Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 1EXPLORING THE EFFECT OF EXPOSURE TO L2 THROUGH ACTIVITIES INSIDE THE CLASSROOM: A MULTIPLE-CASE STUDY Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom: A Multiple- Case Study Yeison Yesid Guerra Guerrero University of Pamplona
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 2Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom: A Cross-Case Study Yeison Yesid Guerra Guerrero Professor: Gabriel Cote Parra Foreign Languages Department School of Education February 23, 2012
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 3 Table of ContentsChapter 1 –Introduction………………………………………………………… 5 Statement of the problem………………………………………………. 8 Purpose of the study……………………………………………………. 8 Research Question……………………………………………………… 9 Sub-Questions……………………………………………………………. 9 Limitations of the Study………………………………………………… 9 Significance of the Study……………………………………………….. 10Chapter 2 -Literature Review…………………………………………………… 10 Definitions of Exposure……… ………………………………………… 11 Related theories and studies…………………………………………….. 11Chapter 3 -Methodology………………………………………………………… 17 Design………………………………………………………………. 17 Participants ………….. ……………………………………………… 18
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 4 Setting………………………………………………………………… 18 Data Gathering Procedure………………………………………………….. 18 Instruments………………………………………………………………..... 19 Data analysis……………………………………………………................... 21 .Chapter 4 – Findings……………………………………………………………..... 22 References………………………………………………………………… 24 Appendices………………………………………………………………….. 26
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 5 Abstract This case study aimed to understand the effect of exposure to French throughclassroom activities on three starter and intermediate level students. Data were gatheredthrough classroom open observations, field notes and non-directive interviews. Hatchsinterpretative model was chosen for analyzing data. Findings revealed that activities such as topic exposition, text reading and audiodocument comprehension engaged participants in speaking, listening, reading in FL. However,the lack of vocabulary constituted a great barrier for a consistent students‟ success resulting inthe use of participants‟ L1 as a means of expression. Chapter 1 Introduction “The way how an individual characteristically acquires and learns a language dependson a specific linguistic experience, result of an exposure to such language” Curtis (1974). Intheir study of “the linguistic development of genie”, this author came up with the finding thatany one brought up in a language vacuum will neither be able to speak nor understandlanguage. Namely, if one intends to learn a language without getting in contact with it, nosuccess will be the result. Curtis premise makes suppose the only pathway to learn and not to
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 6say acquire a language is exposure to language itself. Nevertheless; according to Houston (1971) language is a kind of latent structure in thehuman mind, this latter premise gets attached to the Nativist Theory, which has its basis onLanguage Acquisition Device (LAD). Houston unlike Curtis believed Language might belearned with no need for exposure since Language itself represents a uniqueness of Humanbeing mental nature. Exposure, refers to the total amount of time in which an individual has contactwith a language, may it be in verbal or written form, formal or informal ways ofcommunications and in which the individual may have either an active or a passive role(Magno, 2009). Adopting this definition, exposure to a second language occurs wheneverindividuals engage in conversations in the second language with family members,friends, classmates, and colleagues; whenever they read books, magazines, andnewspapers written in that language; whenever they come across information beingdisseminated in different multimedia sources; or even when they are mere passivelisteners in any activity or place in which the second language is being spoken. Thereare many dimensions of exposure, but this study will only focus on Exposure to L2 inclassroom activities. As an English-French as Foreign Languages Student, I experienced Exposure to L2 alongmy continuous academic process. When I chose to study Foreign Languages, I had a previousknowledge of English language since this one was a subject as in Primary as in High school.
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 7Regarding French, it was utterly unknown to me, owing to this, my first semesters dealingwith it were not the best ones. Notwithstanding; with the spending of time and the contact, mylearning was improving. From my own experience, I daresay two aspects resulting from theClassroom Exposure to FFL: 1) Fluency on speaking, result of activities as role plays, debates and expositions. 2) Oral comprehension, the fact of listening to the teacher and classmates speaking in L2 have helped me internalize structures, thus, making comprehension be richer. In order for not to result in confusion for using the terms L2 and Foreign languageinterchangeably in this research paper, I will clarify what L2 and foreign language mean.Second language (L2) is any language learned after the first language or mother tongue (L1).It is, in a broad sense, a language learned or acquired after the native language. The term has anarrow sense when it contrasts to the term foreign language (FL), in which second languagefunctions as a recognized means of communication among members who speak some otherlanguage as their mother tongue, and the foreign language plays no major role in thecommunity and is primarily learned only in the classroom (Ellis R. The Study of SecondLanguage Acquisition Oxford University Press, 1994). This proposal project intended to understand the effect of exposure to L2 through activitiesinside the classroom on students development and learning. Consequently, it was expectedthis research to let evaluate the co-relation between Exposure-Learning.
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 8 Statement of the Problem According to my lived experience in all my educational process, learning French in acountry with Spanish as mother tongue (L1) is too difficult because we are not in a directcontact with the target language, besides; we are constantly exposed to L1 from a simplegreeting with our relatives, neighbors, friends and so forth. Another factor I find is the factthat National ministry of education gives priority to English in its educational policies andprojects over any other language. By analyzing this, I thought that French learning andexposure to itself (in an artificial environment: classroom) was a good topic to be studied. Thepractical problem is that French is not commonly taught in educational institutions, and thisconstitutes a great barrier in its learning since one as a student does not feel attracted ormotivated to learn it whether by the lack of previous knowledge about this FL or by its lack ofpresence around. Purpose of the Study This case study aimed to understand classroom exposure to French at a publicuniversity of Colombia, specifically in second semester students of foreign languages, the howthis essential condition takes part in the development and learning of a L2 was the majoraspect to be studied in this research.
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 9 Research Questions A grand tour question guided this Research: What effect does language exposure through classroom activities play on French learning? Sub-questions: How is Exposure to FL2 embraced in the teaching process? What type of Classroom activities favor / support Exposure to FL2 and enable students to learn it? Limitations of the study This study had some limitations throughout its carrying out, among them: the lack ofenough time to observe classes, video recording was not used, my inexperience in theResearch field and the limited sum of data to be analyzed. I expect these limitations can beavoided in similar future Research. Besides: I must highlight that the emergent findings fromthis study are not generalizable, what emerged from this study is not the final truth regardingan important factor as Exposure to L2 is and its role in the foreign language learning.
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 10 Significance of the study This study was important to understand in a certain way how Exposure to language is afactor that must continue on study, how the students perceive the classroom activities and theirpersonal thoughts towards foreign language learning. Finally, this multiple-case study may help foreign language teachers to betterunderstand what happens in the classroom and to get them to think about strategies embeddedin the activities to have a successful learning. Chapter 2 Literature review This literature review is provided with three aspects: First, two definitions of Classroom exposure. Secondly, related theories. Finally, some related conducted studies will be reviewed.
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 11 Language exposure is defined by Lubega (1979) as a vital factor to language learningand as an almost entirely determiner of the type and level of language proficiency emanatingfrom the language learning process. Cheswick & Miller (1998) defined exposure as the features of formal learning and“learning by doing” that impact the acquisition of fluency in the target language. Even though these two definitions coincide in the fact of considering languageexposure as relevant in language learning, they differ in that the former shows it within aunicity character (a factor) and as non-total determiner and emanating result of language itself;this shows a lesser value in comparison of the latter, which gives it a wider value whenconsidering it as diverse (features) and emphasizing in its praxis character. There are several views about language learning, most of theories have beenestablished by the Rationalists and the Empiricists, the former give great relevance to centralprocesses and organizing principles in perception and to innate ideas and principles in learning(Language Nativist Theories). The latter have attributed a relevant role to the experience andcontrol by environmental factors (Language Environmentalist Theories). Two studies related to language exposure and their interventions in L2 learning havebeen conducted. On one hand, Magno (2009) examined the differences in English language exposureamong Taiwanese college students living in Taiwan and in the Philippines. The results
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 12revealed that the Taiwanese in the Philippines showed significantly higher levels of Englishlanguage exposure to English compared with the Taiwanese in Taiwan, what let the formeracquire a higher English proficiency level than latter. The results of this study furtherrecommend that the fact of learning English will be strengthened if exposure to itself is high. Similarly, Kaushanskaya and Marian (2009) conducted the study “The bilingualadvantage in novel word learning” in their research they recruited 60 participants: 20 English–Spanish bilinguals, 20 English–Mandarin bilinguals, and 20 English-speaking monolinguals.All participants were native speakers of English. The three groups were comparable in termsof age and education levels. In order to ensure high and equal levels of native-languageknowledge across the three groups, standardized English vocabulary tests were administeredto all participants. Language-proficiency, learning-history, and current-exposure data wereobtained from all bilingual participants using the Language Experience and ProficiencyQuestionnaire (Kaushanskaya et al, 2007). Participants‟ learning-history data revealed thatEnglish–Spanish and English–Mandarin bilinguals were exposed to their L2 primarily in thefamily context, and that they had spent very little time exposed to formal L2 schooling. Datawere collected regarding the relative contribution of different learning environments to L2acquisition. In both groups of bilinguals, participants reported that on a scale of 0 (not acontributor) to 10 (most important contributor), exposure to family members was the mostimportant contributor to their L2 acquisition, whereas schooling was the least importantcontributor. The results of this study suggest a general bilingual advantage for novel wordlearning. This bilingual advantage has been observed previously in adults who have acquired
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 13their multiple languages through classroom exposure. This study demonstrated a bilingualadvantage for word learning in bilinguals who had acquired their two languages early in lifethrough naturalistic immersion. On the other hand, Ortiz & Garzón (2007) conducting a study about the EnglishTeaching Practice at a Language Institute, observing classes and interviewing teachers andstudents at a Language Institute. This process allowed them to draw some conclusions aboutthe pedagogical practices in this place. The researchers carried out this project during oneacademic semester. They found out that the role of the materials, learners and teacher inone of the classes watched might show that the educator in charge of this class made useof the communicative model. Two features of this model related to exposure were captured inthe teacher‟s class. First, the use of the target language all the time maximizing students‟opportunity to be in contact with English: “If students get enough exposure to language andopportunities for its use and if they are motivated, then language learning will take care ofitself” (Harmer, 1998 p.32). For this teacher, speaking English is one of her main strategies“for students to learn better the foreign language”. Second, the teacher‟s class activitiesincluded tasks such as comparing sets of pictures and noting similarities and differences;discovering missing features in a map or pictures among others. Unlike the previous studies, Hideyuki (1997) investigated the attrition (the loss of afirst or second language or a portion of that language by individuals of the English language injunior/senior high school students who spent a significant period of time (more than three
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 14years) in English-speaking countries. During the time separated from the L2 setting, subjectsin the study were only given one hour a day (five days per week) of formal Englishinstruction. Additional attention was given to the subjects writing proficiency to see if theirEnglish language skills had changed since being away from the L2 environment. Sheadministered a written test on a cross-sectional framework of the subjects from grades 7through 12 (ages 12-18) in order to examine various aspects of writing competence.Contextual Conventions (CC), Contextual Language (CL), Story Construction (StC), overallQuotient and the total number of words of the writing samples were also evaluated. The resultsshowed that when compared to those junior high school learners of learning Japanese as aforeign language, the StC and Quotient scores of the senior subjects were significantly higher.She also observed that the senior learners who had a three-year intensive exposure time in theU.S. showed a greater overall writing competence with an ability to use the English languagein more creatively expressive and mature ways. Also, throughout their junior high school thestudy found that the subjects„CC, CL, StC, and Quotient scores also increased at a more rapidrate than those who did not have an intensive exposure to the English speaking countries.Based on the findings, she concluded that intensive exposure to the English language gavethose senior high school learners a solid foundation of language skills. Consequently, the five-hour a week English lessons were sufficient for these returnees to maintain and improve theirskills even after being away from the L2 environment. Krashen and Seliger (1976) and Krashen, Seliger, and Hartnett (1974) claim that, whenthe effects of "exposure" and formal instruction are compared, it is reliably the case that more
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 15instruction means higher proficiency, while more exposure does not necessarily mean moreproficiency in ESL. Both studies compared instruction and exposure by matching pairs offoreign students for one of these variables and seeing whether the student who excelled on theother was more proficient in English. The measure of the amount of formal instruction wassimply the students report of the number of years he or she had studied English in a schoolsituation. No questions were asked concerning factors such as the methodology used, thepresence or absence of a language laboratory, how often the class met the amount of time thestudent devoted to his studies, or grades received. In Krashen and Seliger (1976), exposurewas defined as the product of the number of years the student reported having spent in anEnglish-speaking country and how much English the student said he spoke every day (on ascale of 1 to 10). In Krashen et al. (1974) students were asked to indicate years spent in anEnglish-speaking country and also to indicate how much English they spoke each day (on ascale of 1 to 4). Subjects with the same number of years spent in the country where Englishwas spoken and the same report of speaking were considered to have the same exposure score.Student samples differed somewhat. In Krashen and Seliger, subjects were registered in anintensive, 20 hour per week institute designed to prepare foreign students for study inAmerican colleges. In Krashen et al., subjects were enrolled in a part-time extension program;these students were, on the average, older, and many were permanent residents or citizens ofthe United States. The measure of proficiency used in the first study was teacher ranking(which correlated significantly with local placement tests), and in the second study theMichigan Examination in Structure was used. In the first study, six out of fourteen pairs of
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 16students matched for years of formal study of English were consistent with the hypotheses thatmore exposure meant more proficiency; that is, in only six cases did the student with moreexposure show a higher ranking than his partner with less. Similarly, in the second study, moreexposure was associated with a higher score in only ten out of twenty-one cases, which isconsistent with the hypothesis that exposure has no consistent effect on second languageproficiency, when students were matched for exposure scores; however, it appeared to be thecase that more instruction did indeed mean more proficiency. In the first study, this was true ofseven out of nine cases, and in the second it was true of eight of eleven cases, which in bothstudies was statistically significant. To conclude with the related studies, this last study also showed the relevant roleplayed by exposure on language, nonobstant; has the particularity of having been conducted instudents but not inside the classroom but outside this. Ajileye (1998) in his study “The effectof exposure to English language activities outside the classroom on written English”investigated the effect of English language use outside the classroom on written English of onehundred form three students randomly selected from four secondary schools in Ilorin(Nigeria). This research was focused on the effects of extra school language activities- onwritten English in participants. The researcher came up with the conclusion that there is asignificant relationship between students exposure to English language use through extra-school language activities and their proficiency in English language. Through this study, theresearcher also confirmed that second language learners do not have equal exposures toEnglish language use outside the classroom.
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 17 This study revealed that schools where students are from a heterogeneous languagebackground have greater opportunities for English language use and practice than in schoolswhere students are predominantly from one language background. Ajileye (1998) alsosuggested in his study that the gap in exposure among various categories of learners can bereduced if teachers deliberately function as path-finders to exposure and in sensitizing thelearners to the importance of exposure in language learning. “There is the need to import intothe classroom exposure opportunities from outside the class” Ajileye (1998). What I mean with the presentation of these studies towards my proposal, was not onlyabout showing the importance that language exposure has on language learning in theclassroom, but also outside this as shown in Ajileyes. Moreover; I wanted to see or at least, tobright a light on all language exposure represented in the learning of foreign languages inColombian students and if shown in previous studies was represented equally in a southAmerican context. Chapter 3 MethodologyDesign This research adopted qualitative case study. According to Nunan (1992) case study
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 18provides an in-depth description and analysis of a phenomenon. On the other hand, echoingBogdan and Biklen (1992): “research follows a qualitative approach if the researcher plays akey role in collecting data, and the research is phenomenon-focused, its data analysis isinductive and the participants perspectives and meaning of the case are considered”. Whatwas intended with this proposal wass to get to understand (focus-on) such phenomenon asClassroom language exposure is and what it implies on either learning or acquisition of aforeign language in native speakers of Spanish to who, a foreign language as Frenchrepresents more than a new language to be learned, all a new and utterly world to which theywill have to adjust and that in research are specificities that; as involving sensations, emotions,attitudes (behavioral variability) are to consider the more deeply and the more unbiasedlypossible. By inductive, it was referred to the particular analysis of participants towards ageneral understanding.Participants The subjects to be studied were 5 foreign language students, age-ranked from 17 to 24years; all of them in low, mid, high proficiency level and native speakers of Spanish.Setting A classroom of foreign languages in a Public University of Colombia.Data Gathering Procedure
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 19 The research instruments were employed in order to collect as many detailed specificsfrom the setting as possible as this study unfolded. These detailed specifics would be all whatcame out from analysis of classroom activities exposure and the particular responses of theparticipants. Instruments This proposal used three types of instruments to collect data: Classroom open observations Non-directive Interviews Field notes The first instrument, Classroom open observations were chosen since it is a method whoseaim is usually to enable subsequent reconstruction of the lesson. In this approach, the observerliterally uses a blank sheet of paper to record the lesson. The observer either notes down keypoints about the lesson or uses a personal form of shorthand for making a verbatim recordingof classroom transactions (Hopkins, 1993). Verbi gratia:Teacher: Turn 2 p 46. Mary give us y. Ans, to q. 1.Mary: WW II was partly t. result of unresolved conflicts of WW I.Teacher: Thats 1 pt. Of the ans. John give us y. Ans.
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 20 The interview is a research tool, which has been defined as a two-person conversationinitiated by the interviewer for the specific purpose of obtaining research-relevant information,and focused by him on content specified by research objectives of systematic description,prediction, or explanation (Cannell and Kahn, 1968). Regarding this research, the type ofinterview and second gathering data instrument to be used will be the non-directive interviewbecause its principal features are the minimal direction or control exhibited by the interviewerand the freedom the respondent has to express subjective feelings as fully and asspontaneously as he chooses or is able. Besides, this tool is also characterized by being therespondent who is responsible for initiating and directing the course of the encounter and forthe attitudes expressed in it, thus; being a particular valuable technique because it gets at thedeeper attitudes and perceptions of the interviewee in such a way as to leave them free frominterviewer bias (Cohen and manion, 1994). Finally, the third instrument to be applied were the field notes by its nature of beingnot only a way of reporting observation, but also a means of reflection and reaction toclassroom problems. The interviews were recorded and transcribed to give reliability to the research, fieldnotes and classroom open observation will be closely related in its roles of reconstruction andreflection.
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 21 Data Analysis Data collection was analyzed with Hatchs model since this is a model of interpretativeanalysis having embedded the following characteristics: Making inferences. Developing inferences. Attaching significance. Refining understanding. Drawing conclusion. Extrapolating lessons. Constructing meaning. This set of features shown above, it is the most suitable to understand a qualitative casestudy since it offers more than one perspective about a problem/issue which gives strong andvalid arguments for the research to be utterly reliable.
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 22 Chapter 4 Findings This part presents some findings towards the effect of L2 exposure in students, these onespoint at positive and negative aspects of the classroom activities.Research and theory expose that the more somebody is in contact with a language, the moresuccessful they will be in its learning or acquisition. Nevertheless the classroom observationsand the interviews carried out throughout this multiple-case study show a different stand.During the observation period, I realized that, even though the students were given with aconstant sum of L2 input from the teacher and their peers, they were not able to expressthemselves in that L2 very clearly, so that they used L1 as a facilitator of their ideas. Theactivities performed in class were: presentations on diverse vocabulary, text reading, and roleplays; each of them involved L2. Speaking was the main focus skill in all the previouslymentioned activities, observing the difficulty in students speech I got to think of vocabularylack as the factor intervening in the unsuccessful accomplishment of their tasks; I must acceptthis was an assumption of mine before what happened at that stage.Considering the interviews; I have found this information relevant: Amélie expresses that theclassroom activities play a relevant role in students L2 learning but that these ones are not
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 23often suitable to the student needs and thus, they cannot fulfill. Aprendiz (Respondent 2)considers the activities as a useful aid to learning because they enable them to put into practicethe vocabulary learnt. Kratos (Respondent 3) agrees with Aprendiz on this issue, but adds thatthey let the students learn Grammar which is the more important in L2 learning and alsoenables to learn to think in L2.
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 24 ReferencesHopkins,D. (1993). A teachers guide to classroom research (pp 92 and 116).Cohen, L., & Manion, L. (1994) . Research methods in education (pp 271, 273, 287-288) London and New York: Routledge.Ellis, R. The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford University Press, 1994.Jiang, N, Difference in Second Language and Foreign Language. China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House (2004).The Asian EFL Journal, Quarterly March (2009), Volume 11 (pp 5-8, 62-70).Ajileye, S. The effect of exposure to English language activities outside the classroom on written English: A study of selected secondary schools in Ilorin. Department of modern European languages, University of Ilorin, Nigeria, 1998.Kaushankaya & Marian. The Bilingual advantage in novel word learning, 2009.Wang, S. syntactic attrition in l2 mandarin speakers. Brigham Young University (2007).Ortiz & Garzón. A Study of the English Teaching Practice at a Language Institute. Colombian Applied Linguistics Journal Number 9 (pp 126-143) September (2007).Krashen, S. Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. University of Southern California (1981). First internet edition December (2002).
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 25http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_attritionhttp://www.ed.uiuc.edu/courses/edpsy313/notes/hh02.h
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 26 Appendices Letter of consentTitle of Project: Identifying the Factors that Affect the FL Learners‟ OralProduction at a Public University: a Case StudyName of Researcher: Juan Carlos Laguado Bastos 1. I confirm that I have read and understand the Plain Language Statement for the above study and have had the opportunity to ask questions. 2. I understand that my participation is voluntary and that I am free to withdraw at any time, without giving any reason. 3. I do not have any reservation if my interview is audio-taped and transcribed for data analysis. 4. I understand that copies of transcripts will be returned to me for verification and my real name will be kept in secret and I will be identified by a pseudonym in any publications arising from the research. 5. I agree / do not agree (delete as applicable) to take part in the above study._____________________ ______________ ____________________ Name of Participant Date Signature______________________ ______________ _____________________ Researcher Date Signature
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 27 First classroom observation reportTeacher observed: Emerson Castro.Observer: Yeison Guerra.Date: March 14th 2011.Observation Table following the models of Richards & Nunans observation reportmodel; “Tasks for Teacher Education” (Pearson Education Limited) and “Teacherassistant classroom observation format” (Role carried out as first stage in applied linguisticscourse, 2010).Class: French.Place: RL203 English Laboratory.Classroom organization: round-table.Number of students: 20.Age: 17-20 years old.Level: Intermediate I.Semester: Third.Time: 06:00- 08:00 hs.Class exercises/ topics: Vocabulary presentations by students (15-20 min each one). Explanation of Plus-que-parfait tense by the teacher.Materials used: Whiteboard, video beam/ projector, sheets with blanks to fill, computer andInternet.
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 28Aims of the lesson: To learn and increase vocabulary. To know the Plus-que-parfait as a particular tense of French.Talking time: Students tried to speak in French even though it represented a really hardjob for them; teacher guided them to do so.Learners‟ participation and linguistic interaction: Most of the students were active butsome were talking about something else. When doing the activities most of them usedSpanish, however; some used French.Begin.06:00: The teacher and students come in the classroom, this is organized in round-tableshaped desk. The students sit down and the teacher ask them how they feel, some of them saythey are cold and others answer that are kind of sleepy.06:05: The teacher starts saying what is going to be developed in the class (presentations ofvocabulary and plus-que-parfait view) , some students are talking about something they haveto do and others listen attentively.06:10: The teacher checks the assistance by saying names to which students respond whenthey listen to their name; this shows him that one student is absent. Then, he asks whichstudents are in charge of presenting French vocabulary.06:15: Three students respond and start telling what topics they will present. A student goes tothe front willing to present the animals, he tries to play his material on the computer but thefiles do not work.
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 2906:20: A second student passes and starts explaining what she will develop. Her topic is theplaces of the city; she uses a webpage which contains images that pronounce when clicking onthem. She also uses the projector to make richer her presentation, when an image is projectedon the whiteboard she asks her classmates what it is. They sometimes infer its meaning andmake jokes using Spanish mixed with French. The teacher sometimes ask them to define someplaces, some students try to do it in French but finish to define in Spanish, he helps themsometimes with vocabulary and also defines the places that the students find difficult.06:40: A third student continues to present the clothes; he also uses the projector, when heshows an image he pronounces it and asks his classmates to repeat. When they assert inpronunciation he claps and when they do it wrongly he continues to repeat. He also makessome mistakes before this the teacher tell them what is the correct pronunciation and besideswrites down the phonetics on the whiteboard. Students are given some photocopies withmatching exercises and blanks to be filled withvocabulary learned through the clothes presentation. The presenter student revises what hisclassmates do and sometimes explains to them.07:00: The teacher claps both the students who presented the topics and thosewho participated and asks if they have any doubts about the vocabulary learned, the studentsanswer the topics were clear and understandable, their answers are given in French but withsome degree of first language interference. He gives to three students topics to be presented onnext Monday.07:10: The teacher starts to look back on last lesson work which was the „passé composé‟ togive entrance to the new topic the „plus-que-parfait‟.07:25: He gives them some examples in Spanish to bright them a light on this tense.07:35: Explanation is done in L1 in order to facilitate understanding when the teacher realizesthe students are some confused. He shows them some on-line exercises andexplains to them tense structure, use and the difference of this tense to the „imparfait‟ tense.
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 3007:45: Teacher comes back to explain the „passé composé‟ with the aim to achieve studentsassimilate this tense easier. The students showed ease to handle the structure but not a cleardistinction of when to use this tense.07:55: Realizing this topic is difficult to assimilate the teacher gives the students some linkswhere they can do on-line exercises (Point du FLE). He remembers to students the assignmentfor next class (to pose 5 questions about le livre “ machine a rejeunir”). Second classroom observation report.Teacher observed: Emerson Castro.Observer: Yeison Guerra.Date: March 16th 2011Observation Table following the models of “Tasks for Teacher Education” (PearsonEducation Limited) and “Teacher assistant classroom observation” (Role carried out as firststage in applied linguistics course, 2010).Class: French.Place: IB 109 Classroom.Classroom organization: Kind of round-table.Number of students: 13.Age: 17-20 years old.Level: Intermediate I.Semester: Third.Length of class: 2 hours.
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 31Time: 06:00- 08:00 hs.Class exercises/ topics: Reading of a text with B1 nature, reading comprehension and role-plays about real situations as a rehearsal for oral and written testings.Materials used: Whiteboard, markers and document of candidate for collective tests.Aims of the lesson: To locate the students in a context of formal testing.Talking time: Students mostly spoke in Spanish among them. Teacher mostly spoke inFrench.Learners‟ participation and linguistic interaction: Most of the students were activelyanalyzing the text and debating it in L1 among them. When doing the activities most of themused Spanish to help themselves to understand and produce. L2 use was inferior to that of L1. Classroom observation report following Richards & Nunan‟s example.06:05: The students come in the classroom; they start talking about the last class assignmentand show each other what they have done. A student receives a phone call, it is the teachersaying to her he will come a bit late. She communicates this to the class. They continue todebate their work done.06:20: The teacher comes in the classroom and apologizes in French. He sits in the desk area,he seems very confident. The students are sitting down and expecting what to do.The teacher puts out some pieces of paper and starts saying to them the lesson developmentwhich will be based on a document reading and its comprehension and besides a role-playsperformance by students according to real situations he will give them.06:28: The teacher starts giving material to each of students. They start reading and lookingfor unknown words in their dictionaries. Some of them interact with each other in L1; the restis reading the text either mentally or orally and taking notes.06:33: Some students ask the teacher aspects of the term. He explains to them nature, lengthand possible activities of the test. The test schedule is debated and fixed by teachers andstudents.06:48: The teacher writes down on the whiteboard the questions related to the text. Anotherstudent comes in the classroom. Some classmates explain to her what to be done and theteacher gives her the material.
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 3206:53: The teacher asks them if finished, they all answer „no‟.The students continue to debate the text in couple and sometimes with the rest.06:58: A student asks a question to the teacher using L1 and he turns this question to L2, so,the student asks him again but this time in French.07:00: The teacher asks the student if they want to read the document but they seem unwillingto do it. Then he starts reading the beginning of the first paragraph and stops. He asks astudent to continue.07:05: The couples read the document paragraphs in sequence.07:06- 07: 20: when students make pronunciation mistakes the teacher corrects them andwrites on the whiteboard the phonetics of words wrongly pronounced and pronounce themcorrectly. In measure that he pronounces he asks them to repeat.07:22- 07:30: The questions are answered orally by each couple.The teacher emphasizes on justification and tells students that this is a key aspect in B1 tests.07: 35: The teacher asks the student to make a parallel of text with the Colombian realitycontext.07:40: The students start speaking in French but sometimes they show lack of vocabulary andfinish to speak in Spanish.07:45: The teacher tells them he will continue to do this type of exercises in order to improvethe speaking skill and that also exercises of phonetics and intonation will be aspects to workon.07:50: The teacher gives students some situations to play. The roles are played by groups ofthree students.07:55- 08-10: Throughout the role-plays are being performed pronunciation mistakes appear.The mistakes are corrected by both the teacher and students. When the students presentobstacles in speaking they are helped by their classmates.08:15: The teacher congratulates the students by their effort and tells them he will send themactivities samples to their e-mails for them to prepare for the oral and written parts of the term.He apologizes again and encourages them to study for passing the test.
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 33 Transcriptions of the interviewsInterviewer: ¿Cuál es su experiencia pasada en el aprendizaje delfrancés como lengua extranjera?Respondent 1: “ehh/ehh desde el momento en que yo inicie mi carrerano tenía conocimiento en cuanto a francés no tenia bases ehh/ehh peroahorita ehh me ha permitido saber más un poco más de la lengua,entenderla más”.Respondent 2: “ehh, bueno /// umm pues ehh anteriormente no/no no hetenido ehh la oportunidad de aprender francés ehh pues ni en elcolegio ni en ningún tipo de cursos así de / de ese tipo de pues deeste tipo de cosas pero lo que he aprendido o sea es a través de lacarrera ahora/ ahora que ingrese a la universidad pero anteriormenteno/no/no/no había tenido ningún tipo de aprendizaje ehh del idiomafrancés”.Respondent 3: “Bueno pues mi experiencia pasada en el aprendizaje delfrancés pues ha sido muy poca desde que inicié la carrera acá en laUniversidad de Pamplona pues el francés ha sido algo nuevo para mípues resta decir que cuando empecé mi carrera yo había hecho algunoscursos virtuales por Internet pero eran cursos muy básicos como losnúmeros, expresiones comunes de comunes como decir buenos días,buenas tardes, ¿cómo está?, ¿qué ha hecho? Hasta luego y básicamentecon esas pequeñas o con esas mínimas bases me le entre al francés”.Interviewer: ¿Cuál es su estilo de aprendizaje?Respondent 1: “umm, mi estilo de aprendizaje es ehh/ehh escribirlo yescucharlo”.Respondent 2: “ehh pues/ creo que / si considero que/que puedo ser unaprendiz/ ehh auditivo porque por ejemplo / al escuchar / algúntipo de/de ¿Cómo puedo decir? ehh / algún tipo de / bueno de textodigamos en un/ en un audio o algo así entonces pues a la vez yo ahípuedo copiar algo que lo que yo entiendo o tratar de escribir lo quemás o menos entiendo y pues así voy ehh retomando para pues aprender
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 34cierto tipo de/de cosas de/ del francés”.Respondent 3: “bueno pues mi estilo de aprendizaje es más que todopues en mi tiempo libre ehh veo cualquier película en francés, megusta verla sin subtítulos así no se entienda nada sino básicamentelo hago como por enseñar o como por educar mi oído y acostumbrarme ala fluidez que tiene un nativo para hablar francés”.Interviewer: ¿A qué actividades está expuest@ en el salón de clase?Respondent 1: “umm, en el salón de clase se ha /se realizan ehh serealizan actividades como ehh del/de escucha, de escritura y pues esonos permite como mejorar mas/mas en cuanto al idioma”.Respondent 2: “ehh /// a / todo tipo de actividades por ejemplo lasque el profesor nos da ehh/ehh son actividades en grupo con/conalgunas algunos documentos que él nos lleva en francés para que losanalicemos y/y los entendamos y a veces salgamos a/a salgamos a haceralgún tipo de/de/de // bueno de reflexión ehh/ehh/ehh enn en no sé en/ por ejemplo en los / ehh jeu de role a / ehh a veces ah sí algunasveces o también con la / algunas veces ehh también se/se trabaja loque es el écouté o/y y si el análisis del e/ecouté que el profesornos/nos hace”.Respondent 3: “bueno pues actividades hay muchas pues lo que nuestroprofesor, nuestra profesora que ten/que tengo este semestre pues ellainteractúa demasiado con nosotros, nos pone a hacer roleplays, nosenseña expresiones cada día diferentes; la verdad eso lo hace sentira uno muy bien porque poco o mucho uno aprende cada día, conoce másde la lengua, cosas pequeñas de la cultura que llevan en los paísesfrancófonos más que todo eso”.Interviewer: ¿Cómo es la interacción con los compañeros en el salónde clase?Respondent 1: “umm, pues la interacción es/es ehh/ehh es que ehh //la interacción es ehh/ehh/ehh en el momento en que/que/que/que/quepor/ se realizan las actividades ehh/ehh hacemos determinados ehhgrupos umm ahí podemos ehh como discutir un poco/ mas o sea hablarmás el idioma como si”.Respondent 2: “ehh pues entre todos creo que hay una pues no hay asíuna interacción pues bien a fondo con ehh de todo el grupo ósea peroigual personalmente yo considero que/ ehh mi interacción es como mas
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 35ehh centrada como con el profesor pero los con los/los compañeros noes mucha porque pues no se ehh pero me preocupo mas por interactuarcon el profesor y hablar con él y pues ya es si me toca pues conalgún compañero así ehh pues uno tiene su/su compañerito pues porahí con el que uno más se la lleva y pues ya más que todo así”.Respondent 3: bueno pues la interacción de los compañeros en el salónde clase pues es buena, nosotros muchas veces en clases nos ponemos ahablar en francés, tratamos de hablar en francés, tratamos depronunciarlo puesto que ya es algo complicado pues para nosotros perohay mucha dinámica con los amigos y es muy bueno, la verdad es muybueno porque uno va soltando mas la lengua ehh va perdiendo el miedode hablar en esa lengua y pues es bueno.Interviewer: ¿Cómo ha aprendido el francés, de manera grupal,individual o las dos?Respondent 1: “ehh /// como de las 2 formas pero más que todo ehh masque todo individual porque/porque cuando estoy en mi casa yohago/hago más actividades lo que es ehh escribir bastante un poco másla gramática, escuchar también bastante”.Respondent 2: “creo que más que todo individual ehh si bueno igual setrabaja en grupo no bueno en grupo no ehh con otra persona con otrocompañero en el salón algunas veces se trabaja así y uno aprende asíehh con el otro compañero pero personalmente aprendo mas ehhindividualmente ehh y si trato de hacerlo solo y esto me hafuncionado pues mejor”.Respondent 3: “ehh la pregunta es muy clara yo solo no puedo aprenderfrancés puesto que uno muchas veces se pone a estudiar y uno haycosas que no las entiende, uno muchas veces inventa la pronunciaciónde cualquier palabra entonces uno necesita de las 2 formas tantoindividual como grupal entonces cada aspecto le ayuda a uno porejemplo un compañero que tenga un nivel más avanzado le puedecolaborar a uno ya sea el profesor a mí me gusta preguntarle almaestro: profesor, ¿cómo se pregunta esto? Si (…) yo lo estabapronunciando de tal manera le digo: ¿Por qué?, ¿dónde tengo mi error?Y así básicamente es”.Interviewer: ¿Cree que las actividades en el salón de clase lepermiten adquirir más lenguaje?Respondent 1: “umm, pues ehh si/si y no son, la verdad no son lo
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 36suficientes para mejorar el lenguaje, deberían como hacerte como unpoco mas de estrategias, como mas métodos más que el estudiante lepermita como (cre) desenvolverse más en el idioma, mas en la lengua”.Respondent 2: “ehh pues si ah/eh por ejemplo hay ciertas actividadesque/que el docente nos/nos/nos/nos/nos coloca para que ehh las/lasrealicemos ehh la o consultemos y las llevemos al salón y si esalgún tipo de exposición pues ehh todo el grupo expone y así poco apoco ehh creo que si/si ha servido y si o sea uno va adquiriendo a lavez que va adquiriendo vocabulario uno lo/lo trata de utilizar de side ponerlo a la práctica y si eso ha sido de mucha ayuda”.Respondent 3: “pues, sí. Claro que sí. puesto que en cada clase unoaprende cosas nuevas, uno aprende temas diferentes, aprende más quetodo gramática que es lo importante, aprende a pensar en francés, ahacerse una situación de la vida cotidiana y claro las actividadesdentro del salón de clases son muy buenas y le ayudan a uno adesenvolverse más en esa lengua”.Interviewer: ¿Qué nivel considera tener en cuánto a francés?Respondent 1: “ehh pues ehh como el a2 o si más o menos el a2”.Respondent 2: “en cuanto a nivel de lengua francesa considero quetengo un nivel pues creo si ehh un a / a2 si porque la verdad no/no/es pues no estoy tan preparado así que digamos pues bien como paradecir ya estoy adquiriendo un b1 o un b2 pero ehh con lo que a lolargo de la carrera he llevado pues ahora considero que es un a2”.Respondent 3: “bueno yo digo que para estar en el semestre en queestoy pues me considero que, puedo decir que tengo el a1 sin temor aequivocarme pues ya se hablar de mí mismo, se preguntar cosaspequeñas, se entablar medianamente una conversación y pues ya con lopoco que tengo de aprendizaje en el francés, de la poca fluidez quetengo pues, me defiendo pero no así que ¡huy qué bien! Pero medefiendo un poquito”.Interviewer: ¿Qué es para usted el a2 y qué implica?Respondent 1: “umm, ehh entender/entender el idioma o sea en elmomento en que el profesor le este a uno dando como que, dandouna/una/una ¿cómo es que se dice? una / una un tema o algo si lopodamos entender ehh que explique un tema y lo entendamos ehhescribirlo, lo podamos escribir, podamos leerlo”.
Exploring the Effect of Exposure to L2 through Activities inside the Classroom 37Respondent 2: “Ehh pues por ejemplo soy capaz de/ presentarme y / enfrancés ehh y/y difícilmente ehh puedo entender un texto y dar miopinión sobre lo que el texto me quiere decir ehh pero lo hago y lotrato de hacer y/ pues y por otra parte cuando quiero hablar y/y eimprovisar pues ehh me queda muy difícil y/y y ya y no considero quesea como un nivel tan pues mas como más avanzado entonces pues creoque por eso considero que es un a2 ehh hasta ahí”.