Chapter 7 punctuation

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Chapter 7 punctuation

  1. 1. Chapter 7 Punctuation
  2. 2. When you do use a quotation, be careful with your punctuation. <ul><li>The following passage is a discussion on this issue, and it follows the rules of punctuation in American English. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Always put the comma inside quotation marks,” the professor said. </li></ul><ul><li>Then she added, “The same goes for the period.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Does the same rule apply for the question mark?” he asked. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Only if the entire statement is a question,” she replied, “and never add a comma after a question mark. Also, be sure to lowercase the first word of a continuing quote that follows an attribution and a comma. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>“ However, you must capitalize the first word of a new sentence after an attribution,” she continued. “Do not forget to pen and close the sentence with quotation marks.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Why are there no quotation marks after the word ‘comma’ at the end of the fourth paragraph?” he asked. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Because the same person is speaking at the beginning of the next paragraph,” she said. “Notice that the new paragraph does open with quotation marks. Note, too, that a quote inside of a quotation needs a single quotation mark, as around the word ‘comma’ above.” </li></ul>
  4. 4. A speech tag/ An attribution <ul><li>A speech tag or an attribution tells the reader who made the statement (where and when, if necessary). </li></ul><ul><li>If a direct quotation is more than one sentence long, place the attribution at the end of the first sentence or at some natural break within this sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Note that each paragraph needs only one speech tag. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not put the attribution at the end of a long comment. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid placing the attribution at the beginning of a quote unless you want to emphasize the fact that the quotation comes from a different speaker. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not attribute direct quotes to more than one person. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, use only one new idea in each paragraph. Do not let an individual speak of several ideas in a one-paragraph quotation. </li></ul>
  5. 5. You should avoid writing in these ways: <ul><li>A) “Because the same person is speaking at the beginning of the next paragraph,” the professor said. “Notice that the new paragraph does open with quotation marks,” she added. “Note, too, that a quote inside of a quotation needs a single quotation mark, as around the word ‘comma’ above.” </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>B) “Put the question mark inside quotation marks only if the entire statement is a question, and never add a comma after a question mark. Also, be sure to lowercase the first word of a continuing quote that follows an attribution and a comma,” the professor said. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>C) The professor said: “Put the question mark inside quotation marks only if the entire statement is a question, and never add a comma after a question mark. Also, be sure to lowercase the first word of a continuing quote that follows an attribution and a comma.” </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>D) The professor said that we should “never add a comma after a question mark. Also, be sure to lowercase the first word of a continuing quote that follows an attribution and a comma.”  </li></ul><ul><li>(√) The professor said that we should “never add a comma after a question mark” and should lowercase the first word of a continuing quote that follows an attribution and a comma. </li></ul><ul><li>(√) The professor said that we should never add a comma after a question mark and should “lowercase the first word of a continuing quote that follows an attribution and a comma.” </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>E) Teachers said: “Put the question mark inside quotation marks only if the entire statement is a question.”  Specify which teacher said it. </li></ul>
  10. 10. A quick summary <ul><li>1) With single-sentence quotations </li></ul><ul><li>A) The speech tag precedes the quote – rarely does this happen in news writing – as in </li></ul><ul><li>She said: “Yes, I did.” </li></ul><ul><li>B) The speech tag follows the quote, as in </li></ul><ul><li>“Yes, I did,” said she. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>C) The speech tag is placed at some natural break within the quote. It may be placed between the subject and the verb, as in </li></ul><ul><li>“ My real love,” she said, “was his mother.” </li></ul><ul><li>It may be placed immediately after the verb, as in </li></ul><ul><li>“ The love ended,” she said, “after I discovered his past.” </li></ul><ul><li>It may come after a clause, as in </li></ul><ul><li>“ The love ended,” she said, “but the marriage continued.” </li></ul><ul><li>It may also be placed between a modifying element and the main part of the quote, as in </li></ul><ul><li>“ Typically,” she said, “I would go to stay with my own parents when he returned.” </li></ul>
  12. 12. 2) With multiple-sentence quotations <ul><li>A) The speech tag is placed at the end of the first quoted sentence, as in </li></ul><ul><li>“The love ended after I discovered his past,” she said. “Typically, I would go to stay with my own parents when he returned.” </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>B) The speech tag is placed at some natural break within the first quoted sentence, as in </li></ul><ul><li>“The love ended,” she said, “but the marriage continued. Typically, I would go to stay with my own parents when he returned.” </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>C) The speech tag ends in a colon and is followed by a paragraph (or two or three paragraphs) of quotation, as in </li></ul><ul><li>She paused and said softly: </li></ul><ul><li>“The love ended, but the marriage continued. Typically, I would go to stay with my own parents when he returned.” </li></ul>

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