cases only after it becomes dirty” - FransEemil Sillanpaa Born: 16 September 1888 Died: 3 June 1964 Background: FransEemilSillanpää was born into a peasant farming family in Hämeenkyrö. Although his parents were poor, they managed to send him to school in Tampere. At school Sillanpää was a good student and with aid from his benefactor Henrik Liljeroos he entered the University of Helsinki in 1908 to study medicine.Here his acquaintances included the painters EeroJärnefelt and PekkaHalonen, composer Jean Sibelius and author JuhaniAho. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1939 was awarded to FransEemilSillanpää "for his deep understanding of his country's peasantry and the exquisite art with which he has portrayed their way of life and their relationship with Nature."
  41. 41. Nobel Prize in literature - 1944 "A probing analysis of the problems of evolution formsthe basis of m y prose." - Johannes Vilhelm Jensen Born - 20 January, 1873 Died - 25 November, 1950 Background- Johannes Vilhelm Jensen was born in Denmark,often considered the first great Danish writer of the20th century. He was awarded by the Nobel Prize in literature in 1944. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1944 was awarded toJohannes Vilhelm Jensen "for the rare strength andfertility of his poetic imagination with which is combined an intellectual curiosity of wide scope and abold, freshly creative style."
  42. 42. The Nobel Prize in Literature - 1945 "Love B e a u t y it is the shadow of God on the universe" - Gabriela Mistral Born: 7 April 1889 Died: 10 January 1957 Background: She was born in vicuna Chile. The daughter of a dillettante poet. She began to write poetry as a village schoolteacher after a passionate romance with a railway employee who committed suicide.The love of poems in memory of the dead, sonnets de la Muerte (1914) but her first great collection of poems, was published until 1922. The same theme, linked with that maternity, plays a significant role in tala, poems published in 1938. Her complete poetry was published in 1958. Noble Prize: The Nobel Prize in literature 1945 was awarded to Gabriela Mistral. "For her lyric poetry which inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name of a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world"
  43. 43. The Nobel Prize in literature - 1946 "Writing is good, thinking is better. Cleverness is good, patience is better." -Harman Hesse Born: 2 July 1877 Died: 9 August 1962 Background: Hermann Karl Hesse was born on 2 July 1877 in the Black Forest town of Calw in Wurttemberg, German Empire. His grandfather Hermann Gundert compiled the current grammar in Malayalam language, compiled a Malayalam-English dictionary, and also contributed to the work in translating the Bible to Malayalam. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1946 was awarded to Hermann Hesse "for his inspired writings which, while growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humanitarian ideals and high qualities of style."
  44. 44. The Nobel Prize in Literature - 1947 “Be faithful to t h a t which exists w i t hin yourself” - Andre Gide Born: 22 November 1869 Died: 19 February 1951 Background: Gide was born in Paris on 22 November 1869, into a middle- class protestant family. His father was a Paris University professor of law who died in 1880. Jean Paul Guillaume Gide and his mother was Juliette Maria Rondeaux. His uncle was the political economist Charles Gide. His paternal family traced its roots back to Italy with his ancestors, The Guides, moving to France and other western and northern European countries after converting to Protestantism during the 16th century, due to persecution. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in literature 1947 was received to Andre' Gide, “for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight”.
  45. 45. The Nobel Prize literature - 1948 "In m y beginning is m y end" -T. S. Eliot Born:26 September 1888 Died:4 January 1965 Background: Thomas Stearns Eliot was born in at. Louis, Missouri of an old New England family. He was educated at Harvard and did graduate work in philosophy at Sorbonne, Harvard and Merton College, Oxford. Then he settled in England, where he was for a time a school master and a bank clerk. In 1927, Eliot become a British citizen and about the same time entered the Anglican Church. Noble prize: The Nobel Prize in literature 1948 was awarded to T. S. Eliot “for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present day poetry”
  46. 46. The Nobel Prize in literature - 1949 "Ibelieve t h a t m a n will not m e rely endure, he will prevail." - William Faulkner Birth: 25 September,1897 Died: 6 July,1962 Background: He was born in New Albany, Mississippi U.S. William Faulkner was an American English poet. As a school child,Faulkner had success early on.Faulkner's lifelong education by Callie Barr.The younger Faulkner was greatly influenced by the history of his family and the region in which he lived. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in literature 1949 was awarded to William Faulkner for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel.
  47. 47. The Nobel Prize in literature - 1950 "The w o r ld is full of m agical things patiently w a i ting for our w i t s to g r o w sharper.” - Bertrand Russell Born: 18 May 1872 Died: 2 February 1970 Background: Bertrand Arthur William Russell was a British philosopher and Nobel laureate. At various points in his life, Russell considered himself as a liberal, a socialist and a pacifist, although he also confessed that his sceptical nature had led him to feel that he had "never been any of these things, in any profound sense." Russell was born in Monmouthshire into one of the most prominent aristocratic familiar in the United Kingdom. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in literature 1950 was awarded to Earl (Bertrand William) Russell "in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideas and freedom of thought."
  48. 48. The Nobel Prize in literature - 1951 "Nothing is m ore t h a n foreign than the w o r l d of one's childhood w h e n one has t r u l y left" - Par Lagerkvist Born: 23 may,1891 Died: 11 July,1974 Background: Lagerkvist wrote poems, plays, novels, stories, and essays of considerable expressive power and influence from his early 20s to his late 70s. One of his central themes was the fundamental question of good and evil, which he examined through such figures as Barabbas, the man who was freed instead of Jesus, and Ahasuerus, the Wandering Jew. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1951 was awarded to Pär Fabian Lagerkvist "for the artistic vigour and true independence of mind with which he endeavours in his poetry to find answers to the eternal questions confronting mankind.
  49. 49. The Nobel Prize in Literature - 1952 "Human love is often but encounter of t w o weaknesses." - Francois Mauriac Born: 11 October,1885 Died: 1 September, 1970 Background: Mauriac was the youngest of five children in what can be termed a landed, prosperous, middle class family. His father died when he was 18 months old and he was raised by his pious mother, lather in a school run by the Marianiture. He studied literature at Bordeaux and Paris but soon became an independent writer. Nobel Prize: French writer Francois Mauriac received the 1952 Nobel in literature for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life.
  50. 50. The Nobel Prize in literature - 1953 "Never in the face of h u m a n conflict has so m uch been o w e d b y so m a n y to so few." - Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill Born: 30 November, 1874 Died: 24 January, 1965 Background: Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer. He was the prime minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945, when he led Britain to victory in the Second World War, and again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill represented five constituencies during his career as a Member of Parliament (MP). Ideologically an economic liberal and imperialist, for most of his career he was a member of the Conservative Party, which he led from 1940 to 1955, but from 1904 to 1924 was a member of the Liberal Party. Noble Prize: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1953 was awarded to Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill "for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values."
  51. 51. The Nobel Prize in literature - 1954 "Happiness in intelligent people is the rarest thing I know". -Ernest Hemingway Born: 21 July 1899, Oak Park, Illinois, United States Died: 2 July 1961, Ketchum, Idaho, United States Background: Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American journalist, novelist, short-story writer, and sportsman. His economical and understated style—which he termed the iceberg theory—had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his adventurous lifestyle and his public image brought him admiration from later generations. Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s, and he won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1954 was awarded to Ernest Miller Hemingway "for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea, and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style."
  52. 52. The Nobel Prize in literature - 1955 "For m a n is essentially alone, a n d one should p i t y h im a n d love h im a n d grieve w i t h him." -Halldor Laxness Born: 23 April, 1902 Died: 8 February, 1998 Background: Halldórwas born in 1902 in Reykjavík, with his family moving to the Laxnes farm in nearby Mosfellssveit parish when he was three. Halldór started to read books and write stories at an early age. He attended the technical school in Reykjavík from 1915 to 1916 and had an article published in the newspaper Morgunbla in 1916. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1955 was awarded to HalldórKiljan Laxness "for his vivid epic power which has renewed the great narrative art of Iceland."
  53. 53. The Nobel Prize in literature - 1956 "If t h e y give y o u ruled p a pe r w r i t e the other way." - Juan Ramon Born: 23 December,1881 Died: 29 May, 1958 Background: Juan Ramon was a Spanish writer. After studying briefly at the University of Salamanca, Jimenez went to Madrid (1900) at the invitation of the poet Ruben Drario. His first two volumes of poetry, Alma's de Violeta ("soul of violet") and Ninfeas ("water-lilies")came out that same year. The two books, printed in violet and green, respectively,so embarrassed Jimenez in his later years by their excessive sentiment that the destroyed every copy he could find. Nobel Prize: Juan Ramon Jimenez is a prolific writer who received the Nobel "for Hus lyrical poetry; which in the Spanish language of high spirit and artistically purity."
  54. 54. The Nobel Prize in literature - 1957 "Freedom is nothing but a chance to be better." - Albert Camus Birth: 7 November,1913 Died: 4 January,1960 Background: Camus was born in Algeria to French parents. He spent his childhood in a poor neighbourhood and later studied philosophy at the University of Algiers. He was in Paris when the Germans invaded frame during world war ll.Camus was a moralist and leaned towards anarcho-syndicalism. He was part of many organisations seeking European integration.Philosophically, Camus's views contributed to the rise of the philosophy known as absurdism. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in literature 1957 was awarded to Albert Camus "for his important literary production, which with clear-sighted earnestness illuminates the problems of the human conscience in our times.
  55. 55. The Nobel Prize in literature - 1958 "Man is born to live a n d not to p r e p are to live" - Boris Pasternak Born: 10 February 1890 Died:30 may 1960 Background: Boris Leonidovich Pasternak (1890-1960), born in Moscow, was theson of talented artists:his father a painter and illustrator of Tolstoy's works, his mother a well-known concert pianist.Pasternak is also known as the author of Doctor Zhivago(1957), a novel that takes place between the Russian Revolution of 1905 and the second world war. Doctor Zhivago was rejected for publication in the USSR and the manuscript had to be secretly smuggled to Italy for publication. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in literature 1958 was awarded to Boris leonidovich Pasternak "for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition."
  56. 56. The Nobel Prize in literature - 1959 "Poetry is also the physical self of the poet, a n d it is impossible to separate the poet from his poetry." -Salvatore Quasimodo Born: 20 August, 1901 Died: 14 June, 1968 Background: Quasimodo was born in Modica, Sicily, to Gaetano Quasimodo and Clotilde Ragusa. He spent his childhood in Roccalumera. In 1908 his family moved to Messina, as his father had been sent there to help the local population struck by a devastating earthquake. The impressions of the effects of natural forces would have a great impact on the young Quasimodo. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1959 was awarded to Salvatore Quasimodo "for his lyrical poetry, which with classical fire expresses the tragic experience of life in our own times."
  57. 57. The Nobel Prize in literature - 1960 "The poet is the one w h o breaks through our habits." - Saint-John Perse Born: 31 May, 1887 Died: 20 September, 1975 Background: Alexis Leger was born in Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe, France. His great- grandfather, a solicitor, had settled in Guadeloupe in 1815. His grandfather and father were also solicitors; his father was also a member of the city council. The Leger family owned two plantations, one of coffee (La Joséphine) and the other of sugar (Bois-Debout). Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1960 was awarded to Saint-John Perse "for the soaring flight and the evocative imagery of his poetry which in a visionary fashion reflects the conditions of our time."
  58. 58. The Nobel Prize in literature - 1961 'Sadness is also a kind of defence.' - Ivo Andric Born:9 October 1892 Died:13 March 1975 Background: Ivo Andric born 1892 to a family of artisans that had settled in Bosnia, a province still under Austrian rule when he was a nevertheless,he studied at serval universities, finally obtaining his degree from Graz. Nobel Prize: On 26 October 1961, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature by the Swedish Academy.
  59. 59. The Nobel Prize in literature - 1962 'Time is the only critic w i t hout ambition.' - John Steinbeck Born: 27 February 1902 Died: 20 December 1968 Background: John Steinbeck was a Nobel and Pulitzer Prize winning American Novelist and the author of “Of Mice and Men”. The Grupe of Warth and East of Eden, Steinbeck dropped out of college and worked as a manual labour before achieving success as a writer. His works often dealt with social and economic issues. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in literature 1962 was awarded to John Steinbeck by the English language.
  60. 60. The Nobel Prize in literature - 1963 "Soul shrivelled b y public sins each holding office like a bird in its cage ". - GiorgosSeferis Born: 13 March, 1900 Died: 20 September, 1971 Background: GiorgosSeferis was a Greek poet diplomat.He was one of the most important Greek poet of the 20th century Indian Nobel literate.He was a career diplomat. Integrate Foreign Service culminating in his appointment is a ambassador of the UK, a poet which he held from 1957 to 1962. Nobel Prize: Seferis was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature "for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture."Seferis was the first Greek to receive the prize
  61. 61. Nobel Prize in literature - 1964 “Everything has been figured out except h o w to live.” - Jean Paul Sartre Born: 21 June, 1905 Died: 15 April, 1980 Background: France philosopher and writer. The France philosopher and distinguished writer Jean -Paul Sartre ranks the most versatile writer and as the dominant influence in three decades of France intellectual life. Nobel Prize: He was awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize in Literature despite attempting to refuse it, saying that he always declined official honours and that "a writer should not allow himself to be turned into an institution"
  62. 62. Nobel Prize in literature - 1965 “Vast sections of the world's population are inspired b y the sam e desires a n d live for c om m on interests t h a t bind t h em together far m ore t h a n t h e y separate them.” - MikhailSholokhov Born: 11 May, 1905 Died: 21 February, 1984 Background: Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov was a Soviet/Russian novelist and winner of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Literature. He is known for writing about life and fate of Don Cossacks during the Russian Revolution, the civil war and the period of collectivization, primarily in his most famous novel, And Quiet Flows the Don. Nobel Prize: Sholokhov began writing And Quiet Flows the Don, which took him fourteen years to complete (1926–1940). It became the most-read work of Soviet fiction and was heralded as a powerful example of socialist realism, and it earned him both a Stalin Prize and the 1965 Nobel Prize in Literature.
  63. 63. Nobel Prize in literature - 1966 "Sometimes Small Things lead To Great Joys" - Shmuel Yosef Agnon was Born; July 17, 1888 Died; February 17, 1910 Background: A Nobel Prize laureate writer and was one of the central figures of Modern Hebrew fiction.In Hebrew he is known by the acronym ShaiAgnon in English his works are published under the name S. Y. Agnon. Agnon was twice awardedthe Bialik Prize for literature. He was also twice awarded the Ideal prize for literature. Nobel Prize: In 1966 hewas awarded the Nobel Prize in literature for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people. The prizewas shared with German Jewish author Nelly Sachs.
  64. 64. Nobel Prize in literature – 1966 - (2) “World, t h e y h a v e taken the small children like butterflies a n d t h r o w n them, beating their wings, into the fire” - Nelly Sachs Born: 10December, 1891 Died:12 May, 1970 Background: Nelly Sachs was a German-Swedish poet and playwright. Her experience resulting from the rise of the Nazis in World War II Europe transformed her into a poignant spokesperson for the grief and yearnings of her fellow Jewish people. Nobel Prize: Nelly Sachs won The Nobel Prize in literature in 1966 “For her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel’s destiny with touching strength”
  65. 65. The Nobel Prize in Literature - 1967 “ H o we v er life treats you, as t im e goes b y y o u a l w a y s get the Feeling you’ve lost life in the v e r y living of it. “ - Miguel Angel Asturias Rosales Born: 19th October 1899 Died: 9th June 1974 Background: Miguel Angel Asturias was born in Guate mala and spent his childhood and adolescence in his native country. He studied for his baccalaureate at the state high school and later took a law degree at the University of San Carlos. His thesis on “The Social Problem of the Indian” was published 1923. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in literature 1967 was awarded to Miguel Angel Asturias “For his vivid literary achievement, deep rooted in the national traits and tradition of Indian People of Latin America.
  66. 66. The Nobel Prize in Literature - 1968 “Time flows in the sam e w a y for all h u m a n beings e v e r y h u m a n being – flows through t im e in a different w a y ” - Yasunari Kawabata Born: 11 June1899 Died: 16 April 1972 Background: Yasunari Kawabata, son of a highly cultivated physician was born in 1899 in Osaka. After the early death of his parents he was raised in the country by his maternal grandfather and attended the Japanese public school From 1920 to 1924 Kawabata studied at the Tokyo Imperial university where he receded his degree He was one of the Founders of the publication BungeiJidai the medium of a new movement in modern Japanese literature. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in literature 1968 was awarded to Yasunari Kawabata “Far his narrative mastery which with great sensibility expresses the essence of the Japanese mind.”
  67. 67. The Nobel Prize in literature - 1969 "Ever tried. Ever failed. N o m atte r. Tr y again. Fail again. Fail better." - Samuel Beckett Born: 13 April, 1906 Died: 22 December, 1989 Background: Samuel Barclay Beckett was an Irish novelist, playwright, short story writer, theatre director, poet, and literary translator. A resident of Paris for most of his adult life, he wrote in both French and English. Mary Beckett was devoted wife and mother who spent good times with her two sons in both training and hobbies. His father shared his love of nature, fishing and golf with his children. Nobel Prize: Beckett was awarded the 1969 Nobel Prize in Literature "for his writing, which—in new forms for the novel and drama—in the destitution of modern man acquires its elevation."
  68. 68. The Nobel Prize in literature – 1970 "The battle line between good a n d evil runs through the heart e v e r y man" - Aleksandr lsayevich Solzhenitsyn Born: 11 December 1918 Died: 3 August 2008 Background: Aleksander Solazhenitsyn was born in kislovodask, Russia on 11 December 1918. His father had studied philological subject at Moscow University but did not complete his studies. I was brought up by his mother,who worked as a shorthand typist in the town of Rostov on the don in the 1903.he tried to get her writings published but he could not find anyone willing to accept her manuscript. Nobel Prize: With his works, the Gulag, a Soviet labour camp, became well known. Due to this, he won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1970, but also was exiled from the Soviet Union in 1974.
  69. 69. The Nobel Prize in Literature - 1971 "Love is so short, Forgetting is so long." -Pablo Neruda Born: 12 July 1904 Died: 23 December 1973 Background: Pablo Neruda was born Ricardo Eliecer Neftali Reyes Basoallto in Parral, Chile, a city in Linares Province. Neruda became known as a poet when he was 13 years old and wrote in variety of styles, including surrealist poem, historical epics etc. Neruda was hospitalized with cancer in September 1973. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1971 was awarded to Pablo Neruda " For a poetry that with the action of an element force brings alive a continent's destiny and dreams."
  70. 70. The Nobel Prize in Literature - 1972 "A fam ily w i t hout a black sheep is not a typical family." - Heinrich Boll Born: 21 December, 1917 Died: 16 July, 1985 Background: Bill was born in Cologne, Germany, to a Catholic, pacifist family that later opposed the rise of Nazism. He refused to join the Hitler Youth during the 1930s. During his war service, Boll was wounded four times and contracted typhoid. He was captured by US Army soldiers in April 1945 and sent to prisoner-of-war camp. Boll became a full time writer at the age of 30. His first novel, Der zug war punktlich was published in 1949. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1972 was awarded to Heinrich Boll "for his writing which through its combination of a broad perspective on his time and a sensitive skill in contributed to a renewal of German literature."
  71. 71. The Nobel Prize in Literature - 1973 "To understand the stars would spoil their appearance." - Patrick White Born: 28 May, 1912 Died: 30 September, 1990 Background: Patrick White was born in Knightsbridge, London, to Victor Martindale White and Ruth new withycombe on 28 May 1912. His parents were both English Australians. In 1935 white published a collection of poetry. In 1941 the novel was written during his stay in the United States. He was the first and only Australian to have been awarded the prize. His last unfinished novel was 'The Hanging Garden' a posthumous publication. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1973 was awarded to Patrick White "for an epic and physiological narrative art which has introduced a new continent into literature."
  72. 72. The Nobel Prize in Literature – 1974 - (1) "Our spaceship is a t i n y bubble in a glass of God." -Harry Martinson Born: 6 May, 1904 Died: 11 February, 1978 Background: Martinson was born in Jmshog, Blekinge country in south- eastern Sweden. In 1929, he debuted as a poet. In 1949, Martinson became the 1st proletarian writer to elected as member of the Swedish Academy. The sensitive Martinson found it hard to cope with the criticism following his award, and committed suicide on 11 February 1978 at the Karolinska University Hospital in Stockholm by cutting his stomach open with a pair of scissors in what has been described as "hara- kiri- like manner." Nobel Prize: Martinson received the Nobel Prize "for writings that catch the dewdrop and reflect the cosmos."
  73. 73. The Nobel Prize in Literature – 1974 – (2) "In the wo rld of the present, in our time, w e feel that suffering, anguish, the torm ents of bo dy a n d soul, are greater t h a n e v e r before in the history of mankind." - Eyvind Johnson Born: 29July, 1900 Died: 25 August, 1976 Background: Eyvind Johnson was a Swedish novelist and short story writer. Regarded as the most ground-breaking novelist in modern Swedish literature. He became a member of the Swedish Academy in 1957 and shared the Nobel Prize in Literature with Harry Martinson in 1974. Johnson was born OlofEdvin Verner Jonsson in Svartbjörnsbyn village in Överluleå parish, near the town of Boden in Norrbotten. The small house where he was born is preserved and marked with a commemorative plaque. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in literature 1974 was divided equally between Eyvind Johnson "for a narrative art, far seeing in lands and ages, in the service of freedom."
  74. 74. The Nobel Prize in Literature - 1975 "The reality are is a l w a y s for e v e r y o ne a n d for none" -Eugenio Montale Born: 12 October, 1896 Died: 12 September, 1981 Background: Montale was born in Genoa. His family were chemical products traders. In 1915 Montale worked as an accountant but was left free to follow his literary passion. He also studied opera singing with the baritone Ernesto sivori. During World War 1, as a member of the military academy of prama, Montale asked to be sent to the front. After brief war experience as an infantry officer in vallarsa and puster valley, he returned home in 1920. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1975 was awarded to Eugenio Montale "for his distinctive poetry which, with great artistic sensitivity, has interpreted sign of an Outlook on life with no illusions."
  75. 75. The Nobel Prize in Literature - 1976 "A m a n is only as good as w h a t he loves." - Saul Bellow Born: 10 June, 1915 Died: 5 April, 2005 Background: Saul Bellow was born Solomon Bellows in Lachine, Ouebec, two years after his parents Lescha (nee Gordin) and Abraham Bellows, emigrated fromsaint Petersburg, Russia. Bellow attended the University of the Chicago but later transferred to Northwestern University. Bellow later did graduate work at the University of Wisconsin. During World War II, Bellow joined the merchant marine and during his service he completed his first novel. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1976 was awarded to Saul Bellow "for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work."
  76. 76. The Nobel Prize in Literature - 1977 "I would s a y a few w o r ds in y o u r ear. A doubtful m a n has little faith." -Vicente Aleixandre Born: 26 April, 1898 Died: 14 December, 1984 Background: Vicente Alexandre was born in Seville. He spent his childhood in Malaga and he has lived in Madrid since 1909. Studied law at University of Madrid and at the Madrid School of Economics. Beginning in 1925 he has completely devoted himself to literature. His first book of poems, Ambit, appeared in 1928. Since that date he has written and published a score of books. The Swedish Academy awarded him the Nobel Prize for Literature for the totality of his work in 1977. Nobel Prize: In 1977 he received Nobel Prize for Literature "for a creative poetic writing which illuminates man's condition in the cosmos and in present day society, at the same time representing the great renewal of the traditions of Spanish poetry between the wars."
  77. 77. The Nobel Prize in Literature - 1978 "The w a s t e basket is the writer's best friend." -Issac Bashevis Singer Born: 21 November, 1902 Died: 14 July, 1991 Background: His parents were religious Jews and pushed him towards a career as a religious scholar. In 1921 he enrolled in Rabbinical School, but left only two years later to work for a Yiddish literary magazine. He was one of the great storyteller of the twentieth century. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1978 was awarded to IssacBashevis Singer "for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life."
  78. 78. The Nobel Prize in Literature - 1979 "You'll come to learn a great deal if y o u s t u d y the Insignificant in depth." - Odysseus Elytis Born: 2 November, 1911 Died: 18 March, 1996 Background: Descendant of the Alepoudelis, an old olive oil industrial family from Lesbos, Elytis was born in Heraklion on the island of Crete, on 2 November 1911. His family later moved to Athens, where the poet graduated from high school and later attended courses as a school at University of Athens. Nobel Prize: Nobel Prize in Literature 1979 was awarded to Odysseus Elytis "for his poetry, which against the background of Greek tradition, depicts with sensuous strength and intellectual clear- sightedness modern man's struggle for freedom and creativeness."
  79. 79. The Nobel Prize in Literature - 1980 "Language is the only Homeland." - Czeslaw Milosz Born: 30 June, 1911 Died: 14 August, 2004 Background: Czeslaw Milosz was born in Seteiniai, Lithuania, as a son of Alexander Milosz, a civil engineer, and Weronika, nee Kanat. He made his high - school and University studies in Wilno, then belonging to Poland. A co-founder of a literary group "Zagary", he made his literary debut in 193p published in the 1930s two volumes of poetry and worked for the Polish Radio. Most of the war time he spent in Warsaw working there for the underground presses. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1980 was awarded to Czeslaw Milosz "who with uncompromising clear- sightedness voices man's exposed condition in world of severe conflict."
  80. 80. The Nobel Prize in Literature - 1981 "Rulers w h o w a n t to unleash w a r k n o w v e r y well t h a t t h e y m u s t procure or i n v e n t a first v i c t im ". - Elias Canetti Born:25 July, 1905 Died: 14 August, 1994 Background: Elias Canetti was a German language author, born is ruse, Bulgaria to a merchant family, they moved to Manchester, England, but his father died in 1912, and his mother took her three sons back to the continent. They settled in Vienna. Canetti moved to England in 1948 after the Anschluss to escape Nazi persecution. Nobel Prize Noble prize in literature 1981 "for writing marked by abroad outlook,a wealth of Ideas and artistic power".
  81. 81. Noble prize in literature - 1982 "There is no greater glory t h a n to die for love" - Gabriel Garcia Marquez Born: 6 March 1927 Background: Gabriel Garcia Marquez was a Colombia novelist short -story writer screenwriter and journalist, known affectionately as Gabo or Gabito throughout Latin America. Nobel Prize: He was awarded the 1972 Neustadt international prize for literature and the 1982 Nobel Prize in literature.
  82. 82. The Nobel Prize in literature - 1983 "The greatest ideas are the simplest." -William Golding Born: 19 September 1991. Died: 19 June 1993. William Golding was a novelist, school teacher,play wright and recipient of the 1983 Nobel Prize in literature.Sir William Golding was a British novelist,play wright and poet best known for his debut novel lord of the flies,he would go on to publish another eleven novels in his life time. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in literature 1983 was awarded to William Golding,and was according to the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography "an unexpected and even contentious choice".
  83. 83. The Nobel Prize in literature - 1984 "If the o r d i n a r y person is silent, it m a y be a tactical m a n oe u v r e if a w r i t e r is silent he is lying." - Jaroslav Seifert. Born: 23 September 1901. Died: 10 January 1986. Background: Jaroslav Seifert was born on 23 September 1901 into a working class family living in Zizkov, a suburb of Prague. He attended secondary school and soon began devoting himself to writing poetry and to journalism. His first collections of poems in 1921. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in literature 1984 was awarded to Jaroslav Seifert for his poetry which endowed with freshness, sensuality and rich inventiveness provides a liberating image of the indomitable spirit and versatility of man.
  84. 84. The Nobel Prize in literature - 1985 "Life is not only full of sound a n d F u r y it also, has butterflies, flowers, art." - Claude Simon Born: 10 October, 1913 Died: 6 July, 2005 Background: Claude Simon was born in Tananarive on the isle of Madagascar. His father being a career officer who was killed in the First World War. His mother and her family in Perpignan in the middle of the win district of Roussillon Among His ancestors was a general from the time of the French Revolution. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in literature 1985 was Awarded to Claude Simon who in his novel combines the poet's and the painter's creativeness with a deep awareness of time in the depiction of the human condition.
  85. 85. The Nobel Prize in literature - 1986 "Idon't really consider m yself A Novelist it just c am e out purely b y accident.” - Wole Soyinka Born: 13 July, 1934 Background: Soyinka was born onto a Yoruba family in Abeokuta. In 1954, He attended Government College in Ibadan.A descendant of a Remo family of Isara Remo Soyinka was born the second of six children in the city of Abeokuta, Ogun State, in Nigeria his father Samuel Ayodele Soyinka and Soyinka’s mother, Grace Eniola Soyinka. Nobel Prize: Soyinka was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1984. He was, described as one "who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones fashion the drama of existence.
  86. 86. The Nobel Prize in literature - 1987 "Life - the w a y it really is - is a battle not between B a d a n d Good but, but between B a d worse." - Joseph Brodsky. Born: 24 May, 1940 Background: Brodsky was born in to a Russian Jewish family in Leningrad.his father Aleksandr Brodsky was a professional photographer and his mother Maria volpert Brodsky was a professional interpreter whose work often helped to support the family. Nobel Prize: The Nobel prize in literature 1987 was awarded to Joseph Brodsky"for an all embracing authorship,imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity."
  87. 87. The Nobel Prize in literature - 1988 "Home is not w h e r e y o u w e r e born; H o m e is w h e r e all your, A t t e m p t s to escape cease." -Naguib Mahfouz. Born: 11 December, 1911 Died: 30 August, 2006 Background:- Mahfouz was born in to a lower middle-class Muslim Egyptian family in old Cairo in 1911. He was the seventh and the child, with four brothers and two sisters, all of them much older than him his father abdel-azizlbrahim whom Mahfouz described as having been "old-fashioned", was a civil servant,and Mahfouz eventually followed in his footsteps in 1934. Nobel Prize: Naguib Mahfouz,(IPA; December 11,1911-August 30,2006) was an Egyptian writer who won the 1988 Nobel prize for literature.
  88. 88. The Nobel Prize in literature - 1989 "There are t w o kinds of m a n the ones w h o m a k e history a n d ones w h o endure it - Camilo Jose Cela Born: May 11, 1916 Died: January 17,2002 Background: Cela was born on 11May, 1916 in Galicia (North West Spain) in a family with many members. Mostly, it belonged to the upper middle class but also had certain aristocratic roots. Cela’s experience is the cruel Spanish civil war, which divided the country into two factions whose borders could cut right through ties of family and friendship. Nobel Prize: He was awarded the 1989 Nobel Prize in Literature "for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of man's vulnerability"
  89. 89. The Nobel Prize in literature - 1990 "Solitude is the profoundest fact of the only being w h o k n o w n he is alone" - Octavio Paz Born: 31 March, 1914 Died: 19 April, 1998 Background: Octavio Paz, Mexican poet, writer, and diplomat, recognized as one of the major Latin American writer of the 20th country. He received the Nobel Prize for literature in 1990. Paz's family was ruined financially by the Mexican civil war, and he grew up in straitened acutance. Nobel Prize This year Nobel Prize for literature goes to the Mexican writer, poet, and essayist Octavio Paz, honouring a writer of Spanish.
  90. 90. Nobel Prize in Literature - 1991 “The t r u t h isn't a l w a y s beauty, but the hunger for it is.” - Nadine Gordimer Born: 20 November, 1923 Died: 13 July, 2014 Background: Nadine Gordimer was a South African writer, political activist and recipient of the 1991 Nobel Prize in Literature. She was recognized as a woman "who through her magnificent epic writing has – in the words of Alfred Nobel – been of very great benefit to humanity".Gordimer's writing dealt with moral and racial issues, particularly apartheid in South Africa. Under that regime, works such as Burger's Daughter and July's People were banned. Nobel Prize: Nadine Gordimer won Nobel Prize in 1991for "who through her magnificent epic writing has - in the words of Alfred Nobel - been of very great benefit to humanity"
  91. 91. Nobel Prize in Literature - 1992 “I read; I travel; I become” ― Derek Walcott Born: 23 January 1930 Died: 17 March 2017 Background: Walcott was born and raised in Castries, Saint Lucia, in the West Indies, the son of Alix (Maarlin) and Warwick Walcott. He had a twin brother, the playwright Roderick Walcott, and a sister, Pamela Walcott. His family is of English, Dutch and African descent, reflecting the complex colonial history of the island that he explores in his poetry. Nobel Prize: Derek Walcott won Nobel Prize in 1992 "for a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment"
  92. 92. Nobel Prize in Literature - 1993 “If y o u surrender to the air, y o u could ride if” -Toni Morrison Born: 18 February, 1931 Background: Toni Morrison was born in Lorain , Ohio in U.S. she is an American novelist, essayists , editor , teacher and professors emeritus at Princeton university, Morrison’s parents instilled in her a sense of heritage and language through telling traditional. African, American folk -tales and ghosts stories and singing sin. Nobel Prize: Morrison received the 1993 Nobel Prize in Literature, making her the first African – American women to be selected for the awards. "Who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality".
  93. 93. Nobel Prize in Literature - 1994 “The dead can s u r v i v e as p a r t of the lives of those t h a t still live “ -Kenzaburo Oe Born: 31 January,1935 Background: Kenzaburo Oe is a Japanese writer and a major figure in contemporary Japanese literature. He was born in Ose, a village now in uchiko, While prefecture on Shikoku. He was the third son of Sevan children. His grandmother taught him art and oral performance. His mother became his short stories and essays, strongly influenced by French and American literature and literary theory. Nobel Prize: Oe's winning the Nobel Prize for 1994 has thus encourage him to embark on his pursuit of a new form of Literature and a new life for himself.
  94. 94. Nobel Prize in Literature - 1995 “There is risk a n d t r u t h to yourselves a n d the w o r ld before you.” - Seamus Justin Heaney Born: 13 April 1939 Died: 30 August 2013 Background: Seamus Justin Heaney was an Irish poet, playwright and translator. Among his best-known works is Death of a Naturalist (1966), his first major published volume. Heaney was recognised as one of the principal contributors to poetry during his lifetime. American poet Robert Lowell described him as "the most important Irish poet since Yeats", and many others, including the academic John Sutherland, have said that he was "the greatest poet of our age". Nobel Prize: Won Nobel Prize in 1995 "For works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and the living past"
  95. 95. Nobel Prize in Literature - 1996 “Somewhere out there the w o r ld m u s t h av e a n end.” - Maria Wisława Anna Szymborska Born: 2 July, 1923 Died: 1 February, 2012 Background: Maria Wisława Anna Szymborskawas a Polish poet, essayist, translator and recipient of the 1996 Nobel Prize in Literature. Born in Prowent, which has since become part of Kórnik, she later resided in Kraków until the end of her life. In Poland, Szymborska's books have reached sales rivaling prominent prose authors: although she once remarked in a poem, "Some Like Poetry" that no more than two out of a thousand people care for the art. Nobel Prize: Won Nobel Prize in 1996 "for poetry that with ironic precision allows the historical and biological context to come to light in fragments of human reality"
  96. 96. Nobel Prize in Literature - 1997 “ K n o w h o w to live the t im e t h a t is given you.” - Dario Fo Born: 24 March 1926 Died: 13 October 2016 Background: Dario Fo was an Italian actor, playwright, comedian, singer, theatre director, stage designer, songwriter, painter, political campaigner for the Italian left wing. In his time he was "arguably the most widely performed contemporary playwright in world theatre".Much of his dramatic work depends on improvisation and comprises the recovery of "illegitimate" forms of theatre, such as those performed by giullari (medieval strolling players) and, more famously, the ancient Italian style of commedia dell'arte. Nobel Prize: Won Nobel Prize in 1997 "who emulates the jesters of the Middle Ages in scourging authority and upholding the dignity of the downtrodden".
  97. 97. Nobel Prize in Literature - 1998 “If I'm sincere today, w h a t does it m a t t e r if I regret it tomorrow?” - José de Sousa Saramago Born: 16 November 1922 Died: 18 June 2010 Background: José de Sousa Saramago, was a Portuguese. His works, some of which can be seen as allegories, commonly present subversive perspectives on historic events, emphasizing the theopoetic human factor. In 2003 Harold Bloom described Saramago as "the most gifted novelist alive in the world today” and in 2010 said he considers Saramago to be "a permanent part of the Western canon",while James Wood praises "the distinctive tone to his fiction because he narrates his novels as if he were someone both wise and ignorant Nobel Prize: Won Nobel Prize in 1998 "who with parables sustained by imagination, compassion and irony continually enables us once again to apprehend an elusoryreality"
  98. 98. Nobel Prize in Literature - 1999 “ A r t is so wonderfully irrational, exuberantly pointless, but necessary all the same. Pointless a n d y e t necessary, that's h a r d for a p u r itan to understand.” - Günter Wilhelm Grass Born: 16 October 1927 Died: 13 April 2015 Background: Günter Wilhelm Grass was a German novelist, poet, playwright, illustrator, graphic artist, and sculptor. He was born in the Free City of Danzig. As a teenager, he served as a drafted soldier from late 1944 in the Waffen-SS and was taken as a prisoner of war by US forces at the end of the war in May 1945. He was released in April 1946. Trained as a stonemason and sculptor, Grass began writing in the 1950s. In his fiction, he frequently returned to the Danzig of his childhood. Nobel Prize: Won Nobel Prize in 1999 "whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history"
  99. 99. Nobel Prize in Literature - 2000 “As a m ale writer, w o m e n are a l w a y s w h a t m e n pursue, a n d their w o r ld is a l w a y s a m ystery.” - Gao Xingjian Born: January 4, 1940 Background: Gao Xingjian is a Chinesenovelist, playwright, and critic. He is also a noted translator, screenwriter, stage director, and a celebrated painter. In 1998, Gao was granted French citizenship.Gao's drama is considered to be fundamentally absurdist in nature and avant-garde in his native China. His prose works tend to be less celebrated in China but are highly regarded elsewhere in Europe and the West. Nobel Prize: Won Nobel Prize in 2000 "for an oeuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama"
  100. 100. Nobel Prize in Literature - 2001 "Had not quite forgiven us for giving h im a second-class degree ". - Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul Born: 17 August 1932 Died: 11 August 2018 Background: In June 1953, Naipaul and Hale graduated from Oxford. Naipaul graduated with a second-class degree. Peter Bayley, his Oxford tutor, would later comment that Naipaul. In 1953, Naipaul's father died. He worked at odd jobs and borrowed money from Hale and his family in Trinidad.He was died in 11 August 2018 at London, United State. Nobel Prize: Naipaul received the Nobel Prize in 2001 for his strong storytelling and "For having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories."
  101. 101. Nobel Prize in Literature - 2002 "Man is a l w a y s a little a t fault, that's all" - Imre Kertesz Born: 9 November 1929 Died: 31 March 2016 Background: Kertesz was born in Budapest, Hungary, on 9 November 1929, the son of Aranka Jakab and Laszlo Kertesz, a bourgeois Jewish couple. After his parents separated when he was around the age of five, Kertesz attended a boarding school and, in 1940, he started secondary school where he was put into a special class for Jewish students. Nobel Prize: In 2002, he won the Nobel Prize in Literature, "For writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history"
  102. 102. Nobel Prize in literature - 2003 "When all else fails, philosophize" - John Maxwell Coetzee Born: 9 February 1940 Background: Coetzee was born in Cape Town, Cape Province, Union of South Africa, on 9 February 1940 to Afrikaner parents. His father, Zacharias Coetzee was an occasional attorney and government employee, and his mother, Vera Coetzee was a schoolteacher. The family mainly spoke English at home, but John spoke Afrikaans with other relatives. Nobel Prize: He won the prize, the Swedish Academy stated that Coetzee "In innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider ".
  103. 103. Nobel Prize in literature - 2004 "Vice is basically the love of failure" - Elfriede Jelinek Born: 20 October 1946 Background: Elfriede Jelinek is an Austrian playwright and novelist. Jelinek was born on in Mürzzuschlag, Styria, Austria. She was the daughter of Olga Ilona and Friedrich Jelinek.Jelinek's output has included radio plays, poetry, theatre texts, polemical essays, anthologies, novels, translations, screenplays, musical compositions, libretti and ballets, film and video art. Jelinek's work is multi-faceted, and highly controversial. It has been praised and condemned by leading literary critics. Nobel Prize: Elfriede Jelinekwon the prize "for her musical flow of voices and counter- voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society's clichés and their subjugating power"
  104. 104. Nobel Prize in literature - 2005 ‘Good w r i t i n g excites m e A n d m akes life w o r t h living' - Harold Pinter Born - 10 October, 1930 Died - 24 December, 2008 Background: Harold Pinter was a British playwright, screenwriter, director and actor. His father's name is Jack Pinter and his mother's name is Frances. He achieved international renown as one of the most complex and challenging post-World War II dramatists. Nobel Prize: Nobel Prize in Literature for that year to Pinter, who "in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression's closed rooms". Its selection instigated some public controversy and criticism relating both to characteristics of Pinter's work and to his politics.
  105. 105. Nobel Prize in literature - 2006 "I r e a d a book one d a y a n d m y whole life w a s changed" - Orhan Pamuk Born: 7 June, 1952 Background: Orhan Pamukis a Turkish novelist, screenwriter, academic and One of Turkey's most prominent novelists. His work has sold over thirteen million books in sixty-three languages, making him the country's best-selling writer. Pamuk was born in Istanbul. Nobel Prize: In the 12 October 2006 Nobel prize in literature award goes to who in the quest for the melancholic soul of his native city, [Pamuk] has discovered new symbols for the clash and interlacing of cultures.
  106. 106. Nobel Prize in literature - 2007 "Laughter is b y definition healthy" - Doris Lessing Born: 22 October 1919 Died: 17 November 2013 Background: Doris may Lessing was a British-Zimbabwean novelist. She was born to British parents in Iran, where she lived until 1925. Her father's name is Captain Alfred Tayler and her mother's name is Emily Maude. Nobel Prize: In 2007, Lessing was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. For that epicist of the female experience, who with scepticism, fire and visionary power has subjected a divided civilization to scrutiny.
  107. 107. Nobel Prize in literature - 2008 "Real live h a v e no end, Real book h a v e no end" - J. M. G. Le Clezio Born: 13 April, 1940 Background: J. M. G. Le Clézio, is a French writer and professor. The author of over forty works, he was awarded the 1963 Prix Renaudot for his novel Le Procès-Verbal and the 2008 Nobel Prize in Literature. Nobel Prize: The 2008 Nobel Prize in literature for his life's work, as an “author of new departures, poetic adventure and sensual ecstasy, explorer of a humanity beyond and below the reigning civilization".
  108. 108. Nobel Prize in literature - 2009 “Silence is also a form of speaking" - Herta Muller Born: 17 August 1953 Background: Herta Muller is a Romanian born German novelist,poet, essayist and recipient of the 2009 Nobel Prize in literature. Born in Nitchidorf Timis country in Romania, her native language is German. Since the early 1990, she has been internationally established, and her works have been translated in to more than twenty language. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in literature 2009 was awarded to Herta Muller, “Who with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose depicts the landscape of the dispossessed"
  109. 109. Nobel Prize in literature - 2010 “Writers are the exorcist of their o w n demons" - Mario Vargas Llosa Born: 28 March, 1936 Background: Jorge Mario Pedro VargasLlosa is a Peruvian writer, politician, journalist, essayist and college professor. He is one of Latin American's most significant novelist and essayist and one of the leading writer of his generation. Nobel Prize: Vargas Llosa was awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in literature. “For his cartography of structure of power and his trenchant image of the individual's resistance, revolt and defeat."
  110. 110. Nobel Prize in literature - 2011 "It is still beautiful to hear the heart beat but often the shadow seems m or e real t h a n the body" - Tomas Gösta Transtomer Born: 15 April, 1931 Died: 26 March, 2015 Background: Tranströmer was born in Stockholm in 1931 and raised by his mother Helmy. He received his secondary education at the Södra Latin Gymnasium in Stockholm, where he began writing poetry. In addition to selected journal publications, his first collection of poems, 17 Poems, was published in 1954. He continued his education at Stockholm University, graduating as a psychologist in 1956 with additional studies in history, religion and literature. Nobel Prize: The Swedish Academy revealed that he had been nominated every single year since 1993.The Nobel Committee stated that Tranströmer's work received the prize “because, through his condensed, translucent images, he gives us fresh access to reality.
  111. 111. Nobel Prize in literature - 2012 “People w h o are strangers to liquor a r e incapable of talking about literature.” - Mo Yan Born:17 February 1955 (age 64) Guan Moye simplified Chinese: traditional Chinese: pinyin: GuǎnMóyè; better known by the pen name Mo Yan Chines pinyin: MòYán is a Chinese novelist and short story writer. Donald Morrison of U.S. news magazine TIME referred to him as "one of the most famous, oft-banned and widely pirated of all Chinese writers", and Jim Leach called him the Chinese answer to Franz Kafka or Joseph Heller. Nobel Prize: On 11 October 2012, the Swedish Academy announced that Mo Yan had received the Nobel Prize in Literature for his work that "with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary".
  112. 112. The Nobel Prize in literature - 2013 "Life would be g r a n t if it weren't for the people." - Alice Munro Born:10 July 1931 Background: Munro was born Alice Ann Laidlaw in Wingham, Ontario. Her father, Robert Eric Laidlaw, was a fox and mink farmer, and later turned to turkey farming. Her mother, Anne Clarke Laidlaw (née Chamney), was a schoolteacher. She is of Irish and Scottish descent, her father being a direct descendant of James Hogg, the Ettrick Shepherd. Nobel Prize: Alice Munro the renowned Canadian short-story writer whose visceral work explores the tangled relationships between men and women, small-town existence and the fallibility of memory, won the 2013 Nobel Prize in Literature.
  113. 113. The Noble Prize in Literature - 2014 "In the end, w e are all determ ined b y the place a n d the t im e in which w e w e r e born." - Jean Patrick Modiano Born: 30th July, 1945 Background: Jean Patrick Modiano was born in Boulogne Billan court, a commune in the western suburbs of Paris. Patrick Modiano's childhood took place in a unique atmosphere. Modiano studied at the École du Montal primary school in Jony - en - Josas, at the collége Saint - Joseph de Thônes in HauntSavoie, and then at the Lycée Henri - IV high school in Paris. Nobel Prize: Modiano was awarded the 2014 Noble Prize in Literature, for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life - world of the occupation.
  114. 114. The Noble Prize in Literature - 2015 "No one had taught us h o w to be free. We had only e v e r been taught h o w to die for freedom." - Svetlana Alexievich Born: 31 May, 1948 Background: Svetlana Alexievich was born in the west Ukrainian town of Stanislav (since 1962 Ivano-Frankivsk) to a Belarusian father and a Ukrainian mother, Svetlana Alexievich grew up in Belarus. After finishing school she worked as a reporter in several local newspapers before graduating from Belarusian State University (1972) and becoming a correspondent for the literary magazine Nyoman in Minsk (1976). Nobel Prize: She was awarded the 2015 Nobel Prize in Literature "for her polyphonic writings, a monument to suffering and courage in our time". She is the first writer from Belarus to receive the award.
  115. 115. The Noble Prize in Literature - 2016 "He not busy being born is busy dying." - Bob Dylan Born: 24 May (1941) (age 77 years) Background: Bob Dylan is an American singer-songwriter, author, and visual artist who is regarded as a widely influential figure in popular culture. Bob Dylan was born Robert Allen Zimmerman in St. Mary's Hospital on May 24, 1941, in Duluth, Minnesota, and raised in Hibbing, Minnesota, on the Mesabi Range west of Lake Superior. Nobel Prize: In 2016, BOB DYLAN was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature "for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition".
  116. 116. The Noble Prize in Literature - 2017 "There w a s another life t ha t I m ight h a v e had, but I’m having this one." - Sir Kazuo Ishiguro Born: 8 November, 1954 Background Sir Kazuo Ishiguro was born in Nagasaki, Japan, but his family moved to the UK in 1960 when he was five. Ishiguro graduated from the University of Kent with a bachelor's degree in English and Philosophy in 1978 and gained his master's from the University of East Anglia's creative writing course in 1980. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in Literature, describing him in its citation as a writer "who, in novels of great emotional force, has uncovered the abyss beneath our illusory sense of connection with the world".
  117. 117. Noble Prize in Literature - 2018 “There are countries out there w h e r e people speak English.” - Olga Tokarczuk Born:29 January 1962 Background: Tokarczuk was born in Sulechów near ZielonaGóra, in western Poland. One of her grandmothers was from Ukraine.Before starting her literary career, from 1980 she trained as a psychologist at the University of Warsaw. During her studies, she volunteered in an asylum for adolescents with behavioural problems. After her graduation in 1985, she moved first to Wrocław and later to Wałbrzych, where she began practising as a therapist. Nobel Prize: Tokarczuk was awarded the 2018 Nobel Prize for Literature in 2019 for her "narrative imagination that with encyclopaedic passion represents the crossing of boundaries as a form of life". The 2018 award had been postponed due to controversy within the Nobel committee.
  118. 118. The Nobel Prize in literature - 2019 "If nation loses its storytellers, it loses its childhood" - Peter Handke Born: 6 December, 1942 Background: Peter Handke is an Austrian-born Nobel laureate novelist, playwright, translator, poet, film director and screenwriter. Handke was born in 1942 in Griffen in the Austrian state of Carinthia.His father, Erich Schönemann, was a bank clerk and German soldier whom Handke did not meet until adulthood. Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize in Literature 2019 was awarded to Peter Handke "for an influential work that with linguistic ingenuity has explored the periphery and the specificity of human experience

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