How can your organization benefit from employee participation during social media programs?

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The research was conducted as part of an MBA degree and investigates the extent to which enterprise learning during change influences employee participation in social media program. The author develops 3 broad themes i.e. Affirmation, Analysis and Action after interviewing change agents from 7 companies in the high tech, B2B industry.

The research concludes that learning during change has some influence on active participation during social media implementation. The research finds similarities between learning organization characteristics and participatory social media change such as a shared vision, personal mastery, experimentation and the use of cross-functional teams. The author provides recommendations in the form of a new model that could guide organizations to exploit employee participation benefits in enterprise learning during social media implementation.

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How can your organization benefit from employee participation during social media programs?

  1. 1. EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION – THEINFLUENCE OF ENTERPRISE LEARNING DURING EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE: A MIXED METHOD STUDY INTO SOCIAL MEDIA IMPLEMENTATION Summary of research results by Yekemi Bolare Otaru Henley Business School University of Reading U.K.
  2. 2. PROJECT OBJECTIVE  The research question is, ‘to what extent does learning during evolutionary [behavioural-social] change influence employee participation in social media implementation?’  The objectives of the research are:  To articulate key organizational characteristics that promote enterprise learning and participation during change  To investigate the proposed approach to social media change  To make recommendations for organisations to benefit from employee participation in social media programs© YE K EMI BOLARE OTARU 2 0 1 2 2
  3. 3. SCOPE OF PROJECT Scope of management challenge Explanation Implication Primarily change agents investigated. Allows focus on one perspective for the Perspectives of change recipients not change. included. Focus on link between learning Research limited to learning Other non-learning change management environments and change approaches organisational characteristics similar to approaches will not be considered. social media enablers; drawing from action technology. Limited to Business-to-Business (B2B) B2B companies are more likely to use Results not generalizable to B2C companies. expertise of employees to attract companies as they may have different customers thus significant participation is perspectives, needs and focus. required. Excludes investigation on strategy, Limited to manage scope and increase This may discount some factors that knowledge management, leadership styles, focus on creating and linking a learning- have indirect or direct influence on business performance, types of based change management model to social media change. organisational culture and structures. participation. Limited to behavioural-social change. There is no literature that provides Issues related to technical-structural detailed investigation into evolutionary changes, which normally have strategic change during social media bearing in social media are not implementation. This investigation investigated. attempts to fill this gap.© YE K EMI BOLARE OTARU 2 0 1 2 3
  4. 4. OVERVIEW OF SOCIAL MEDIA CHANGE Research focused on evolutionary change© YE K EMI BOLARE OTARU 2 0 1 2 4
  5. 5. PROPOSED CHANGE MODEL FROM THEORY© YE K EMI BOLARE OTARU 2 0 1 2 5
  6. 6. Employee participation – the influence of enterprise learning during evolutionary change: a mixed method study into social media implementation INTERVIEW RESULTS JUNE 2012© YE K EMI BOLARE OTARU 2 0 1 2 6
  7. 7. LEARNING ENVIRONMENT (LEARNINGORGANISATION MODEL) Number of change agents who mentioned it In theoretical model Not in theoretical model See Glossary for definitions© YE K EMI BOLARE OTARU 2 0 1 2 7
  8. 8. SUMMARY OF CONSIDERATIONS Participant Main considerations Memorable quote PA-1 Research, action plans, "Weve learnt a lot from our early beginnings to measurement understand how we might apply social media to marketing practices...” PA-2 Focus on business objectives, "Its only were youre making a difference to the feedback, measurement company that you can show that your program is sustainable in the long term." PA-3 Senior level support, "Dont take all the responsibility - create a team, a communication, shared project or change team." responsibility through teams PA-4 Executive commitment, start "You need a few pioneers who are passionate about with early adopters, training social media." and guidance PB-5 Support, dedication, "It takes time and dedication to change peoples measurement behaviour." PB-6 Leadership, culture, "Get leaders to use it - others will follow!" dedicated skilled resources PA-7 Executive support, "Develop a really robust measurement plan to experimentation, support your efforts." measurement NOTE: PA represent internal change agents; PB are external change agents© YE K EMI BOLARE OTARU 2 0 1 2 8
  9. 9. MAIN CONSIDERATIONS DURINGCHANGE (ACTION LEARNING MODEL)© YE K EMI BOLARE OTARU 2 0 1 2 9
  10. 10. INTERVIEW SUMMARY: BROAD THEMES Affirmation “Valuing” “Diagnosing” and “Designing” Analysis Action “Implementing & Assessing” © Yekemi Otaru 2012© YE K EMI BOLARE OTARU 2 0 1 2 10
  11. 11. Employee participation – the influence of enterprise learning during evolutionary change: a mixed method study into social media implementation SURVEY RESULTS JULY-AUGUST 2012© YE K EMI BOLARE OTARU 2 0 1 2 11
  12. 12. OVERVIEW OF SURVEY  23 questions asked  3 constructs (Affirmation, Analysis & Action)  Uses Likert 5-point scale (1=strongly disagree; 5=strongly agree)  39 responses analysed  Pilot run first and survey modified  Descriptive analysis  Inferential analysis© YE K EMI BOLARE OTARU 2 0 1 2 12
  13. 13. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS (AFFIRMATION 9) “While the organisation supported and encouraged learning, it was a shared responsibility for commitment between the organisation and employees such that employees were committed to the change.” strongly AFF9 disagree Strongly agree 2% 10% disagree 13% neutral 31% agree 44%© YE K EMI BOLARE OTARU 2 0 1 2 13
  14. 14. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS (AFFIRMATION 8) “Senior managers reinforced values by talking about them and behaving in ways that supported those values.” AFF8 strongly disagree Strongly agree 3% 10% disagree 26% agree 33% neutral 28%© YE K EMI BOLARE OTARU 2 0 1 2 14
  15. 15. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS (AFFIRMATION 4) “Top management allocated adequate resources towards efforts to identify gaps in company alignment with social media requirements.” AFF 4 Strongly agree 0% strongly disagree 10% agree disagree 40% 28% neutral 22%© YE K EMI BOLARE OTARU 2 0 1 2 15
  16. 16. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS (ANALYSIS 3) “Social media change provided new insights that were important for competitive advantage.” ANA3 disagree strongly 9% disagree 0% Strongly agree 24% neutral 29% agree 38%© YE K EMI BOLARE OTARU 2 0 1 2 16
  17. 17. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS (ANALYSIS 2) “There was frequent experimentation leading up to social media implementation.” ANA2 strongly disagree Strongly agree 0% 9% disagree 23% neutral 12% agree 56%© YE K EMI BOLARE OTARU 2 0 1 2 17
  18. 18. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS (ANALYSIS 11) “Employees participated extensively in setting and reviewing social media guidelines.” strongly disagree ANA11 Strongly agree 18% 6% agree 26% disagree 18% neutral 32%© YE K EMI BOLARE OTARU 2 0 1 2 18
  19. 19. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS (ACTION 20) “Cross-functional teams were often used.” ACT20 strongly disagree 0% Strongly agree 18% disagree 15% neutral 26% agree 41%© YE K EMI BOLARE OTARU 2 0 1 2 19
  20. 20. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS (ACTION 22) “Employees had time to review and provide feedback to team members on how the change was going despite workload.” ACT22 Strongly agree 3% strongly disagree 3% agree 24% disagree 33% neutral 37%© YE K EMI BOLARE OTARU 2 0 1 2 20
  21. 21. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS (ACTION 16) “Employees were rewarded for the right behaviours.“ ACT16 strongly disagree Strongly agree 3% 12% agree disagree 15% 32% neutral 38%© YE K EMI BOLARE OTARU 2 0 1 2 21
  22. 22. INFERENTIAL ANALYSIS: COEFFICIENT OF CORRELATION (R) Themes Relationship 1 Relationship 2 Relationship 3 Affirmation Y1 Y2 Analysis X1 Y3 Action X2 X3 n Independent variable Dependent variable Coefficient of (Yn) (Xn) correlation (r) 1 Affirmation Analysis 0.493 2 Affirmation Action 0.647 3 Analysis Action 0.691© YE K EMI BOLARE OTARU 2 0 1 2 22
  23. 23. INFERENTIAL ANALYSIS: REGRESSION (MODERATE-STRONG RELATIONSHIPS)© YE K EMI BOLARE OTARU 2 0 1 2 23
  24. 24. INFERENTIAL ANALYSIS: REGRESSION (WEAK RELATIONSHIPS)© YE K EMI BOLARE OTARU 2 0 1 2 24
  25. 25. INFERENTIAL ANALYSIS: COMPARINGINTERNAL & EXTERNAL CHANGE AGENTS(ANOVA) 35 Note that although the graph shows 30 slightly lower means for external agents, there is statistically insignificant evidence Mean score per construct 25 (less than 95% confidence) to say that there is a difference 20 between the two types of change agents. internal agents (24) Hence, this research accepts external agents (9) 15 the hypothesis that the mean scores are the same. 10 5 0 Affirmation Analysis Action© YE K EMI BOLARE OTARU 2 0 1 2 25
  26. 26. SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS  Overall, highest scores are in Analysis and lowest scores are in Action.  The strongest relationships exist between Analysis and Action(46%), and Affirmation and Action (40%). Only a weak link is found between Affirmation and Analysis (22%). Other factors not investigated may explain the rest of the movement in the independent variables.  Low participation levels in planning and analysis phases might not necessarily discredit an organisation as a “learning organisation.” Hence, it could partially explain the weak link between Affirmation and Analysis.  The research concludes that learning during change has some influence on active participation in social media programs. The research finds similarities between learning organisation characteristics and participatory social media change such as a shared vision, personal mastery, experimentation and the use of cross-functional teams.© YE K EMI BOLARE OTARU 2 0 1 2 26
  27. 27. LIMITATIONS OF RESEARCH  High number of “neutral” responses – refine survey instrument, modify target audience  Limited scope and time to cover issues such as company performance, social media strategy, social marketing maturity, composition of cross- functional teams and change agents‟ experience.  Limited availability of change agents to interviews and survey – research conducted over summer holidays.© YE K EMI BOLARE OTARU 2 0 1 2 27
  28. 28. RECOMMENDATIONS Invest in frequent experimentation – then formalise processes with meaningful Use of cross- Empower early measurements adopters to start functional action, reward teams, allowing and/or recognise personal early development and achievements Participatory contribution AFF change in Support through social media provision of programs Shared vision & resources to responsibility ANA identify and rectify between employees cultural and organisation for misalignment, commitment to Inclusion of training & acting change employees and out values ACT their feedback in strategic planning & reviewing guidelines© YE K EMI BOLARE OTARU 2 0 1 2 28
  29. 29. FURTHER RESEARCH  Primarily change agents were investigated. An investigation that includes change “observers” or “recipients” may provide new insight.  Refinement of the field survey instrument could improve the constructs e.g. through factor analysis and produce a more rigorous analysis  It appears that additional factors such as leadership style, change agent experience, knowledge management, company size, organisational culture and structure could be considered in further research to strengthen correlations.  A social media change management maturity model could be developed through further research to provide a “road map” for companies starting out in social media. For instance, Affirmation and Action may not be as important as Analysis in companies trialling social media.© YE K EMI BOLARE OTARU 2 0 1 2 29
  30. 30. GLOSSARY  LEARNING ORGANISATION:  „an environment where people continually expand their capacity to create results they truly desire new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning how to learn together.‟ (Senge, 1990)  ACTION LEARNING:  „involves interrelated actions that comprise an iterative learning process – as employees move through these activities they learn how to change and improve the organization, their own work behaviours and interactions.‟ (Cummings, 2004)  AFFIRMATION:  the organisational environment and how it supports the change.  ANALYSIS:  the preparation and planning for social media change.  ACTION:  the extent and support of active employee participation during the implementation stage.© YE K EMI BOLARE OTARU 2 0 1 2 30

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