إدارة الأزمات للباحث يحيى الزنط


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إدارة الأزمات للباحث يحيى الزنط

  1. 1. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP IN THE LIGHT OF INELUCTABILITY OF CHANGEAFTER THE REVOLUTION OF JANUARY 25 TH"STRATEGIC VISION Prepared and presented by YehIa El ZOnt Researcher in Humanities Management Science [Type the document subtitle]
  2. 2. RH 1 Strategic Leadership in the light of ineluctability of Change After the Revolution of January 52 th "Strategic Vision" Prepared and presented by YehIa El ZOnt Researcher in Humanities Management Science
  3. 3. RH 5 Notice: This research has enabled to obtain the Grade of Management-Leadership from the Egyptian Police Academy on 72 October 7122 Dedicated To those concerned by future leadership… To scholars in Management Science and practitioners… To leaders in various areas… For a brighter future… To all those who contributed in this modest thesis… convinced of its importance in this stage…
  4. 4. RH 3 Thanks and appreciation Praise be to Allah, prayer and peace be upon His Messenger and the Seal of the Prophets, Prophet Muhammad and his family and companions. I thank God Almighty for having enabled me to complete this study and I express my gratitude to all those who participated and helped me obtaining this high-leveled degree, rich in contents and so beneficial… to all of them I express my thanks, my appreciation and my gratitude. I also thank in particular:  Dr. Hisham Arafa The Scientific Supervisor  Dr. Gamal Tawfiq Lecturer in Research Methodology  My Professor Saad El Zant Head of the Center for Strategic Studies and Strategist. Who, through their wise guidance and bright advices enabled me to complete this study in its final drafting; their support and for having motivated me and transmitting me scientific and practical experience in addition to invaluable moral values. May God bless them for that… I also thank all mo colleagues and friends. And our final prayer is praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds and peace and blessings on the Master of the first and the last
  5. 5. RH 4 our Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him and all his family and companions. The Researcher PREAMBLE There is no doubt we are living an era dominated by major institutional conflicts and failures… A time combining painful endings and hopeful beginnings… a period where all what seemed rooted becomes obsolete and dies and where something else is eager to appear. When we look at the world map and see the continents stable and forming a global island surrounded by water from everywhere, we discover the magnitude of the role required by the major changes… Earth was not divided in that manner and without the trembling, earthquakes and cracks the Earth would have been a single mass and we would not have seen this map as it is known nowadays. The former Czech President and playwright Vaclav Havel said: "There are good reasons suggesting that the modern era has ended and there are many things showing that we are going through a transitional period and it seems that something is on its way to disappear and that something else arises in pain; as if there is something crumbles,
  6. 6. RH 2 disintegrates and consumes itself, while another thing not yet not clearly distinct arises from emerges from rubble." Therefrom and applying on the nature of our national organizations, we note that the civilizational changes taking place in Egypt - at this stage – require in turn an earthquake to design once again its cultural and humanitarian face, and draw the most luxurious and bright colors and provide it with hope and determination. To play its role, the new leadership needs new human resource, valiant…able to overcome obstacles…introducing new tracks… leader… optimistic and interacting…electronically thinking… a leader relying on people… trusting them… using methods of global quality and management engineering and information technologies… a leadership concerned by the creating the future instead of formalities and technicalities devoid of any content. And when States are facing the growing challenges and seek to engage into the future, the intellectual earthquake becomes a must, as it requires a new modeling of the mind and definition of possible and impossible changes and previous concepts and criterion of thought generated by these challenges regress… this earthquake is the element renewing the vitality of minds
  7. 7. RH 6 and contributes in sorting ideas and masterfully constructs the bridge through which societies move towards future. Thus, the future of Egypt now depends on the ability of existing organizations and sectors to respond to and interact with the earthquake of minds and building such capacity is what we called "Management of the Future". So, how could we grasp its opportunities? Philosophy of building and manage the future is a strategic cycle that should be present in the programs for developing Egypt at this stage. This is what I am trying to highlight and give myself an opportunity to contribute even modestly through this modest book to build capacities of the decision makers (at all levels, orientations and patterns) in designing its promising future, based on values of creativity, scientific thought, reconstruction, justice and interconnexion, arming it with tools of appropriate cultural change and granting it skills helping it to deal with (political – administrative – cultural – social – security) environment becoming more complex and intermixed, which produced entirely new systems and ideologies compared to what we experienced during the past decades.
  8. 8. RH 7 We are trying to work and contribute in developing the production of sciences of changes and to be the precursors in dealing with these sciences in this field and to set up a new look on the nature of changes and explore the future and predict its course through strategic leadership and its unique specificities in managing organizations and capacity of creating such organizations ready to face crisis, exceptional or unexpected events – a direct management and not a reactive one – and get ready to face them in order to deal with them and limit its risks and threats and control them and exiting from them towards future opportunities reflecting aspirations of the society with all its communities and categories and targeted elements including citizens and those who have also the right to obtain services from leaders (each in its place) at highly leveled standards, so they can feel the efforts deployed to their profit – on one hand – and their dignity and humanity – on the other hand. This perception of the importance of managing the future has led to the necessity to establish a kind of strategic coalitions among a range of human sciences (such as management – sociology – psychology – behavior) which will result in that these sciences, integrated and reformulated theories will be an integral part of the sciences of the future… aiming at providing a scientific methodology to remind people
  9. 9. RH 8 belonging to this homeland and ensure a real benefit from changing and rooting on a scientific basis able to achieve the security and civilizational change. …pursuant to the requirements of events of January 52th 5111 we are still living the effects, only the urgency or rush may settle the course and outcome of throes currently experienced by the Arab World. Change is a necessity, it is also a struggle. In the attempts to reach the bottom of the current impasse, we have to realize that at the bottom of the historical moment, we discover that the continuation of the current situation is impossible because it means further deterioration and also the fall of a nation among the most ancient nations in History and in human civilization. This is why we need "change", but change has its projects which differ and vary – as we notice it now all over the Arab World level where parties emerges in an incomplete form as well as random coalitions and civil society random associations – to an extent making the fight being a logical consequence of the conflicting projects of change. These are not the type of projects that enable a kind of participation, as they do not represent solutions able to exist alongside but final historical options of the type "Either…or…?"
  10. 10. RH 9 Therefore the necessity of change and its conflicts coincides and create this situation and this crisis. We have to carry out this change and we must fight since we try to make the change. The change proposed in the following pages is "the Renaissance, the modernity and the Informatics" which include Renovation and Development and the condition of originality and authenticity… it is a project that is opposed to projects of exiting from identity and cultural reference, and confirms that the solutions comes out from the fact that the nation belongs to its civilization and its capacity of true renovation. Current protests or criticism or revolutions are the results of long series of political, economical and social causes in each country, at the regional level and global level as a whole. Thus…they do not arise from a sole factor, even if the role of impacting factors is not stable and even if in a single case between the beginnings and the endings. In other words, these movements did not occur as a result of a decision made by a single group, whether internal or external and it is sometimes able to decide the contrary, meaning the stop of the revolution
  11. 11. RH 11 or the insurgency or the protest and decide, subsequently, the return to a normal life, after having achieved the private or general goals it was aiming. It is not possible, of course, to discover the start of the movement of the "Arabic Spring" through positions and writings of the affected bodies… whether systems or beneficiaries of such systems or even their supporters… It is also impossible to rely on the conclusions of the alleged protectors of human rights and freedom in the world…those pretending to speak on behalf of the "world community" or the international public opinion. What occurs and continue in form of protest movements whether huge or small, limited or extensive, looking like insurgencies and maybe revolutions are the expression of a "historical inevitability" whose stages cover the long and sinuous history though directed generally– according to an ascending line – towards freedom and human development and reinforcement and validation of its gains, increase and magnification of its achievements, and building new foundations in the monument of its civilization on this unique planet in this strange universe… is the one worthy to lead the world and dominate it with its will.
  12. 12. RH 11 In this regard we would like to draw the attention on the fact that among the worst mistakes about understanding and interpretation of the events – changes, insurgencies and revolutions – is the confusion between the aims and the tools used to achieve them. The most dangerous types of confusion consists in establishing a relationship of similarity and reduction between interests of power and categories and social classes and between individuals who played influential roles throughout the stages of turns, changes and revolution. When subjective factors overwhelmed and amplified in an abnormal manner, there were abuse, confusion of the path and huge damages. Deviation starts small then grows. Point of contacts appeared and contacting links seemed at first look geographically farther than we thought than being a purely local Egyptian production. The starting point, though it seems generally gloomy, however the injustice occurring afterwards may go beyond all limits and all rights and all objective facts. We do not intend to judge the events of January 52th 5111 because History is not merciful to those who initiated it and thought they have said the final and decisive work; as the
  13. 13. RH 15 events continue and the sufferings are still occurring and the baby still does not see the light… it is still in the womb of the events… and most importantly there are doubts in determining the legal father of the baby which leads us as researchers to deepen our study in this direction considering that we are an integral part and a pillar of the social system of the State, in addition to our social inevitable responsibility towards our follow citizens. We intended through these digressions to assert the basis or the objective nature of the unprecedented protest operation that Arab World is still witnessing… and the confirmation of such basis or essential factor does not negate other factors, internal or external, political or economical, of security or mood or even vendetta and psychological factors buried in the depth of the unconsciousness in some segments of the society and its categories, falling within the range of implications or arising from the increase of sufferings. We are always living in the middle of open conflict. It is basically generated from a tendency in control and domination and devoting them to the interest of social forces aware of their interests in general or struggling for fighting injustice and control and predominance and deprivation and poverty and tyranny…
  14. 14. RH 13 However the embalming of experiences and people on one hand and reliance on transfer without criticism (which is addition and deletion), and deviations and small interests on the other hand have caused retractations and losses and confusions, that confirmed once again the comprehensiveness of the conflict and the contradiction that are in fact the real "birth" of the "History", meaning progress, liberation and civilization…this is what we sincerely hope from a purely national vision. We would like, here, to highlight strategic joint element (external environment – internal environment) between the protest movements, the insurgencies and revolutions… and also a major strategic difference. Regarding the joint element it concerns displacement towards freedom… and also the common is the attempt to exploit the protest movement in order to serve aims of regional and International influencing forces, fearing for their interests or seeking for them, depending on the concerned country and its conditions. The Syrian case represents a model of such context, as the foreign interventions are increasing in a frantically race, in addition to internal reactions burdened with seizures and
  15. 15. RH 14 confiscations and intimidation and eager desire for freedom, for participation and exit from the state of emergency and exception to a state of permanent stability. Regarding the difference, all this is growing next to what was ongoing and still continues in matter of propaganda speeches and hollow rituals, to build with the help of the efforts deployed by writers and media figures and ordinary of exceptional activists attempting to explain what is happening and trying to justify it and giving it the true or counterfeit legitimacy it deserves – each according to its agenda. All this is taking place and offers us finally a state of hope and distortion amidst great sufferings and sacrifices of the rest of the citizens confirming what we said in the beginning. Accordingly…it is necessary to free the large targets from the small and selfish interests and inevitably free the noble targets from the burden of mediators and tools, particularly interests of individuals…to be noted that revolutions are not achieved immediately and according to a final pattern unchanged and irremovable…this is why the true revolutionary patriots in the historical continued and extended sense cannot rest… as world will continue to oppress poor and weak people…and those people must continue to fight and protest and the Revolution is not
  16. 16. RH 12 merely a political concept of changing regimes but there are scientific revolutions based on knowledge and culture and civilization…forever! Importance of the Study  The importance of the study and its value is based on the fact that it addresses an important topic and is essentially linked to change and evolution such as the social need thereof reflecting on the political systems governing a State and the way of managing wisely its organizations.  It also highlights the importance of the research in seeking for new horizons that should not be ignored, particularly the necessity to understand the nature of the stage which is consistent with the requirements of the phase that Egypt is passing through after the events of January 52th 5111 and an attempt to anticipate the future through presentation of a part of the problems and questions that would eventually create future opportunities.  The importance of the study also consists in getting acquainted with the concept of leadership and its role in dealing with the crisis in the midst of which we are living, as it one of the concepts widely expanding in our
  17. 17. RH 16 contemporary society and is affecting in one way or another all the aspects of life…  Since the language of our epoch consists in anticipating future, in order to deduce before it happens what we should do to face it in the best effective and efficient way and if possible to participate in modeling it, it was necessary to find a strategic leadership with special management skills and genius in a very critical moment, not only for Egypt but also for the whole Arab World; this leadership should possess the capabilities to overcome political challenges in the current crisis.  Putting forward a strategic vision that could help the decision makers in dealing with future events with all their implications and threats and seeking for promising opportunities in the light of the experience of our long- standing organizations. Problem of the Research   The problem of the research is that anyone who follows the crises faced by Egypt since events of January 52th 5111 will find that there is an intellectual confusion that hit most of those who made it and those who are directing the current events.
  18. 18. RH 17  This intellectual confusion that hit the Egyptian society has resulted in a total unawareness or understanding of the current events and the nature of the phase, which affected naturally their behavior and conduct and consequently made them lose the compass and a sound vision of the future.  The absence of intellectual and psychological readiness of the society enabling it to absorb such a volume of information from the (visual – written and audio) media in addition to the virtual world of course.  Besides an almost complete inability to learn from previous crisis and accumulation of lessons that they benefit from in order to avoid and prevent future crisis that could result in a catastrophe completely ruining the country.  In this context, there is a serious lack of efficient administrative leadership with creative capabilities and well qualified intellectually and psychologically and having cumulative experience enabling them to overcome the crisis and control its consequences and benefit from lessons and even re-investing them.. Aims of the Research
  19. 19. RH 18 Looking forward to building a better society based on knowledge and modernity through sufficiency and justice; no doubt that this trend would have a direct impact on the citizen and also on the regime, as well as on the methods of achieving business, management and performance of responsibilities and activities.  The nature of current events we are living and their scientific definition.  Getting acquainted with the philosophy of change through introduction to humanities (sociology, administration and behavioral psychology.  In the context of these data, the evolution of the state bodies, upgrading them and improving their working methods become part of vital national requirements… the administrative body in any system is its major nerve and essential basis.  Getting acquainted with the leadership and its role through their definitions and types and requirements and importance in such phase.  Attempt to reach some results regarding the nature and specificity of the organizations headed by creative leadership for organizations ready to face crisis.  Understanding of the Crisis Management and being acquainted with its major phases.
  20. 20. RH 19  Monitoring and analyzing the main mechanisms of crisis management.  Getting acquainted with the way to manage the crisis.  Getting acquainted with the specificities and possibilities of the executive management and the creative leadership.  Highlighting the role of creative leadership in crisis management at different phases: strategic role and technical role.  Raising the potential and activating the static in the soul to continue effort in training and education and research and practicing and applying in order to create a successful leader first in ourselves then in those we are responsible for…the reform operation and assessment of its services and developing its activities become a matter of urgency and perhaps a duty… particularly since its internal and external environment is passing through a crucial stage of its history and existence.  Working out the strategy during the next stage after the events of January 52th 5111. Critical vision I would like to say as a conclusion of this part (and if I may express, the temporary exit from the scientific pattern of the research), that the prevalence of negativity and indifference and weak management and lack of discipline and contempt of
  21. 21. RH 51 science and scientists and researchers and disrespect of systems and laws, all these are environmental secretions lacking in their composition, refusing change and opposed to its achievement and preventing it from happening and accepting stagnation and backwardness. In Egypt we live an era of change and progress, an era full of developments reinforced by technical and technological changes, inventions and both communication and knowledge revolutions, and an era of information…all of these represent a very hard challenge for decision makers; this is why we consider that getting acquainted with the change science and its ability to achieve the change and control it in an appropriate manner to reach the goals desired by the whole humanity is essential and should be ignored. A change in the features of the epoch and dealing with it has become absolutely essential and is reflecting without any doubt the true development of the mankind civilization. Assumptions and questions of the study In the light of the problem and aims of the study, this study is based essentially on the assumption that: "there is an implicit relationship between forecasting the future and readiness to face it – through understanding the nature of the phase lived by the country – understanding the changes that occurred in the Egyptian society following the events of January 52th 5111
  22. 22. RH 51 – and between the capacity of the leadership to deal with the crisis situation and efficiency of crisis management"… this study seeks to answer the following questions:  What is the leadership and what are its characteristics and specificities and patterns and rooting scientific theories? And what is the difference between them and the management?  Nature of crisis and terminology and connected concepts and how to manage them?  What is the role of the leadership in crisis management?  What is the crisis management?  What is the strategic leadership and what are its specificities?  What is the suggested strategy during the next phase after the events of January 52th 5111? Research Methodology The team preparing this research has used the descriptive and analytic method and deductive approach which describes the changes of the study through the study of the subject of the study namely the leadership between reality and expectation, and deduction of some results to find a scientific and methodological mechanism to predict the future and present a suggested strategy to find an opportunity through which we may cross the tunnel of crisis generated by these events.
  23. 23. RH 55 Tools used in this study The researchers will use a number of major helpful tools as well as the following general tools:  A number of books and researches and specialized scientific and academic periodicals.  A number of scientific thesis  A number of cultural and social books and periodicals concerned with the matter. In this context we will try to access to the future through the events we are living and analyze them in a descriptive way based on a set of tools and scientific helpful and general research tools in order to search their depths and understand their motivations and their causes in order to reach deductions and a set of recommendations and proposals. Difficulties  The researcher faced a range of difficulties due to severe time constraints which led us to take time and rights of
  24. 24. RH 53 the family and this had a great psychological and social impact on the family members.  The abundance of scientific material and the weight of its scientific balance requiring us to read a large number of books and references in order to find an original scientific material enabling to count on it. The proposed perception of the study We have divided the study into four chapters…In the first one we have addressed the leadership and started as a first step by enumerating its definitions and specific concepts and introduction to its study, and as a second step we highlighted the leadership in the managing thought and types of leadership and concluded with the third part representing the ethics of leadership and its problems particularly in developing countries. In the second chapter that we devoted to answer to the special assumption of the study, the nature of crisis and the
  25. 25. RH 54 terminology and concepts connected thereof and the way of managing them; and the role of leadership in managing crisis. …We divided it into three parts, the first one concerning the definition of crisis; the second part devoted to the leadership and its role and mechanisms in crisis management and the last part for the creative leadership in crisis management. We dealt in Chapter three the strategic leadership and divided the chapter into three parts, the first one to answer the question of the research and study regarding the meaning of strategy and what are its characteristics and patterns and its generating scientific theories? And the difference between it and the management? We then briefly went on in a digression we considered important within the context of the research and its logical narrative ideas to highlight in the second part the comprehensive national strategy, its importance and essence and the importance in relying upon… we concluded the chapter with a last part presenting the role of data building for the institution and its influence on its strategic planning. The above rooting leads inevitably to the fourth chapter and the answer to the last question regarding the study assumption, namely the nature of strategy during the next phase after events of January 52th 5111, and what are its
  26. 26. RH 52 characteristics and what is the future vision we can offer for such phase? And proposing a strategic vision based on this leadership in two parts and finally concluding with a number of results leading us to recommendations and proposals hoping they will promote our deep-rooted organizations and benefiting to the country …our beloved Egypt. Possible vision for the contents of the Research  Preamble  Importance of the research  Problem of the Research  Aims of the Research  Critical vision  Assumptions of the Research questions  Research methodology  Research tools  Difficulties faced by the Research  Suggested vision of the Research Chapter I: Leadership  Part One: Definition of the leadership and introduction to the study of leadership management and management thought.  Part Two: Leadership patterns and its ethics and problems in developing countries.
  27. 27. RH 56 Chapter II: Role of the leadership in crisis management  Part One: The Crisis  Part Two: Leadership and mechanisms of crisis management  Part Three: Creative leadership in crisis management Chapter III:Strategic Leadership  Part One: Strategy…Containment and planning  Part Two: Comprehensive national strategy  Part Three: Database building of the Organization and its impact on planning  Part Four: Characteristics of the strategic leadership Chapter IV: Security strategy during the next phase after the events of January 72th 7122.  Part One: Security strategy  Second Part: Strategic vision of the future Results of the Research - Conclusion - Recommendations - Bibliography - Contents
  28. 28. RH 57 Finally…heritage of science in Egypt is rich with its men – the Science – sparing no efforts in keeping up with its modernity and managing its knowledge… I am personally convinced that we are about to establish a human Egyptian civilization…teaching the world as we did before…The Egyptian civilization and leadership cycle is to come, God Willing… We believe this is the ineluctability of change as it is also the aspirations and wishes of peoples. And since God only is perfect, we apologize for any mistakes or unintentional omissions as we only wanted to be diligent in presenting a modest study in an attempt through which we could express what we have deduced from the current moment we live…and to highlight the meanings of the events and their philosophy…and specify their features and also shed light on some social phenomenon that could help us understanding the phase and prepare ourselves to new coming events that could be more hazy and possible catastrophic crisis…as well as the role of the wise and conscious leadership in managing and dealing with them…and deducing the future opportunities from learned lessons and initiating anticipated mechanisms for events to come through a strategic vision enabling leaders to achieve scientific and knowledge roots deepening for the next phase…
  29. 29. RH 58 God willing, Yahya El Zent . Notice: This research has enabled to obtain the Grade of Management – Crisis Management from the American University in Cairo on 72 August 7122. Role of Leadership and Strategic Planning In Crisis Management Applied to Revolution of January th Prepared and presented by
  30. 30. RH 59 Yahya El Zent June Dedication…. …To my late mother and father, may God have mercy on them…in commemoration.. …To my elder brother Dr. Saad, in gratitude… …To my dearest wife and mother of my children Omar, Tareq and Nermine…in gratitude… …To my wife's father Dr. Mohamed Nada and wife's mother Dr. Noha Shawky…in gratitude.. …To all those who helped me in this modest assumption…convinced by its importance… The Researcher…
  31. 31. RH 31 Introduction We are all living now in a world of crisis, a world of major entities and major crisis and conflicting interests. The more interests are increasing, expanding and conflicting, the more crisis are generated and vary and intensify. History lessons have confirmed that at the same time where major powers seek to impose their control and influence, there is a definite desire of the small entities for independence and survival and growth… Such desires collide with the endeavors of major powers, and this generates crisis.
  32. 32. RH 31 Furthermore in the relationship of disagreement between administrative entities within a same economical system and aspects of alienation existing between an individual and his work and performance in the same employment, and between his ambitions in his activity and requirements of behavior within a same social context and between the openness of thought and the variety of its schools, all this was a reason for outbreak of crisis. The majority of administrative decision makers in our country rely upon the administrative system in a daily manner; they are involved and engaged in the routine life and their personal concerns, seeking to manage their own needs, distracted from listening to the importance of the scientific management in their administrative entities they are responsible of and refusing any new approach to the management science.. Hence the emergence of our crisis and their deep impact due to the fact that the decision maker lacks knowledge of the scientific roots and overwhelmed by random, improvised and emotional factors; thus issuing unwise decisions leading finally to harming the administrative entity. Despite the occurrence of crisis is an old phenomenon, we gave it due attention only during the past years as the crisis accelerated and diversified and intensified through sudden transformations and vanished within time and space that separate entities which felt that no matter how big they are they still work and interact with a world wider than their private world and therefore the sense of the universality of the crisis increased whatever its specificities. We are living in a world full of various crises: economical – social – cultural – moral. World is a sole entity, economically, politically, administratively, culturally and socially connected and interacting. Any administrative entity, whatever small sized is not immune against the effects of crisis and events in the world. So, the use of scientific methods as a method for dealing with crisis has become inevitable in order to avoid destructive consequences. …Therefore, the management of crisis is a material, in-kind, moral and spiritual one altogether… It is an interactive management, permanent and continuous, connected to the existence of a life and will of developing progress whether for the working system or the State. This is why the researcher considers that this scientific management is a one with inevitable conflicting dimensions against inertia and ossification and against negativity and backwardness, considered as the climate in which the crisis are emerging and interacting and expanding ignorance and fear from taking decisions are the most important reasons leading to crisis since the majority of crisis faced by the security organizations need a scientific and wise management to get rid of them. The epoch we are living in is full of crisis; the question to be asked is no more whether the crisis is coming or not? But the question is what would do the Institution when the crisis arrives? This is the philosophy of the research and the person conviction of the researcher, as the term of crisis
  33. 33. RH 35 ranges among terms and daily life human concepts associated with the human being since creation of the world as Almighty God said:" We created man in the liver [Sura of the country: 4]. It is therefore a universal law bound by God to his creatures in Earth enabling them to seek for satisfying their daily and personal needs and sounding the depths of the universe in all its aspects and components and dimensions and Man will only seek knowledge in such elements if he falls under pressure of need and craving desire… Except that we notice that a large number of leaders ignore this reality; they think that their organizations are immune against crisis and that crisis cannot, whatever it is, affect or harm the institution or surprise it at the time where this crisis is effectively within its tissue and structure. The past two decades was marked by the acceleration and depth and sharpness of global transformations under which the different types of organizations are acting, and this leads to the impossibility for the organizations and validated traditional planning methods to forecast in short term and benefit from previous experience in planning for analyzing historical events. Such mechanisms are no more able to face the challenges of the future and adapt to successive global changes. Moreover, the relative importance of the internal criteria established by the organizations themselves has decreased, compared to external criteria imposed and determined by the best global organizations. When human stray from his path and want to reach his goal he must have a map indicating the features of the place he is located in then he needs a compass determining the orientations, and without a compass or a guide indicating the path he is unable to decipher the codes of the map and his presence becomes equal to nothing. The strategic planning becomes therefore the compass guiding the organizations and indicating the right path they should follow…Some people define it as being an organized effort to reach decisions and systems and strategic plans to achieve the required benefiting goals and accomplish the aims of the institution namely the satisfaction of the needs of the targeted category of agents. Crises have resulted in serious economic losses and damages which affected hundreds of communities and organizations all over the world. The crisis management became a major obstacle in the path of these communities and organizations and their development. The positive dealing with such crisis requires the integration of the crisis management and risks in development plans equally in the States and Organizations, through relying on a developed knowledge database and awareness of the decision makers.
  34. 34. RH 33 Crisis management consists in managing the possible and attempting to control what is not controllable. As it was proven by the past events, the crisis management is no more an optional decision but has now an important strategic dimension imposed by the new facts generating accumulated problems and transformed into catastrophes followed by crises or the contrary. It is an invitation to all leaders and managers to learn not repeating the behaviors that generate problems and crises, particularly those who are always sitting on hot tin; and despite all sufferings they incur, they come once again and sit on it. The secret in the successful leadership in hot positions and crises is to help us promoting a personal system of early warning in addition to use of scientific methods to make quick and decisive decisions to prevent crises or reduce their effects and control their movement. In this research we present simplified data and experiences that can reach non-specialists or immersed in behavioral and administrative sciences in the field of crisis management. This research also presents some of the administrative and leadership arts during adversity and crisis, as it shows us the way of achieving the best results in a climate full of changes and unknown and leadership in difficult conditions. Confrontation of difficulties and crisis is not as easy as we would expect amidst economical, political, social and religious growing and complex troubles. In such conditions leadership requires the use of any available means with a clear vision of ways and scientific means. Despite all trouble I had to face while writing the subject of this research on crises and particularly the available scientific sources, and simplification of the signification without prejudice to the construction, I feel however that I contributed in providing the persons concerned by the research and study and training with elements that could help them in their work and quest. With the appearance of the strategic planning as the latest means of planning in the organizations that led to the change of the ways of planning by these organizations in developing their own
  35. 35. RH 34 strategies and implementing it. The strategic management has become an essential tool for the organizations helping them to learn and develop if they want to elaborate a type of singularity and efficiently respond to world accelerated changes. The term "Strategic management" is used to express the same concept reflected by the strategic planning. The first contemporary management scientist to deal in his management researches, the Professor of Business History in the American Harvard University (Alfred Chandler) is the one who dealt in his book published on 1965 the organizational structures of the big American Companies and proposed four types of strategies related to development and evolution confirming that the development and evolution of the organizational structures essentially rely upon strategy. In year 1962 the professor of Management in the Ashton University (Joan Woodward) prepared a research connecting the organizational changes with the adopted technical strategy. In year 1976 (Wahlen Wahenger) exposed his concept of strategic management through a research presenting a comprehensive pattern of strategic management; then came the two scientists (Keiter & Trugo) involved in the field of strategy and asserting that it is the (driving force) representing the field of products or markets or capabilities considered as the source of strength of the society and constitutes the framework of its general strategy. Given that the determination of the (driving force) contributes in formulation of the comprehensive goals and aims of the constituent units under the assumption that the comprehensive goals represent the link between the comprehensive strategy and strategies of their constituent units. The book issued on 1982 by the Counselor in Mackenzie collection Professor (Omaya) entitled (The strategic Mind) is probably representing one of the best researches in this field and had a huge impact in the development of the contemporary strategic methodology in business.
  36. 36. RH 32 In 1991 there was the theory of (John Thompson) on the development of the strategic awareness, arising from diagnose of comprehensive change of the institution connected with the strategic formulation centered around the determination of the path and how to reach the target… He sustains in this field that the competitiveness and distinction of performance together with creativity and invention constitute the three connected dimensions and in 1991 also, the Business Counselor to the (Mackenzie) collection, Mr. Litchi Oh Mi published together with a team of business professors a book entitled: The Strategy (underlining that determination of goals and formulation of strategy should be done in terms of customers and commodities and added value and not in terms of overcoming the competitor. He concluded with a presentation of what was called the contemporary strategy that focuses on refinement and dedication and exploitation of the talents of the Holding Company and its affiliated companies in confirming the core of competence in order to concentrate the continuity of development within the new global environment. In year 1995, the Professor in California University (George Webb) published a book where he criticized the Multinational companies pointing out that they did not convert their global concepts and have no comprehensive global strategy; he deduced after a long study namely referring to the largest world companies (Coca Cola, MacDonald, Canon, Volkswagen) and concluded to the necessity for these companies to change their concepts and methods in order to keep up with changes in the world through mutual interdependence among branches of the company all over the world to reduce expenses and stereotyping and benefit from self education. Use of the strategic planning expanded on a large scale in different and organizations and their activities and practical experiences of strategic planning operation proved that the organizations involved in strategic planning have better performances than organizations without strategic planning. Strategic planning as a method of management differs from other types of efficient methods of management in the fact that its essential principles and methods and theories have been developed and enriched by a mixture of field experiments and specialized methodological academic thought resulting from the need for developing performance of the organizations on the long-term to ensure their survival and create vital conditions benefiting from the available opportunities in an efficient way, relying on strategic planning as a genius scientific method to reach goals.
  37. 37. RH 36 Results of studies attempting to experiment the nature of relationship between performance or organizations and adoption of strategic planning indicate that there is a positive relationship connecting them. These studies have referred to the fact that the organizations strategically run benefited from a performance surpassing the performance of organizations not strategically run. Importance of the research: The importance of the research is highlighted by the fact that the concept of the crisis became of one the largest expending concepts in our contemporary society, and in some way affecting all aspects of life… Since the language of the current epoch is a language of extrapolation of the future in order to gather before it happens, what is necessary to face it with the highest degree of efficiency and capacity; it was necessary to have a leadership with the skills required to manage the crisis and the capacities enabling it to overcome the major challenges of the crisis namely the surprise, the threat, the speed and the ambiguity. It also highlights some concepts and considerations that should be taken into account within the framework of the organization and be acquainted with mechanisms preventing risks and threats faced as follows:  Societies in their different aspects should lead their orientations and undertake organization and coordination between all categories of the society and its activities; this leadership is reflecting in the society and gives it its specified character, whether good of bad.  Stating the importance of the strategic planning to face crisis and dangers to which organizations are exposed  Stating the modern approach of the strategic planning for organizations which is a preventive approach, in other words the attempt to forecast what will happen.  Stating how to face crisis through its management
  38. 38. RH 37  Stimulating officials, particularly the senior management so they may be aware of the importance of adopting the method of strategic planning in facing crises. Problem of the Research  The problem of the Research resides in that the person acquainted with the crisis to which public and private organizations are exposed in Egypt or even the State itself, notices a great similarity in the causes of these crisis or the existence of repeated patterns in methods facing then, in addition to a nearly total incapability to learn from some crisis and accumulation of lessons from which they may benefit in avoiding and preventing crisis. In this context there might be a lack of efficient managing leadership having the creative capacities with talents to manage the crisis as well as mental and psychological capacities and a cumulative experience enabling them to overcome challenges of the crisis in order to control implications of the crisis and managing it successfully and drawing profitable lessons, and take advantage of some of its elements.  This research also aimed at being acquainted with the extent of practicing the strategic planning in crisis management and its impact on facing crisis constituting an obstacle to its growth and progress rather than reorienting it according to our will. This may be summarized regarding the problem of the research by asking the following questions:  To what extend is the strategic planning concept clear in the mind of the leadership?  What are the factors to be taken into account when carrying out the strategic planning? And what are the mechanisms and their availability to the leaders in charge of it? It is therefore possible to say that the strategic planning is one of the means to prevent crisis and one of the paths of searching for future opportunities… To such extent that we may ask the following question… what is the value of the sound planning in light of the absence of whoever enjoys the distinctive elements – vision and capability – to make a decision and apply it and the courage to issue it so that it could
  39. 39. RH 38 grasp the components of the future…firmly controlling – without neglect or outbid – the tools and mechanisms of work and enjoying personal characteristics able to influence and convince others and requesting their involvement and change of ideas to adapt with the requirements of the current facts and expectation of future?...Planning without leadership means chaos…as we will see hereafter. In connection with the assumption of the research, the crisis management is a unique business operation; as the organization is exposed to an unexpected event whose premises are often absent – despite the fact of its accumulative causes – and it needs decisive measures and quick decisions consistent with the gravity of the developing situation and consequently the management holds the control of the initiative in leading events and influencing them and orienting them according to the requirements of the situations…to avoid damages or to seize an opportunity. The leadership skill – we were referring to – resides in imagining the possibility of changing the crises and its dangers to an opportunity to liberate the creative capacities that exploits the crisis as an opportunity to remodel the conditions and find wise solutions; no doubt that the positive orientation pave the way to manage the crisis and live and creative interaction with the great faced challenge to the extent enabling it to transform the risk into an opportunity that can be exploited and change the discouragement of the ordeal into a climate stimulating the creative efforts. This is the reason behind our assumption of: "the role of leadership and strategic planning in crisis management; because I am convinced as a junior researcher, that a belief is reinforced by the knowledge of the ancient world including its successful patterns and is reflected by the fact that the leadership enjoying a strategic vision – and moreover – has the capacity of designing skillfully a scenario for the future and having the elements of producing leaders enjoying charismatic personalities and accumulated experiences and open minded and vast culture and a basis of
  40. 40. RH 39 morality and values…is by all means a leadership capable of managing crisis and even exploiting them to the interest of the organization or the institution or the State governing it. …There is no reverse pattern we could present as an evidence of the soundness of our convictions – From the events of January 52th 5111 we may say that we had leaders who lost the capacity of dealing with the crisis because they lost the compass…the inevitable result …unfortunately the new leaders are still unable neither to manage the crisis nor to take advantage of its results …the matter concerns the equation of a country we are trying to decipher its strange code. The management within any organization is always reflecting a dynamical attitude reacting with the movement and containing complex attitudes. Management seeks to achieve specific goals within the context of various conditions some of which help it and push it forward (opportunity) and some others inhibits its action and constitute restrictions (crisis). The essential basis in this context is summarized by the fact that this complex attitude, associated with a high degree of ambiguity and hesitation requires from the Organization or the Institution special capabilities with double orientation; first it has to exploit the available opportunities at a high degree of efficiency and effectiveness and simultaneously seeking to avoid dangers and obstacles or elaborating a specific strategy to adapt with. On such ground it appears that the strategic planning is going towards building specific strategies aiming at establishing mechanisms capable of acting to use the available elements in the light of various dangers and threats to achieve the principal targets of the Organization; we point out here that this is among the most important priorities of the leadership when dealing with a crisis, on attempting to prevent or abort of manage its elements and their impact. The aim of building up such specific strategies is oriented to the achievement of the three following results:  Activate the ability of the organization in using its available capabilities in an efficient manner leading to the implementation of the set targets.
  41. 41. RH 41  Reduce the capacity of risks to restrict its work whether by facing them or suppressing or freezing their effects on the strategy of the organization towards development.  Reinforcing its capacity of efficient management of the changes falling under its direct control. The researcher considers that the strategic planning is one of the major elements of management of organizations currently and the paroxysm in the results of the thinking phase prior to the implementation of any action and reflects the vision of the leadership, because the strategic planning is a chain of big and sound decisions that are forecasting the future to achieve the general set up targets. Therefore…in order to achieve a success in the strategic planning it is necessary to establish a strategy including: Determination of the major and clear targets, and arrange the agenda of priorities and provide a great amount of material, human and judicial possibilities after carrying out a good assessment of the general situation and prediction of the future eventualities and various conditions, provided it is marked by comprehensiveness, realism, follow-up and that they are supported by mechanisms of evaluation and self-assessment. From what has been said above, we conclude that the topic of strategic planning if among the most important matters since it is an organized effort to reach decisions and essential activities and focusing on the future regarding the nature of the organization, its action and the reason of its action, etc…, and an effective management tool helping the organization to implement its work in a better way under all conditions to which it is exposed, and focusing on all concerned persons to achieve the target itself, and assessment and analyzing the orientation of the organization and responding to its changing environment. Furthermore, the assessment of the organization after implementation of the strategic planning is the best way to respond to the dynamical conditions of the environment.  What is the impact of the strategic planning in facing crisis?
  42. 42. RH 41  What is the extent of clarity of the concept of crisis management compared with the concept of management in crisis or even handling crisis? Aims of the research - Understanding the meaning of Crisis Management and acquaintance with its major phases. - Specifying and analyzing the most important mechanisms of crisis management. - Identification of the characteristics and capacities of the creative leadership and also the traditional leadership. - Focusing on the role of the creative leadership in crisis management through its various stages: the strategic role and the technical role. - Stir the potential and activating the static in the souls to continue efforts in training, education, research, practice and application in order to create a successful leader in ourselves and then in those who are relying on us. - Identify the concepts of strategic planning and crisis management - Stating the main factors that should be taken into account when carrying out strategic planning. - How can the strategic planning face the crises? - Reaching some results regarding the nature and specificity of the organizations headed by the creative leadership for the organizations ready to face crisis. - Offering some suggested strategies to activate the role of leadership in crisis management. Assumption and interrogations of the research - In the light of the problem and aims of the research, this study is based essentially on the assumption of: existence of a relationship between the prevision of the future and preparation thereto – through strategic planning – and between the ability of the leadership to deal with the crisis situation and efficiency of the crisis management: - This research seeks to answer to the following questions:
  43. 43. RH 45  What is the concept of a crisis?  What are the types of crisis?  What are the characteristics and phases of a crisis?  How to face a crisis and to plan for it?  What are the characteristics of the strategic planning in the organizations?  What are the major obstacles to the strategic planning in the organizations?  What is the effect of the strategic planning on the crisis management?  What is the extent of participation of the executive leadership in organizations in setting up the strategic planning in this field?  What are the requirements for the success of the strategic planning in these organizations in order to raise the efficiency of organizational performance and to limit crisis? Methodology of the Research: - In this research, the descriptive and analytical methodology was used to describe the changes of the study namely the crisis management and strategic planning and strategic leadership…and accordingly the analysis of these major and further changes to reach the results of the study… We also relied upon some references and scientific researches concerned with this topic. The suggested plan for this research is:  Introduction
  44. 44. RH 43  Importance of the research  Problem of the Research  Aims of the Research  Interrogations of the Research  Methodology of the research  Chapter One: Leadership…theoretical introduction - Part One: Leadership - Part Two: Characteristics and talents of the leader - Part Three: Strategic leadership and its characteristics  Chapter Two: Strategic Planning - Part One: Concepts…requirements…advantages…justifications…patterns - Part Two: Crisis Management  Chapter Three: The Crisis…Theoretical introduction - Part One: Crisis – its nature – its dimensions – its characteristics - Part Two: Crisis Management  Chapter Four: - Part One: Strategic leadership of the crisis - Part Two: Role of the creative strategic leadership in crisis management  Chapter Five: The Revolutionary crisis - Part One: Revolution of January 52th 5111 – the causes - Part Two: Stages of the revolutionary crisis.
  45. 45. RH 44  Results  Conclusion  Recommendations  Bibliography
  46. 46. RH 42 Philosophy of Change How can it be………………………….. Grasping future opportunities? Name of the author: Yahia El Zont
  47. 47. RH 46 Grasping future opportunities _________________________ Name of the author: Yahya El Zent _________________________ The Publisher Madbuly El-Saghir 54 El Batal Ahmad Abdel Aziz Street, Mohandessine Tel: 77545434 – 77545435 – 77357735 _________________________ Deposit Number at the Egyptian Book House: 7452/8353 I.S.B.N.: 532-533-822-828-3 _________________________ Indexing: T5 – Giza – Madbuly El Saghir – 8353 85x53 cm /???? pages ________________________ Copyright reserved to the Publisher It is strictly prohibited to publish or transfer any part of the texts published in this book or using it without obtaining a written consent from the publisher. ________________________ The content of this book is the personal opinion of the author and on its own full responsibility and does not reflect the opinion of the publisher of the Publishing House.
  48. 48. RH 47 GRASPING FUTURE OPPORTUNITIES Written and prepared by Yahya El Zont
  49. 49. RH 48 PREAMBLE We live an epoch of raging conflicts and major organizational failures, an epoch combining painful endings and hopeful beginnings. An epoch where everything that seemed deeply rooted is starting to get old and dying while another thing is seeking to come up. Or, if we refer to the words of the former Czech President and playwright "Vaclav Havel": "There are good reasons suggesting that the modern era has ended and there are many things showing that we are going through a transitional period and it seems that something is on its way to disappear and that something else arises in pain; as if there is something that crumbles, disintegrates and consumes itself, while another thing not yet not clearly distinct arises from emerges from rubble, and the Arab Individual that will ride the horse to win the race… Looking forward to the 51st Century…he should read this book…the new century requires a new person…a knight…intrepid and thinker. A knight able to debate...to maneuver..a leader seeking for meanings and thoughts…opening his mind and heart for renewal and innovation. The new century needs a new man…daring…jumping barriers…entering new tracks. A leader…optimistic and interacting… thinking electronically, a leader relying on people… trusting them… employing global quality methods, engineering
  50. 50. RH 49 management and data techniques. A leader concerned by future more than formalities. Importance and aims of the book: ] Philosophy of change When we look at the world map and see the continents stable and forming a global island surrounded by water from everywhere, we discover the magnitude of the role required by the major changes… Earth was not divided in that manner and without the trembling, earthquakes and cracks the Earth would have been a single mass and we would not have seen this map as it is known nowadays.
  51. 51. RH 21 Madbuly El-Saghir
  52. 52. RH 21 And the cultural changes need in turn earthquakes to remodel the human civilization and draw the brightest and noblest colors and granting it elements of hope and determination. And when States are facing the growing challenges and seek to engage into the future, the intellectual earthquake becomes a must, as it requires a new modeling of the mind and definition of possible and impossible changes and previous concepts and criterion of thought generated by these challenges regress… this earthquake is
  53. 53. RH 25 the element renewing the vitality of minds and contributes in sorting ideas and masterfully constructs the bridge through which societies move towards future. Thus, the future of mankind now depends on the ability of existing organizations and societies to respond to and interact with the earthquake of minds and building such capacity is what we called "Management of the Future" and consequently grasping its opportunities. Philosophy of building and manage the future is a strategic in the programs for developing societies provided in this book to build the intellectual capacity of the individual and societies in building their bright and promising future based on the creative values and scientific thought and reconstruction and justice and linkage and arming them with the tools of civilizational change. We are trying to work for the development of building the change of science and to be among the first to write in Arabic in these fields and to establish new theories and visions on the nature of changes and forecasting the future. This awareness of the importance of the future management led to strategic coalitions between a group of human sciences (such as management and sociology and psychology) which will lead to the fact that these sciences and theories will be an integral part of the future sciences. This book relies on some scientific and practical patterns of development, as its theories are subjected to experiment and benefit from successful assessments. Ideas and theories were discussed with specialists professors of Arabic and international universities and activists on site and specialists in similar field of research.
  54. 54. RH 23 The Aim To provide a methodology for youth thought and a real stimulation for change of rooting under a scientific background building the capacities of societies towards cultural change. We hope that this book will be a guide for the change lovers and cultural transformation whatever the ideological differences of readers, their religion, ethnic groups or nationalities. The Purposes 1. Dissemination of the culture of change and developed thinking methodologies and civilizational changing strategies. 5. Providing the scientific tools to contribute in occasioning cultural revolutions in the world of sociological action. 3. Providing consultations to people and organizations seeking to develop their societies. Its role is to develop thinking methodologies in general. Even when tools of change and development exist in a society, the mind is still reluctant to use them or is inhabited with some thoughts preventing change; wright thinking methodologies may exist but need support and deepening. Thus the importance of this book resides on developing thinking methodologies with support of what is useful and refinement of what requires treatment and eradication of what is not fitting with a transformational mind. This topic is among one of the major studied themes and includes researches connected with the provision of the mind with developed thinking methodologies qualifying the societies to find futures appropriate responses to faced challenges;
  55. 55. RH 24 consequently theses researches focus on elaborating the general cognitive map and the essential intellectual premises and methods and thinking talents to anyone who may confront the change operation. Use of the latest clarifying scientific techniques achieved by the modern world. Thus the research material exists from its frozen pattern to a model with which masses interacts and demands in order to arise concern for the future sciences. Did you think about your future? Did you meditate the opportunities you can exploit? Do you know yourself and your capacities which are the secret of your achievements? Have you meditated the type of persons you are dealing with every day? Have you forecasted the difficulties you will face under the new world system…and the markets opening their doors to all imaginations and minds?
  56. 56. RH 22 This book says that the authentic Arabic minds are able to continue the path until the end and can also win…I hope, dear reader that you will be one of those knights….
  57. 57. RH 26 Introduction No doubt that the question of change has become one of the major topics in our current world, a world of rapid changes, a world of non-stop process where those who do not follow the path are delaying. Since we are part of such process and that man is the creature to whom God has granted the world, it is absolutely necessary to be influenced and respond to such changes provided to protect our cultural, historical and religious specificities so that we are able to preserve our identities and not to delay in the process of progress and world we live in; we must also reacty with positive spirituality between influencing and being influenced. Change and preparation to it must be comprehensive and include human necessities and requirements and also include all areas of life with their various dimensions. No doubt that regarding the principle, the change is made by human and for humans and what they interact with, accordingly human is the major axis and the essential tool in the same time in the changing operation in order to achieve the aims of human kind. We therefore consider that seriousness and aware will and goodwill are indispensable for change with a balanced management; because the will of change is the management of the human essence with all its specificities; therefore it is essential to deal wisely and behave moderately.
  58. 58. RH 27 Necessity of the change: No doubt that change is extremely important; it’s a necessity for life itself; therefore it must be a permanent phenomenon in all fields in our economic, social and political lives and according to the following basics: 1. Productive interaction with the principle of change 5. Renewal and vitality in the application process 3. Grasping opportunities of creativity in all areas of life 4. Concern in global development including the various innovations 2. Supporting and encouraging desire for development and promotion 6. Training in reform processes and problem-solving 7. Strategic concern to production, through investment and distribution 8. Using all technological methods and means in changing processes 9. Adaptation to the world innovations 11. Following the priorities of the stage with balanced connection between variables Means of change: - We currently need absolutely getting acquainted with the science of change science; this need requires us to determine the dimensions.
  59. 59. RH 28 - Carrying out the change requires awareness of its importance to understand and explain and sensitize people responsible for change. Those who prefer to hang on the present and the past may represent a major obstacle in front of any reform effort adopted by any institution in its planning, which requires inevitably a clear orientation of these people regarding acceptance and management of change. - Organizing short training sessions for members of these institutions – if change concerns institutions – so that such training sessions enable them to get united around a common goal and vision and consequently the means to adopt in performing their mission in addition to determining methods through which they may provide each other with its experience. - It is necessary to study modern systems and management structures particularly what was written and practically
  60. 60. RH 29 experimented during the past two decades because they contain a clear vision of the weakness of old methods offset by innovations at all levels and human communities. Progressing vision: Propagation of negativity, disinterest, management weakness, lack of discipline, mockery of science and scientists, disrespect of systems and laws, are environmental secretions lacking in their compositions, refusing change and opposing it and preventing their achievement and accepting inertia and backwardness. We are living an epoch of change, an epoch of efficiency and rise, an epoch of continuous innovations supported by technical and technological changes and inventions and also the knowledge and communication revolutions…the epoch of data…all constituting a terrible challenge to decision makers; we therefore consider that acquaintance with the change science and its importance and capacity to produce change and control it is appropriate to achieve expected hopes of human kind and inevitable and should not be ignored. Change has become one of the characteristics of the epoch and dealing with it has also become extremely important and no doubt reflects the reality of human civilization evolution.
  61. 61. RH 61 Yahya El-Zent Notice:This book is entitled the Philosophy of change - Grasp of future opportunities and is now available on market. Perception of an initial proposal for the sections of the book: Chapter I: Value of life and life as a value Part I: Performance Art in a future perspective Part II: Black Hole Part III:Confrontation of the epoch Chapter II: People are two types; of which type are you? Part I: Know yourself
  62. 62. RH 61 Part II: Foundation of the personal activity Part III:Permanency of business and its preservation Chapter III: Conflict of generations Part I: Trees come out from seeds Part II: Knight without horse Part III:Training Chapter IV: Who are you…? Part I: Keys of the personality Part II: Patterns of personalities Part III:Your alignments to your characteristics Conclusion Bibliography