Principles and Guidelines in Individualizing the Content of the Development Areas of Reading
I. PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES• Structure is needed in the physical setting or learning environment to minimize distractions.• By using dividers and designing specific work areas of classroom, learning may be facilitated.
• Structuring also applies to the use of properly sequenced activities from the most simple gradually moving on the complex learning task.• Use instructional materials that these learners can actually manipulate.• As these children progress in their learning capabilities, SPED teachers may have to adjust their teaching styles commensurate with their improved capacities to learn.
• The use of functional curricula is an important guideline in teaching these children. These learners should be taught skills and concepts that are relevant to their needs.• A structured curriculum must enable these learners to be less dependent on their caregivers and members of their family and respond to and enjoy learning for holistic development.
• The use of reinforcement is another important guidelines in teaching these learners.• Reinforcements of varied types motivate these children to learn and achieve.• SPED teachers should work closely with the families and caregivers of these children to facilitate transfer of learning or application of learned concepts and skills in their homes.
II. GOALS• To acquire competencies in word discrimination for basic and functional reading and meaningful communication.• To develop a wide vocabulary for academic and practical pursuits.• To equip oneself with comprehension skills in reading and related areas for leisure and learning.
III. OBJECTIVESA. Word Discrimination• To match similar words• To pick out the word which does not belong to a set.• To pick out the correctly-spelled word from a given set of options.• To match words with their pictorial representations.• To supply missing letters of given word with pictorial clues.• To correct misspelled words.• To choose the correct words based on word
B. Vocabulary Building• To name objects in pictures.• To answer riddles.• To form other words from a stimulus word.• To play scrabble or boggle to form words.• To give synonyms of words.• To give antonyms of words
• To complete a phrase to form a short sentence given a pictorial clue.• To define words.• To describe objects in pictures.• To name objects or items in groceries and other places.• To read road signs, labels and billboards.• To classify words: • Naming words (nouns) • Doing words (verbs) • Describing words (adjectives)
C. Reading Comprehension• To read with comprehension sentences printed or written on posters, announcements, notes and the like.• To read and comprehend by noting details.• To read short selection with comprehension specifically by: • Noting details • Getting main idea • Sequencing events • Making simple inferences • Acting out specific passages • Drawing the moral of a selection
• To make social judgments concerning given hypothetical situations.• To answer questions to test logical thinking or reasoning.• To answer questions to test the ability to see cause and effect relationship.• To follow a set of instructions or procedures as a in a recipe and a manual for operating a simple tool or appliances.
IV: Target Skills andSuggested Activities Lian Hope C. Barot Reporter
Word DiscriminationMatching similar wordsActivity: Let the child match the words in one column with similar words in another column.Column A Column Bsister babymother sisterbrother fatherbaby brotherfather mother
Pick out the word which does not belong to a setActivity: Let the child mark with a cross (x) the word which is different from the others in a given set of words.Examples:• baby baby baby boy• sister sister brother sister• mother brother mother mother• boy boy toy boy• father father flower father
Vocabulary Building• Naming objects in pictures• Activity 1: Ask the child to name the object in a picture.• Examples:• Picture of a flower• picture of a chair• picture of a bed
Activity 2: Let the child identify different objects in a composite picture with many objects in it.Example:Picture of a schoolPossible objects in the picture: flag, children, window, door, teacher, plants, etc.
Reading ComprehensionReading and comprehending sentences.Activity 1: Ask the child to carry out directions printed or written on flashcards or the blackboard.Examples: Run to the door. Stand near the window. Put your bag on the table. Write your name on the board. Jump three times.
Activity 2: Let the child read a sentence written on the blackboard or flashcard.Ask the child to answer questions about the sequence read.Example 1:The children are eating in the canteen.Teacher asks the following questions:1. Who are eating?2. Where are they eating?
Example 2:Mother went to market to buy food.Teacher asks the following questions:1. Where did mother go?2. What will mother buy?