Chemistry and living system

876 views

Published on

Testing

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
876
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
143
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
57
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chemistry and living system

  1. 1. chemistryand living systems123.101
  2. 2. anintroduction tochemistry and...
  3. 3. ...howit relates to living things
  4. 4. the study guide contains all the information you need
  5. 5. my lectures containexplanationand examples
  6. 6. but as I’m not here... ! ...the Prof will have to do
  7. 7. my notes are available from:www.massey.ac.nz/~gjrowlan/teaching.html
  8. 8. Ready?
  9. 9. Unit One Part 1: introduction pic: Aquarium of the Pacific
  10. 10. Unit One Part 1: introduction these are not random pictures; the molecule is a potential painkiller called epibatidine which is isolated from poison dart frogs... pic: Aquarium of the Pacific
  11. 11. why do we needorganic chemistry?
  12. 12. ...because its fun?? why do we need organic chemistry?
  13. 13. why do we needorganic chemistry? ...it keeps me in a job? Or...
  14. 14. if we wan t t ounderstandliving systems...
  15. 15. we need tounderstand theindividual organs...
  16. 16. ...to understandorgans, we have tounderstand cells...
  17. 17. ...and still we have to get smaller and smaller...
  18. 18. ...and to do this we must understand themolecules that make up these systems Me N Me Me N Fe N HO2C(H2C)2 N HO2C(H2C)2 Me haem
  19. 19. ...lets stop with atoms & electrons! And none of this maths malarkey. but we dont needImage Credit: NIST/University of Colorado to get carried away...
  20. 20. simple chemicalprinciples control biology
  21. 21. Me Me Me 11 12 Me Me Rhodopsin H 11-cis-retinal N (aldehyde not imine) Opsin photon Me Me Me Meisomers and the Me N Hvisual cascade all trans-retinal starts VISUAL CASCADE Opsin
  22. 22. $chemistryand medicine
  23. 23. penicillin G antibacterial H H N S Me O N Me O CO2Hhttp://staff.science.uva.nl/~dcslob/lesbrieven/maarten/Bacterien.html
  24. 24. penicillin G Chemistry explains how penicillin blocks antibacterial bacterial cell wall synthesis. H H N S Me O N Me O CO2Hhttp://staff.science.uva.nl/~dcslob/lesbrieven/maarten/Bacterien.html
  25. 25. F OH OH OH N O Ca2+N O Me Me 2 Liptor cholesterol treatment US$ 12.9 billion
  26. 26. the languageof chemistry...
  27. 27. First we need to be able to communicate with each other...the languageof chemistry...
  28. 28. There are three ways of talking about chemicals...the languageof chemistry...
  29. 29. MACROSCOPIC bulk propertiesMICROSCOPIC SYMBOLIC atoms & chemical molecules formulae
  30. 30. macroscopicrepresentation physical properities©DC Comics
  31. 31. macroscopicrepresentation physical properities obviously important (if you happen to get dunked in a vat of the stuff)©DC Comics
  32. 32. macroscopicrepresentation physical properities but ignored in this lecture...lets just leave it for the lab...©DC Comics
  33. 33. how do we represent molecules?
  34. 34. microscopicrepresentation
  35. 35. how we represent the actual molecules themselves... microscopic representation
  36. 36. hexane molecular orbital representation
  37. 37. hexane electrons spread over entire molecule...true but not very useful! molecular orbital representation
  38. 38. hexane space filling representation
  39. 39. hexane shows us the atoms and their relative size...but bonds hard to see space filling representation
  40. 40. hexane ball and stick representation
  41. 41. hexane atoms, bonds, shape, it has it all. Time consuming to draw so... ball and stick representation
  42. 42. symbolicrepresentation
  43. 43. symbolic representationquick and dirty ways to represent molecules
  44. 44. C3H7empiricalformula
  45. 45. C3H7 just the ratio of atoms...empiricalformula
  46. 46. C3H7 ...too many possibilities!C6H14C24H56 12H28 C C15H35C30H70 C27H63 3H7 C18H42 C C21H49formula 33H77 9H21 C Cempirical
  47. 47. C6H14 molecular formula
  48. 48. C6H14exact number of atoms... molecular formula
  49. 49. C6H14 ...but not how they H H H H are connected H H H HH C C H H C H H H H C H H H C C C H C C H C C H C C H H HH C H H C C C H H H H H C H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H C C C C C C H molecular H H H H H H formula
  50. 50. CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3condensedformula
  51. 51. CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 bonding sorted...condensedformula
  52. 52. CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 H H O Me H C H H H Me N N H C C C C H (CH3)2CHCH(CH3)CH3 O N N H H H C H H H ...but bulky...and Me some structurescondensed would be confusing!formula
  53. 53. H H H H H H C C C HH C C C H H H H H H structural formula
  54. 54. H H H H H H C C C H H C C C H H H H H H now we’re talking; atoms, bonding,shape. It has it all. But... structural formula
  55. 55. H H H H H H C C C H H C C C H H H H H H ...can be messy and time consuming... H C H2C CH OH OH H2C N H H2C C CH2 H C C N CH HC C H C 2N H N C C CH OMe HC C CH3 structural formula C O H
  56. 56. skeletal(structural) formula
  57. 57. Quick, easy and tells me everything...but do you understand what it means?skeletal(structural) formula
  58. 58. otherrepresentations H H C H O O H H C C CHO H C C H H H H H OH Et H CHO Et H H OH HO Ph CH3 H CH3 H CH3 Ph Fischer Newman Sawhorse projection projection projection
  59. 59. do not use thisrepresentation! H H H H H HH C C C C C C H H H H H H H
  60. 60. do not use thisrepresentation! H H H H H HH C C C C C C H H H H H H H
  61. 61. ...key to this course is understanding / interpreting these symbols ©Lucasfilms
  62. 62. understandingskeletal (structural)formulae
  63. 63. 4 H H C H H H H C C H H H C C HCARBON O H C H C O H H
  64. 64. 4 H H C H Hcarbon always has H H four bonds... C C H H H C C HCARBON O H C H C O H H
  65. 65. 1 H H C H HHYDROGEN H C C H H H O H C H C O H H H H O C C H H C O H N H H
  66. 66. 1 H H C H HHYDROGEN H C C H H H O H C H C O H Hhydrogen always has one bond... H H O C C H H C O H N H H
  67. 67. 2 H H C O H C H H H H H H H C C H C C H H O H H H O C C H H C OOXYGEN H N H H
  68. 68. 3 H H ONITROGEN H C C C O H H N H H H H C N H H C C H H H H C C N H
  69. 69. 2 C H O H N HELECTRONS
  70. 70. 2 we’ll explain why in a C H later lecture... O H N HELECTRONS
  71. 71. so how do we drawskeletal formulae?
  72. 72. HO HO OH O O O NH2 O Cl OH O O HO Cl OH O O O H H H O N N N N N N H H H HN O O O O HO NH2 OH HO OH C CH Vancomycin can beall and removed
  73. 73. HO HO OH O O O O assume each corner NH2 Cl OH O O is a carbon... HO Cl OH O O O H H H O N N N N N N H H H HN O O O O HO NH2 OH HO OH C CH Vancomycin can beall and removed
  74. 74. HO HO OH O O O NH2 O Cl OH O O HO Cl OH O O O H H H O N N N N N N H H H HN O O O O NH2 ...and it will always HO have four bonds. OH HO OH C CH Vancomycin can beall and removed
  75. 75. exampleone H H H C C CH C H H
  76. 76. exampleone remove H H H H C C C C C CH C C H H –H
  77. 77. exampleone H H H C C C C C CH C C H H –H –C now remove C
  78. 78. exampletwo HH C H C C C CH C H H
  79. 79. exampletwo H remove HH C H C C C C C C C C CH C H C –H H
  80. 80. exampletwo HH C H C C C C C C C C CH C H C –H –C H now remove C
  81. 81. examplethree H OH C HH C O H N H H
  82. 82. examplethree remove C–H BUT H O O leave all others!H C H C C HH C O C O H N H N H H H only remove CH
  83. 83. examplethree O H O O OHH C H C C H NH2H C O C O H N H N H CO2H H H NH2 only remove –C CH now remove C
  84. 84. examplefourreverse CO2HHO NH2
  85. 85. examplefourreverse add C to corners CO2H C CO2HHO HO C +C NH2 NH2
  86. 86. examplefourreverse H H CO2H C CO2HHO HO C C CO2H HO C +C +H NH2 NH2 H NH2 Add H to make all C have four bonds
  87. 87. examplefour remember C hasreverse four; O has two bonds and H has one H H CO2H C CO2HHO HO C C CO2H HO C +C +H NH2 NH2 H NH2 H H O H H O H H O H C C C C H C C HHO C O HO C O HO C O H NH2 H NH2 H NH2
  88. 88. CHONC CO2Hexamplefivereverse
  89. 89. H CHO H C CHO C C H H C C CNC CO2H NC C C CO2H H H H add C to corners and H to make four bondsexamplefivereverse
  90. 90. H CHO H C CHO C C H H C C CNC CO2H NC C C CO2H now get three bonds H H H to N; two bonds to O and one to H H O H C C C C H H H C C C Oexample N C C C C Hfive H H H Oreverse
  91. 91. 4what have....we learnt? or gan ic ch emist ry is easy if we can count to...
  92. 92. 4what have....we learnt? oh, and it’s really important! or gan ic ch emist ry is easy if we can count to...
  93. 93. Acknowledgmentsgareth(Dr. GJ Rowlands) would to like thank Trevor Kitson Massey University & the 101 students www.massey.ac.nz/~gjrowlan

×