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HISTORY<br />18th and 19th centuries: “faculty psychology approach”.<br />“ Mental discipline was essential for strengthening the powers of the mind”<br />
First known as PRUSSIAN METHOD in U.S.A.<br />Western world CLASSICAL METHOD.<br />Used in the teaching of classical languages as Latin and Greek.<br />
In the nineteenth century the CLASSICAL METHOD came to be known as the GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD.<br />Western World Schools: Learning foreign language= learning of Latin or Greek.<br />Main objective: Help students to read and appreciate foreign language literature gaining reading proficiency<br />
GOAL OF TEACHER<br />Learning a foreign language is to be able to read literature written in the target language.<br />Good mental exercise.<br />
LANGUAGE´S PERSPECTIVE<br />Literary language is superior to spoken language<br />
ROLE OF STUDENT´S NATIVE LANGUAGE<br />Meaning of the target language is presented through the translation into student´s native language.<br />Classes are taught in the mother tongue.<br />
AREAS OF LANGUAGE EMPHASIZED<br />Vocabulary and grammar are presented in an isolated way. <br />Taught through bilingual word lists, dictionary study and memorization.<br />Little or no attention is given to pronunciation <br />SKILLS: Reading and writing are the major focus; little or no systematic attention is paid to speaking or listening.<br />
TEACHING/LEARNING PROCESS<br />Students are taught to translate from one language to another - accuracy.<br />They study grammar deductively .<br />
TEACHER – STUDENT INTERACTION<br />The teacher is the authority in the classroom.<br />
ASSESMENT<br />Evaluation is accomplished through written texts - translation.<br />Questions are about the foreign culture or questions that ask students to apply grammar rules.<br />
TRANSLATION OF A LITERARY PASSAGE<br />Figurative vs literal meaning. Accuracy in translation.<br />
READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS<br />Questions about the information contained in the passage.<br /> Questions for making inferences.<br />Questions to relate the passage to their own experience<br />
Disadvantages<br />It makes few demands on teachers.<br />It does virtually nothing to enhance a student`s communicative ability in the language.<br />Students have little motivation to go beyond grammar analogies, translations an exercises.<br />It does not emphasize in the skills required for learning integrally a second language that is still alive.<br />
Advantages<br />Translation is the easiest way of explaining meanings or words and phrases from one language into another.<br />Students will not have much difficulty in responding to questions on the mother tongue. Communication between the teacher and the learner does not cause linguistic problems. <br />