Physiology of respiration


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Physiology of respiration

  1. 1. RESPIRATION is theprocess by whichgaseous exchangeoccurs between anorganism and itsenvironment.
  2. 2.  External respiration Internal respiration
  3. 3.  Gas exchange that occurs between the environment and the animal’s respiratory organs Commonly known as BREATHING Provides oxygen and expels carbon dioxide
  4. 4. Exchange of gas between the alveoli and blood
  5. 5.  Process by which cells absorb oxygen and release carbon dioxide Occurs between the blood and the cells in the different tissues of the body Also called CELLULAR RESPIRATION
  6. 6. Exchange of gas between the blood and thecells
  7. 7.  Process by which vertebrates ventilate their lungs Moving air into and out of the lungs Controlled by the diaphragm and the rib muscles
  8. 8. Inhalation and exhalation
  9. 9.  Explain the mechanics of breathing Determine the breathing rate of a person during states of activity, and relate this to the amount of carbon dioxide exhaled Determine factors affecting breathing rate Set up an improvised spirometer Determine vital capacity of an individual by measuring the tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, and the expiratory reserve volume using the improvised spirometer Compute the amount of oxygen in the air we breathe
  10. 10. When the plasticwrap is pulled, theballoon inflates. Whenthe plastic wrap ispushed, the balloondeflates
  11. 11.  Straw outside the bottle → TRACHEA Straw inside → BRONCHI Balloon → LUNGS Plastic → DIAPHRAGM
  12. 12. The process of breathing: a series of inhalation andexhalation
  13. 13.  Breathing is controlled by the medulla oblongata and the pons. It is not possible to hold your breath forever. It is possible to stop respiration voluntarily but this leads to the drop of oxygen level in the body. When this happens, the person loses consciousness and automatic control of breathing resumes.
  14. 14. Breathing Minimum TimeActivity for Lime Solution Rate to ChangeNo strenuous activityAfter jumping jacksAfter holdingone’s breath
  15. 15.  The clear solution of calcium hydroxide turned cloudy white because of the increase of concentration of carbon dioxide which increases the production of calcium carbonate. Ca(OH)2+ CO2  CaCO3 + H2O
  16. 16.  The procedure measured the amount of carbon dioxide expelled. Breathing rate is directly proportional to the intensity of activity performed. The rate of color change in the solution is directly proportional to the intensity of activity performed.
  17. 17.  When an animal performs any activity, ATP is used up, a process that utilizes oxygen and releases carbon dioxide. The increase of amount of carbon dioxide in the body increases the pH level of the blood. Acidic blood stimulates the medulla to increase breathing rate.
  18. 18. Activity Volume of Term for the Normal air value Value measuredNormal Tidal volume 500mLbreathingForced Inspiratory 3100mLinhalation reserve volumeForced Expiratory 1250mLexhalation reserve volume TOTAL 4600mL
  19. 19.  TIDAL VOLUME is the volume of air inspired or expired during a normal inspiration or expiration. INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME is the volume of air that can be inspired forcefully after inspiration of the normal tidal volume.
  20. 20.  EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME is the volume of air that can be expired forcefully after normal expiration. VITAL CAPACITY is the greatest volume of air that can be expelled from the lungs after taking the deepest possible breath.
  21. 21.  A VC that is below normal range may imply respiratory disease or a large amount of body fat. Restrictive disease are characterized by reduced lung volumes and an increase in overall stiffness of lungs (pulmonary fibrosis). Obstructive disorders such as asthma are characterized by air- flow limitation; increased lung volume.
  22. 22.  Mass of O2 in atmosphere = 1.2x1018 kg Mass of O2 = 32g # of mols in atmosphere = 3.75x1019 mol 1 mol gas = 22.4 L (@STP) Volume of O2 = 3.75x1019 mol x 22.4 L/mol = 8.4x1020 L
  23. 23. When the diaphragm contracts (movesdown), INHALATION occurs. When itrelaxes (moves up), EXHALATIONoccurs.
  24. 24. An increase in the amount of carbondioxide in the body increases the pHlevel in the blood, increasing thebreathing rate of a person.
  25. 25. It is important to monitor the vitalcapacity of a person for this is anindicator of several health problems.